# bitset Class

Describes a type of object that stores a sequence consisting of a fixed number of bits that provide a compact way of keeping flags for a set of items or conditions. The bitset class supports operations on objects of type bitset that contain a collection of bits and provide constant-time access to each bit.

## Syntax

```
template <size_t N>
class bitset
```

### Parameters

*N*

Specifies the number of bits in the bitset object with a nonzero integer of type `size_t`

that must be known at compile time.

## Remarks

Unlike the similar vector<bool> Class, the bitset class does not have iterators and is not a C++ Standard Library container. It also differs from vector<bool> by being of some specific size that is fixed at compile time in accordance with the size specified by the template parameter *N* when the **bitset<N>** is declared.

A bit is set if its value is 1 and reset if its value is 0. To flip or invert a bit is to change its value from 1 to 0 or from 0 to 1. The *N* bits in a bitset are indexed by integer values from 0 to *N* - 1, where 0 indexes the first bit position and *N* - 1 the final bit position.

## Members

### Constructors

bitset | Constructs an object of class `bitset\<N>` and initializes the bits to zero, to some specified value, or to values obtained from characters in a string. |

### Typedefs

element_type | A type that is a synonym for the data type bool and can be used to reference element bits in a `bitset` . |

### Functions

all | Tests all of the bits in this `bitset` to determine whether they are all set to true. |

any | The member function tests whether any bit in the sequence is set to 1. |

count | The member function returns the number of bits set in the bit sequence. |

flip | Inverts the value of all the bits in a `bitset` or inverts a single bit at a specified position. |

none | Tests if no bit has been set to 1 in a `bitset` object. |

reset | Resets all the bits in a `bitset` to 0 or resets a bit at a specified position to 0. |

set | Sets all the bits in a `bitset` to 1 or sets a bit at a specified position to 1. |

size | Returns the number of bits in a `bitset` object. |

test | Tests whether the bit at a specified position in a `bitset` is set to 1. |

to_string | Converts a `bitset` object to a string representation. |

to_ullong | Returns the sum of the bit values in the `bitset` as an unsigned long long. |

to_ulong | Converts a `bitset` object to the unsigned long that would generate the sequence of bits contained if used to initialize the `bitset` . |

### Classes

reference | A proxy class that provides references to bits contained in a `bitset` that is used to access and manipulate the individual bits as a helper class for the `operator[]` of class `bitset` . |

### Operators

operator!= | Tests a target `bitset` for inequality with a specified `bitset` . |

operator&= | Performs a bitwise combination of bitsets with the logical `AND` operation. |

operator<< | Shifts the bits in a `bitset` to the left a specified number of positions and returns the result to a new `bitset` . |

operator<<= | Shifts the bits in a `bitset` to the left a specified number of positions and returns the result to the targeted `bitset` . |

operator== | Tests a target `bitset` for equality with a specified `bitset` . |

operator>> | Shifts the bits in a `bitset` to the right a specified number of positions and returns the result to a new `bitset` . |

operator>>= | Shifts the bits in a `bitset` to the right a specified number of positions and returns the result to the targeted `bitset` . |

operator[] | Returns a reference to a bit at a specified position in a `bitset` if the `bitset` is modifiable; otherwise, it returns the value of the bit at that position. |

operator^= | Performs a bitwise combination of bitsets with the exclusive `OR` operation. |

operator|= | Performs a bitwise combination of bitsets with the inclusive `OR` operation. |

operator~ | Inverts all the bits in a target `bitset` and returns the result. |

### Structures

hash |

### all

Tests all of the bits in this bitset to determine if they are all set to true.

```
bool all() const;
```

#### Return Value

Returns true if all bits in this set are true. Returns **false** if one or more bits are false.

### any

Tests whether any bit in the sequence is set to 1.

```
bool any() const;
```

#### Return Value

**true** if any bit in the bitset is set to 1; **false** if all the bits are 0.

#### Example

```
// bitset_any.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
int main( )
{
using namespace std;
bitset<5> b1 ( 6 );
bool b, rb;
cout << "The original bitset b1( 6 ) is: ( "<< b1 << " )"
<< endl;
b = b1.any ( );
if ( b )
cout << "At least one of the bits in bitset is set to 1."
<< endl;
else
cout << "None of the bits in bitset are set to 1."
<< endl;
bitset<5> rb1;
rb1 = b1.reset ( );
cout << "The reset bitset is: ( "<< b1 << " )"
<< endl;
rb = rb1.any ( );
if ( rb )
cout << "At least one of the bits in the reset bitset "
<< "are set to 1." << endl;
else
cout << "None of the bits in bitset b1 are set to 1."
<< endl;
}
```

```
The original bitset b1( 6 ) is: ( 00110 )
At least one of the bits in bitset is set to 1.
The reset bitset is: ( 00000 )
None of the bits in bitset b1 are set to 1.
```

### bitset

Constructs an object of class `bitset\<N>`

and initializes the bits to zero, or to some specified value, or to values obtained from characters in a string.

```
bitset();
bitset(
unsigned long long val);
explicit bitset(
const char* _CStr);
template <class CharType,
class Traits,
class Allocator>
explicit bitset(
const basic_string<CharType, Traits, Allocator>& str,
typename basic_string<CharType, Traits, Allocator>::size_type _Pos = 0);
template <class CharType,
class Traits,
class Allocator>
explicit bitset(
const basic_string<CharType, Traits, Allocator>& str,
typename basic_string<CharType, Traits, Allocator>::size_type _Pos,
typename basic_string<CharType, Traits, Allocator>::size_type count,
CharType _Zero = CharType ('0'),
CharType _One = CharType ('1'));
```

#### Parameters

*val*

The unsigned integer whose base two representation is used to initialize the bits in the bitset being constructed.

*str*

The string of zeros and ones used to initialize the bitset bit values.

*_CStr*

A C-style string of zeros and ones used to initialize the bitset bit values.

*_Pos*

The position of the character in the string, counting from left to right and starting with zero, used to initialize the first bit in the bitset.

*count*

The number of characters in the string that is used to provide initial values for the bits in the bitset.

*_Zero*

The character that is used to represent a zero. The default is '0'.

*_One*

The character that is used to represent a one. The default is '1'.

#### Remarks

Three constructors can be used to construct obects of class `bitset\<N>`

:

The first constructor accepts no parameters, constructs an object of class

`bitset\<N>`

and initializes all N bits to a default value of zero.The second constructor constructs an object of class

`bitset\<N>`

and initializes the bits by using the single**unsigned long long**parameter.The third constructor constructs an object of class

`bitset\<N>`

, initializing the N bits to values that correspond to the characters provided in a c-style character string of zeros and ones. You call the constructor without casting the string into a string type:`bitset<5> b5("01011");`

There are also two constructor templates provided:

The first constructor template constructs an object of class

`bitset\<N>`

and initializes bits from the characters provided in a string of zeros and ones. If any characters of the string are other than 0 or 1, the constructor throws an object of class invalid argument. If the position specified (*_Pos*) is beyond the length of the string, then the constructor throws an object of class out_of_range. The constructor sets only those bits at position*j*in the bitset for which the character in the string at position`_Pos + j`

is 1. By default,*_Pos*is 0.The second constructor template is similar to the first, but includes an additional parameter (

*count*) that is used to specify the number of bits to initialize. It also has two optional parameters,*_Zero*and*_One*, which indicate what character in*str*is to be interpreted to mean a 0 bit and a 1 bit, respectively.

#### Example

```
// bitset_bitset.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
int main( )
{
// Using the default constructor
using namespace std;
bitset<2> b0;
cout << "The set of bits in bitset<2> b0 is: ( "
<< b0 << " )." << endl;
// Using the second member function
bitset<5> b1 ( 6 );
cout << "The set of bits in bitset<5> b1( 6 ) is: ( "
<< b1 << " )." << endl;
// The template parameter N can be an expresssion
bitset< 2 * sizeof ( int ) > b2;
cout << "The set of bits in bitset<2 * sizeof ( int ) > b2 is: ( "
<< b2 << " )." << endl;
// The base two representation will be truncated
// if its length exceeds the size of the bitset
bitset<3> b3 ( 6 );
cout << "The set of bits in bitset<3> b3( 6 ) is ( "
<< b3 << " )." << endl;
// Using a c-style string to initialize the bitset
bitset<7> b3andahalf ( "1001001" );
cout << "The set of bits in bitset<7> b3andahalf ( \"1001001\" )"
<< " is ( " << b3andahalf << " )." << endl;
// Using the fifth member function with the first parameter
string bitval4 ( "10011" );
bitset<5> b4 ( bitval4 );
cout << "The set of bits in bitset<5> b4( bitval4 ) is ( "
<< b4 << " )." << endl;
// Only part of the string may be used for initialization
// Starting at position 3 for a length of 6 (100110)
string bitval5 ("11110011011");
bitset<6> b5 ( bitval5, 3, 6 );
cout << "The set of bits in bitset<11> b5( bitval, 3, 6 ) is ( "
<< b5 << " )." << endl;
// The bits not initialized with part of the string
// will default to zero
bitset<11> b6 ( bitval5, 3, 5 );
cout << "The set of bits in bitset<11> b6( bitval5, 3, 5 ) is ( "
<< b6 << " )." << endl;
// Starting at position 2 and continue to the end of the string
bitset<9> b7 ( bitval5, 2 );
cout << "The set of bits in bitset<9> b7( bitval, 2 ) is ( "
<< b7 << " )." << endl;
}
```

```
The set of bits in bitset<2> b0 is: ( 00 ).
The set of bits in bitset<5> b1( 6 ) is: ( 00110 ).
The set of bits in bitset<2 * sizeof ( int ) > b2 is: ( 00000000 ).
The set of bits in bitset<3> b3( 6 ) is ( 110 ).
The set of bits in bitset<5> b4( bitval4 ) is ( 10011 ).
The set of bits in bitset<11> b5( bitval, 3, 6 ) is ( 100110 ).
The set of bits in bitset<11> b6( bitval5, 3, 5 ) is ( 00000010011 ).
The set of bits in bitset<9> b7( bitval, 2 ) is ( 110011011 ).
```

### count

Returns the number of bits set in the bit sequence.

```
size_t count() const;
```

#### Return Value

The number of bits set in the bit sequence.

#### Example

```
// bitset_count.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
int main( )
{
using namespace std;
bitset<5> b1(4);
cout << "The collection of bits in the original bitset is: ( "
<< b1 << " )" << endl;
size_t i;
i = b1.count();
cout << "The number of bits in the bitset set to 1 is: "
<< i << "." << endl;
bitset<5> fb1;
fb1 = b1.flip();
cout << "The collection of flipped bits in the modified bitset "
<< "is: ( " << b1 << " )" << endl;
size_t ii;
ii = fb1.count();
cout << "The number of bits in the bitset set to 1 is: "
<< ii << "." << endl;
}
```

```
The collection of bits in the original bitset is: ( 00100 )
The number of bits in the bitset set to 1 is: 1.
The collection of flipped bits in the modified bitset is: ( 11011 )
The number of bits in the bitset set to 1 is: 4.
```

### element_type

A type that is a synonym for the data type **bool** and can be used to reference element bits in a bitset.

```
typedef bool element_type;
```

#### Example

```
// bitset_elem_type.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
int main( )
{
using namespace std;
bitset<3> b1 ( 2 );
cout << "Original bitset b1(6) is: ( "<< b1 << " )"
<< endl;
//Compare two ways to reference bits in a bitset
bool b;
bitset<5>::element_type e;
b = b1.test ( 2 );
if ( b )
cout << "The bit at position 2 of bitset b1"
<< "has a value of 1." << endl;
else
cout << "The bit at position 2 of bitset b1"
<< "has a value of 0." << endl;
b1[2] = 1;
cout << "Bitset b1 modified by b1[2] = 1 is: ( "<< b1 << " )"
<< endl;
e = b1.test ( 2 );
if ( e )
cout << "The bit at position 2 of bitset b1"
<< "has a value of 1." << endl;
else
cout << "The bit at position 2 of bitset b1"
<< "has a value of 0." << endl;
}
```

```
Original bitset b1(6) is: ( 010 )
The bit at position 2 of bitset b1has a value of 0.
Bitset b1 modified by b1[2] = 1 is: ( 110 )
The bit at position 2 of bitset b1has a value of 1.
```

### flip

Inverts the value of all the bits in a bitset or inverts a single bit at a specified position.

```
bitset\<N>& flip();
bitset\<N>& flip(size_t _Pos);
```

#### Parameters

*_Pos*

The position of the bit whose value is to be inverted.

#### Return Value

A copy of the modified bitset for which the member function was invoked.

#### Remarks

The second member function throws an out_of_range exception if the position specified as a parameter is greater than the size *N* of the **bitset<** *N* **>** whose bit was inverted.

#### Example

```
// bitset_flip.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
int main( )
{
using namespace std;
bitset<5> b1 ( 6 );
cout << "The collection of bits in the original bitset is: ( "
<< b1 << " )" << endl;
bitset<5> fb1;
fb1 = b1.flip ( );
cout << "After flipping all the bits, the bitset becomes: ( "
<< fb1 << " )" << endl;
bitset<5> f3b1;
f3b1 = b1.flip ( 3 );
cout << "After flipping the fourth bit, the bitset becomes: ( "
<< f3b1 << " )" << endl << endl;
bitset<5> b2;
int i;
for ( i = 0 ; i <= 4 ; i++ )
{
b2.flip(i);
cout << b2 << " The bit flipped is in position "
<< i << ".\n";
}
}
```

```
The collection of bits in the original bitset is: ( 00110 )
After flipping all the bits, the bitset becomes: ( 11001 )
After flipping the fourth bit, the bitset becomes: ( 10001 )
00001 The bit flipped is in position 0.
00011 The bit flipped is in position 1.
00111 The bit flipped is in position 2.
01111 The bit flipped is in position 3.
11111 The bit flipped is in position 4.
```

### hash

```
template <class T> struct hash;
template <size_t N> struct hash<bitset<N>>;
```

### none

Tests if no bit has been set to 1 in a bitset object.

```
bool none() const;
```

#### Return Value

**true** if no bit in the bitset has been set to 1; **false** if at least one bit has been set to 1.

#### Example

```
// bitset_none.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
int main( )
{
using namespace std;
bitset<5> b1 ( 6 );
bool b, rb;
cout << "Original bitset b1(6) is: ( " << b1 << " )"
<< endl;
b = b1.none ( );
if ( b )
cout << "None of the bits in bitset b1 are set to 1."
<< endl;
else
cout << "At least one of the bits in bitset b1 is set to 1."
<< endl;
bitset<5> rb1;
rb1 = b1.reset ( );
rb = rb1.none ( );
if ( rb )
cout << "None of the bits in bitset b1 are set to 1."
<< endl;
else
cout << "At least one of the bits in bitset b1 is set to 1."
<< endl;
}
```

```
Original bitset b1(6) is: ( 00110 )
At least one of the bits in bitset b1 is set to 1.
None of the bits in bitset b1 are set to 1.
```

### operator!=

Tests a target bitset for inequality with a specified bitset.

```
bool operator!=(const bitset\<N>& right) const;
```

#### Parameters

*right*

The bitset that is to be compared to the target bitset for inequality.

#### Return Value

**true** if the bitsets are different; **false** if they are the same.

#### Remarks

Bitsets must be of the same size to be tested for inequality by the member operator function.

#### Example

```
// bitset_op_NE.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
int main( )
{
using namespace std;
bitset<5> b1 ( 7 );
bitset<5> b2 ( 7 );
bitset<5> b3 ( 2 );
bitset<4> b4 ( 7 );
if ( b1 != b2 )
cout << "Bitset b1 is different from bitset b2." << endl;
else
cout << "Bitset b1 is the same as bitset b2." << endl;
if ( b1 != b3 )
cout << "Bitset b1 is different from bitset b3." << endl;
else
cout << "Bitset b1 is the same as bitset b3." << endl;
// This would cause an error because bitsets must have the
// same size to be tested
// if ( b1 != b4 )
// cout << "Bitset b1 is different from bitset b4." << endl;
// else
// cout << "Bitset b1 is the same as bitset b4." << endl;
}
```

```
Bitset b1 is the same as bitset b2.
Bitset b1 is different from bitset b3.
```

### operator&=

Performs a bitwise combination of bitsets with the logical `AND`

operation.

```
bitset\<N>& operator&=(const bitset\<N>& right);
```

#### Parameters

*right*

The bitset that is to be combined bitwise with the target bitset.

#### Return Value

The modified target bitset that results from the bitwise `AND`

operation with the bitset specified as a parameter.

#### Remarks

Two bits combined by the `AND`

operator return **true** if each bit is true; otherwise, their combination returns **false**.

Bitsets must be of the same size to be combined bitwise with the `AND`

operator by the member operator function.

#### Example

```
// bitset_op_bitwise.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
int main( )
{
using namespace std;
bitset<5> b1 ( 7 );
bitset<5> b2 ( 11 );
bitset<4> b3 ( 7 );
cout << "The target bitset b1 is: ( "<< b1 << " )." << endl;
cout << "The parameter bitset b2 is: ( "<< b2 << " )." << endl;
cout << endl;
b1 &= b2;
cout << "After bitwise AND combination,\n"
<< "the target bitset b1 becomes: ( "<< b1 << " )."
<< endl;
// Note that the parameter-specified bitset is unchanged
cout << "The parameter bitset b2 remains: ( "<< b2 << " )."
<< endl;
// The following would cause an error because the bisets
// must be of the same size to be combined
// b1 &= b3;
}
```

```
The target bitset b1 is: ( 00111 ).
The parameter bitset b2 is: ( 01011 ).
After bitwise AND combination,
the target bitset b1 becomes: ( 00011 ).
The parameter bitset b2 remains: ( 01011 ).
```

### operator<<

Shifts the bits in a bitset to the left a specified number of positions and returns the result to a new bitset.

```
bitset\<N> operator<<(size_t _Pos) const;
```

#### Parameters

*_Pos*

The number of positions to the left that the bits in the bitset are to be shifted.

#### Return Value

The modified bitset with the bits shifted to the left the required number of positions.

#### Remarks

The member operator function returns **bitset**( ***this**) **<<= pos,** where <<= shifts the bits in a bitset to the left a specified number of positions and returns the result to the targeted bitset.

#### Example

```
// bitset_op_LS.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
int main( )
{
using namespace std;
bitset<5> b1 ( 7 );
cout << "The bitset b1 is: ( "<< b1 << " )." << endl;
bitset<5> b2;
b2 = b1 << 2;
cout << "After shifting the bits 2 positions to the left,\n"
<< " the bitset b2 is: ( "<< b2 << " )."
<< endl;
bitset<5> b3 = b2 >> 1;
cout << "After shifting the bits 1 position to the right,\n"
<< " the bitset b3 is: ( " << b3 << " )."
<< endl;
}
```

### operator<<=

Shifts the bits in a bitset to the left a specified number of positions and returns the result to the targeted bitset.

```
bitset\<N>& operator<<=(size_t _Pos);
```

#### Parameters

*_Pos*

The number of positions to the left the bits in the bitset are to be shifted.

#### Return Value

The targeted bitset modified so that the bits have been shifted to the left the required number of positions.

#### Remarks

If no element exists to shift into the position, the function clears the bit to a value of 0.

#### Example

```
// bitset_op_LSE.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
int main( )
{
using namespace std;
bitset<5> b1 ( 7 );
cout << "The target bitset b1 is: ( "<< b1 << " )." << endl;
b1 <<= 2;
cout << "After shifting the bits 2 positions to the left,\n"
<< "the target bitset b1 becomes: ( "<< b1 << " )."
<< endl;
}
```

```
The target bitset b1 is: ( 00111 ).
After shifting the bits 2 positions to the left,
the target bitset b1 becomes: ( 11100 ).
```

### operator==

Tests a target bitset for equality with a specified bitset.

```
bool operator==(const bitset\<N>& right) const;
```

#### Parameters

*right*

The bitset that is to be compared to the target bitset for equality.

#### Return Value

**true** if the bitsets are the same; **false** if they are different.

#### Remarks

Bitsets must be of the same size to be tested for equality by the member operator function.

#### Example

```
// bitset_op_EQ.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
int main( )
{
using namespace std;
bitset<5> b1 ( 7 );
bitset<5> b2 ( 7 );
bitset<5> b3 ( 2 );
bitset<4> b4 ( 7 );
if ( b1 == b2 )
cout << "Bitset b1 is the same as bitset b2." << endl;
else
cout << "Bitset b1 is different from bitset b2." << endl;
if ( b1 == b3 )
cout << "Bitset b1 is the same as bitset b3." << endl;
else
cout << "Bitset b1 is different from bitset b3." << endl;
// This would cause an error because bitsets must have the
// same size to be tested
// if ( b1 == b4 )
// cout << "Bitset b1 is the same as bitset b4." << endl;
// else
// cout << "Bitset b1 is different from bitset b4." << endl;
}
```

```
Bitset b1 is the same as bitset b2.
Bitset b1 is different from bitset b3.
```

### operator>>

Shifts the bits in a bitset to the right a specified number of positions and returns the result to a new bitset.

```
bitset\<N> operator>>(size_t _Pos) const;
```

#### Parameters

*_Pos*

The number of positions to the right the bits in the bitset are to be shifted.

#### Return Value

A new bitset where the bits have been shifted to the right the required number of positions relative to the targeted bitset.

#### Example

```
// bitset_op_RS.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
int main( )
{
using namespace std;
bitset<5> b1 ( 7 );
cout << "The bitset b1 is: ( "<< b1 << " )." << endl;
bitset<5> b2;
b2 = b1 << 2;
cout << "After shifting the bits 2 positions to the left,\n"
<< "the bitset b2 is: ( "<< b2 << " )."
<< endl;
bitset<5> b3 = b2 >> 1;
cout << "After shifting the bits 1 position to the right,\n"
<< "the bitset b3 is: ( " << b3 << " )."
<< endl;
}
```

```
The bitset b1 is: ( 00111 ).
After shifting the bits 2 positions to the left,
the bitset b2 is: ( 11100 ).
After shifting the bits 1 position to the right,
the bitset b3 is: ( 01110 ).
```

### operator>>=

Shifts the bits in a bitset to the right a specified number of positions and returns the result to the targeted bitset.

```
bitset\<N>& operator>>=(size_t _Pos);
```

#### Parameters

*_Pos*

The number of positions to the right the bits in the bitset are to be shifted.

#### Return Value

The targeted bitset modified so that the bits have been shifted to the right the required number of positions.

#### Remarks

If no element exists to shift into the position, the function clears the bit to a value of 0.

#### Example

```
// bitset_op_RSE.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
int main( )
{
using namespace std;
bitset<5> b1 ( 28 );
cout << "The target bitset b1 is: ( "<< b1 << " )." << endl;
b1 >>= 2;
cout << "After shifting the bits 2 positions to the right,\n"
<< "the target bitset b1 becomes: ( "<< b1 << " )."
<< endl;
}
```

```
The target bitset b1 is: ( 11100 ).
After shifting the bits 2 positions to the right,
the target bitset b1 becomes: ( 00111 ).
```

### operator[]

Returns a reference to a bit at a specified position in a bitset if the bitset is modifiable; otherwise, it returns the value of the bit at that position.

```
bool operator[](size_t _Pos) const;
reference operator[](size_t _Pos);
```

#### Parameters

*_Pos*

The position locating the bit within the bitset.

#### Remarks

When you define _ITERATOR_DEBUG_LEVEL as 1 or 2 in your build, a runtime error will occur in your executable if you attempt to access an element outside the bounds of the bitset. For more informations, see Checked Iterators.

#### Example

```
// bitset_op_REF.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
int main( )
{
using namespace std;
bool b;
bitset<5> b1 ( 6 );
cout << "The initialized bitset<5> b1( 2 ) is: ( "<< b1 << " )."
<< endl;
int i;
for ( i = 0 ; i <= 4 ; i++ )
{
b = b1[ i ];
cout << " The bit in position "
<< i << " is " << b << ".\n";
}
}
```

### operator^=

Performs a bitwise combination of bitsets with the exclusive `OR`

operation.

```
bitset\<N>& operator^=(const bitset\<N>& right);
```

#### Parameters

*right*

The bitset that is to be combined bitwise with the target bitset.

#### Return Value

The modified target bitset that results from the bitwise exclusive `OR`

operation with the bitset specified as a parameter.

#### Remarks

Two bits combined by the exclusive **OR** operator return **true** if at least one, but not both, of the bits is **true**; otherwise, their combination returns **false**.

Bitsets must be of the same size to be combined bitwise with the exclusive `OR`

operator by the member operator function.

#### Example

```
// bitset_op_bitwiseOR.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
int main( )
{
using namespace std;
bitset<5> b1 ( 7 );
bitset<5> b2 ( 11 );
bitset<4> b3 ( 7 );
cout << "The target bitset b1 is: ( "<< b1 << " )." << endl;
cout << "The parameter bitset b2 is: ( "<< b2 << " )." << endl;
cout << endl;
b1 ^= b2;
cout << "After bitwise exclusive OR combination,\n"
<< "the target bitset b1 becomes: ( "<< b1 << " )."
<< endl;
// Note that the parameter-specified bitset in unchanged
cout << "The parameter bitset b2 remains: ( "<< b2 << " )."
<< endl;
// The following would cause an error because the bisets
// must be of the same size to be combined
// b1 |= b3;
}
```

```
The target bitset b1 is: ( 00111 ).
The parameter bitset b2 is: ( 01011 ).
After bitwise exclusive OR combination,
the target bitset b1 becomes: ( 01100 ).
The parameter bitset b2 remains: ( 01011 ).
```

### operator|=

Performs a bitwise combination of bitsets with the inclusive `OR`

operation.

```
bitset\<N>& operator|=(const bitset\<N>& right);
```

#### Parameters

*right*

The bitset that is to be combined bitwise with the target bitset.

#### Return Value

The modified target bitset that results from the bitwise inclusive `OR`

operation with the bitset specified as a parameter.

#### Remarks

Two bits combined by the inclusive `OR`

operator return **true** if at least one of the bits is **true**; if both bits are **false**, their combination returns **false**.

Bitsets must be of the same size to be combined bitwise with the inclusive `OR`

operator by the member operator function.

#### Example

```
// bitset_op_BIO.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
int main( )
{
using namespace std;
bitset<5> b1 ( 7 );
bitset<5> b2 ( 11 );
bitset<4> b3 ( 7 );
cout << "The target bitset b1 is: ( "<< b1 << " )." << endl;
cout << "The parameter bitset b2 is: ( "<< b2 << " )." << endl;
cout << endl;
b1 |= b2;
cout << "After bitwise inclusive OR combination,\n"
<< "the target bitset b1 becomes: ( "<< b1 << " )."
<< endl;
// Note that the parameter-specified bitset in unchanged
cout << "The parameter bitset b2 remains: ( "<< b2 << " )."
<< endl;
// The following would cause an error because the bisets
// must be of the same size to be combined
// b1 |= b3;
}
```

```
The target bitset b1 is: ( 00111 ).
The parameter bitset b2 is: ( 01011 ).
After bitwise inclusive OR combination,
the target bitset b1 becomes: ( 01111 ).
The parameter bitset b2 remains: ( 01011 ).
```

### operator~

Inverts all the bits in a target bitset and returns the result.

```
bitset\<N> operator~() const;
```

#### Return Value

The bitset with all its bits inverted with respect to the targeted bitset.

#### Example

```
// bitset_op_invert.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
#include <bitset>
int main( )
{
using namespace std;
bitset<5> b1 ( 7 );
bitset<5> b2;
b2 = ~b1;
cout << "Bitset b1 is: ( "<< b1 << " )." << endl;
cout << "Bitset b2 = ~b1 is: ( "<< b2 << " )." << endl;
// These bits could also be flipped using the flip member function
bitset<5> b3;
b3 = b1.flip( );
cout << "Bitset b3 = b1.flip( ) is: ( "<< b2 << " )." << endl;
}
```

```
Bitset b1 is: ( 00111 ).
Bitset b2 = ~b1 is: ( 11000 ).
Bitset b3 = b1.flip( ) is: ( 11000 ).
```

### reference

A proxy class that provides references to bits contained in a bitset that is used to access and manipulate the individual bits as a helper class for the `operator[]`

of class bitset.

```
class reference {
friend class bitset\<N>;
public:
reference& operator=(bool val);
reference& operator=(const reference& _Bitref);
bool operator~() const;
operator bool() const;
reference& flip();
};
```

#### Parameters

*val*

The value of the object of type **bool** to be assigned to a bit in a bitset.

*_Bitref*

A reference of the form *x [ i ]* to the bit at position *i* in bitset *x*.

#### Return Value

A reference to the bit in the bitset specified by the argument position for the first, second, and fifth member functions of class reference, and **true** or **false**, to reflect the value of the modified bit in the bitset for the third and fourth member functions of class reference.

#### Remarks

The class `reference`

exists only as a helper class for the bitset `operator[]`

. The member class describes an object that can access an individual bit within a bitset. Let *b* be an object of type **bool**, *x* and *y* objects of type **bitset<** *N* **>**, and *i* and *j* valid positions within such an object. The notation *x [i]* references the bit at position *i* in bitset *x*. The member functions of class `reference`

provide, in order, the following operations:

Operation | Definition |
---|---|

x[i] = b |
Stores bool value b at bit position i in bitset x. |

x[i] = y[j] |
Stores the value of the bit y[ j] at bit position i in bitset x. |

b = ~ x[i] |
Stores the flipped value of the bit x[ i] in bool b. |

b = x[i] |
Stores the value of the bit x[ i] in bool b. |

x[i]. `flip` ( ) |
Stores the flipped value of the bit x[ i] back at bit position i in x. |

#### Example

```
// bitset_reference.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
int main( )
{
using namespace std;
bitset<5> b1 ( 2 );
bitset<5> b2 ( 6 );
cout << "The initialized bitset<5> b1( 2 ) is: ( "<< b1 << " )."
<< endl;
cout << "The initialized bitset<5> b2( 6 ) is: ( "<< b2 << " )."
<< endl;
// Example of x [i] = b storing bool b at bit position i
// in bitset x
b1[ 0 ] = true;
cout << "The bitset<5> b1 with the bit at position 0 set to 1"
<< "is: ( "<< b1 << " )" << endl;
// Example of x [i] = y [j] storing the bool value of the
// bit at position j in bitset y at bit position i in bitset x
b2 [4] = b1 [0]; // b1 [0] = true
cout << "The bitset<5> b2 with the bit at position 4 set to the "
<< "value\nof the bit at position 0 of the bit in "
<< "bitset<5> b1 is: ( "<< b2 << " )" << endl;
// Example of b = ~x [i] flipping the value of the bit at
// position i of bitset x and storing the value in an
// object b of type bool
bool b = ~b2 [4]; // b2 [4] = false
if ( b )
cout << "The value of the object b = ~b2 [4] "
<< "of type bool is true." << endl;
else
cout << "The value of the object b = ~b2 [4] "
<< "of type bool is false." << endl;
// Example of b = x [i] storing the value of the bit at
// position i of bitset x in the object b of type bool
b = b2 [4];
if ( b )
cout << "The value of the object b = b2 [4] "
<< "of type bool is true." << endl;
else
cout << "The value of the object b = b2 [4] "
<< "of type bool is false." << endl;
// Example of x [i] . flip ( ) toggling the value of the bit at
// position i of bitset x
cout << "Before flipping the value of the bit at position 4 in "
<< "bitset b2,\nit is ( "<< b2 << " )." << endl;
b2 [4].flip( );
cout << "After flipping the value of the bit at position 4 in "
<< "bitset b2,\nit becomes ( "<< b2 << " )." << endl;
bool c;
c = b2 [4].flip( );
cout << "After a second flip, the value of the position 4 "
<< "bit in b2 is now: " << c << ".";
}
```

```
The initialized bitset<5> b1( 2 ) is: ( 00010 ).
The initialized bitset<5> b2( 6 ) is: ( 00110 ).
The bitset<5> b1 with the bit at position 0 set to 1 is: ( 00011 )
The bitset<5> b2 with the bit at position 4 set to the value
of the bit at position 0 of the bit in bitset<5> b1 is: ( 10110 )
The value of the object b = ~b2 [4] of type bool is false.
The value of the object b = b2 [4] of type bool is true.
Before flipping the value of the bit at position 4 in bitset b2,
it is ( 10110 ).
After flipping the value of the bit at position 4 in bitset b2,
it becomes ( 00110 ).
After a second flip, the value of the position 4 bit in b2 is now: 1.
```

### reset

Resets all the bits in a bitset to 0 or resets a bit at a specified position to 0.

```
bitset\<N>& reset();
bitset\<N>& reset(size_t _Pos);
```

#### Parameters

*_Pos*

The position of the bit in the bitset to be reset to 0.

#### Return Value

A copy of the bitset for which the member function was invoked.

#### Remarks

The second member function throws an out_of_range exception if the position specified is greater than the size of the bitset.

#### Example

```
// bitset_reset.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
int main( )
{
using namespace std;
bitset<5> b1 ( 13 );
cout << "The set of bits in bitset<5> b1(13) is: ( "<< b1 << " )"
<< endl;
bitset<5> b1r3;
b1r3 = b1.reset( 2 );
cout << "The collecion of bits obtained from resetting the\n"
<< "third bit of bitset b1 is: ( "<< b1r3 << " )"
<< endl;
bitset<5> b1r;
b1r = b1.reset( );
cout << "The collecion of bits obtained from resetting all\n"
<< "the elements of the bitset b1 is: ( "<< b1r << " )"
<< endl;
}
```

```
The set of bits in bitset<5> b1(13) is: ( 01101 )
The collecion of bits obtained from resetting the
third bit of bitset b1 is: ( 01001 )
The collecion of bits obtained from resetting all
the elements of the bitset b1 is: ( 00000 )
```

### set

Sets all the bits in a bitset to 1 or sets a bit at a specified position to 1.

```
bitset\<N>& set();
bitset\<N>& set(
size_t _Pos,
bool val = true);
```

#### Parameters

*_Pos*

The position of the bit in the bitset to be set to assigned a value.

*val*

The value to be assigned to the bit at the position specified.

#### Return Value

A copy of the bitset for which the member function was invoked.

#### Remarks

The second member function throws an out_of_range exception if the position specified is greater than the size of the bitset.

#### Example

```
// bitset_set.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
int main( )
{
using namespace std;
bitset<5> b1 ( 6 );
cout << "The set of bits in bitset<5> b1(6) is: ( "<< b1 << " )"
<< endl;
bitset<5> b1s0;
b1s0 = b1.set( 0 );
cout << "The collecion of bits obtained from setting the\n"
<< "zeroth bit of bitset b1 is: ( "<< b1s0 << " )"
<< endl;
bitset<5> bs1;
bs1 = b1.set( );
cout << "The collecion of bits obtained from setting all the\n"
<< "elements of the bitset b1 is: ( "<< bs1 << " )"
<< endl;
}
```

```
The set of bits in bitset<5> b1(6) is: ( 00110 )
The collecion of bits obtained from setting the
zeroth bit of bitset b1 is: ( 00111 )
The collecion of bits obtained from setting all the
elements of the bitset b1 is: ( 11111 )
```

### size

Returns the number of bits in a bitset object.

```
size_t size() const;
```

#### Return Value

The number of bits, *N*, in a bitset<N>.

#### Example

```
// bitset_size.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
int main()
{
using namespace std;
bitset<5> b1(6);
size_t i;
cout << "The set of bits in bitset<5> b1( 6 ) is: ( "<< b1 << " )"
<< endl;
i = b1.size();
cout << "The number of bits in bitset b1 is: " << i << "."
<< endl;
}
```

```
The set of bits in bitset<5> b1( 6 ) is: ( 00110 )
The number of bits in bitset b1 is: 5.
```

### test

Tests whether the bit at a specified position in a bitset is set to 1.

```
bool test(size_t _Pos) const;
```

#### Parameters

*_Pos*

The position of the bit in the bitset to be tested for its value.

#### Return Value

**true** if the bit specified by the argument position is set to 1; otherwise, **false**.

#### Remarks

The member function throws an out_of_range

### to_string

Converts a bitset object to a string representation.

```
template <class charT = char, class traits = char_traits<charT>, class Allocator = allocator<charT> >
basic_string<charT, traits, Allocator> to_string(charT zero = charT('0'), charT one = charT('1')) const;
```

#### Return value

A string object of class `basic_string`

, where each bit set in the bitset has a corresponding character of 1, and a character of 0 if the bit is unset.

#### Example

```
// bitset_to_string.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
int main( )
{
using namespace std;
bitset<5> b1 ( 7 );
cout << "The ordered set of bits in the bitset<5> b1( 7 )"
<< "\n that was generated by the number 7 is: ( "
<< b1 << " )" << endl;
string s1;
s1 = b1.template to_string<char,
char_traits<char>, allocator<char> >( );
cout << "The string returned from the bitset b1"
<< "\n by the member function to_string( ) is: "
<< s1 << "." << endl;
}
```

```
The ordered set of bits in the bitset<5> b1( 7 )
that was generated by the number 7 is: ( 00111 )
The string returned from the bitset b1
by the member function to_string( ) is: 00111.
```

### to_ullong

Returns an **unsigned long long** value that contains the same bits set as the contents of the bitset object.

```
unsigned long long to_ullong() const;
```

#### Return value

Returns the sum of the bit values that are in the bit sequence as an **unsigned long long**. This **unsigned long long** value would re-create the same set bits if it is used to initialize a bitset.

#### Exceptions

Throws an overflow_error object if any bit in the bit sequence has a bit value that cannot be represented as a value of type **unsigned long long**.

#### Remarks

Returns the sum of the bit values that are in the bit sequence as an **unsigned long long**.

### to_ulong

Converts a bitset object to the integer that would generate the sequence of bits contained if used to initialize the bitset.

```
unsigned long to_ulong( ) const;
```

#### Return value

An integer that would generate the bits in a bitset if used in the initialization of the bitset.

#### Remarks

Applying the member function would return the integer that has the same sequence of 1 and 0 digits as is found in sequence of bits contained in the bitset.

The member function throws an overflow_error object if any bit in the bit sequence has a bit value that cannot be represented as a value of type **unsigned long**.

#### Example

```
// bitset_to_ulong.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
int main( )
{
using namespace std;
bitset<5> b1 ( 7 );
cout << "The ordered set of bits in the bitset<5> b1( 7 )"
<< "\n that was generated by the number 7 is: ( "
<< b1 << " )" << endl;
unsigned long int i;
i = b1.to_ulong( );
cout << "The integer returned from the bitset b1,"
<< "\n by the member function to_long( ), that"
<< "\n generated the bits as a base two number is: "
<< i << "." << endl;
}
```

```
The ordered set of bits in the bitset<5> b1( 7 )
that was generated by the number 7 is: ( 00111 )
The integer returned from the bitset b1,
by the member function to_long( ), that
generated the bits as a base two number is: 7.
```

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