<future>

Include the standard header <future> to define class templates and supporting templates that simplify running a function—possibly in a separate thread—and retrieving its result. The result is either the value that is returned by the function or an exception that is emitted by the function but is not caught in the function.

This header uses Concurrency Runtime (ConcRT) so that you can use it together with other ConcRT mechanisms. For more information about ConcRT, see Concurrency Runtime.

Syntax

#include <future>

Remarks

Note

In code that is compiled by using /clr, this header is blocked.

An asynchronous provider stores the result of a function call. An asynchronous return object is used to retrieve the result of a function call. An associated asynchronous state provides communication between an asynchronous provider and one or more asynchronous return objects.

A program does not directly create any associated asynchronous state objects. The program creates an asynchronous provider whenever it needs one and from that it creates an asynchronous return object that shares its associated asynchronous state with the provider. Asynchronous providers and asynchronous return objects manage the objects that hold their shared associated asynchronous state. When the last object that references the associated asynchronous state releases it, the object that holds the associated asynchronous state is destroyed.

An asynchronous provider or an asynchronous return object that has no associated asynchronous state is empty.

An associated asynchronous state is ready only if its asynchronous provider has stored a return value or stored an exception.

The template function async and the class templates promise and packaged_task are asynchronous providers. The class templates future and shared_future describe asynchronous return objects.

Each of the class templates promise, future, and shared_future has a specialization for the type void and a partial specialization for storing and retrieving a value by reference. These specializations differ from the primary template only in the signatures and semantics of the functions that store and retrieve the returned value.

The class templates future and shared_future never block in their destructors, except in one case that's preserved for backward compatibility: Unlike all other futures, for a future—or the last shared_future—that's attached to a task started with std::async, the destructor blocks if the task has not completed; that is, it blocks if this thread did not yet call .get() or .wait() and the task is still running. The following usability note has been added to the description of std::async in the draft standard: "[Note: If a future obtained from std::async is moved outside the local scope, other code that uses the future must be aware that the future’s destructor may block for the shared state to become ready.—end note]" In all other cases, future and shared_future destructors are required and are guaranteed to never block.

Members

Classes

Name Description
future Class Describes an asynchronous return object.
future_error Class Describes an exception object that can be thrown by methods of types that manage future objects.
packaged_task Class Describes an asynchronous provider that is a call wrapper and whose call signature is Ty(ArgTypes...). Its associated asynchronous state holds a copy of its callable object in addition to the potential result.
promise Class Describes an asynchronous provider.
shared_future Class Describes an asynchronous return object. In contrast with a future object, an asynchronous provider can be associated with any number of shared_future objects.

Structures

Name Description
is_error_code_enum Structure Specialization that indicates that future_errc is suitable for storing an error_code.
uses_allocator Structure Specialization that always holds true.

Functions

Name Description
async Represents an asynchronous provider.
future_category Returns a reference to the error_category object that characterizes errors that are associated with future objects.
make_error_code Creates an error_code that has the error_category object that characterizes future errors.
make_error_condition Creates an error_condition that has the error_category object that characterizes future errors.
swap Exchanges the associated asynchronous state of one promise object with that of another.

Enumerations

Name Description
future_errc Supplies symbolic names for the errors that are reported by the future_error class.
future_status Supplies symbolic names for the reasons that a timed wait function can return.
launch Represents a bitmask type that describes the possible modes for the template function async.

See also

Header Files Reference