Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable Method

Definition

Creates, modifies, or deletes an environment variable.

Overloads

SetEnvironmentVariable(String, String) SetEnvironmentVariable(String, String) SetEnvironmentVariable(String, String) SetEnvironmentVariable(String, String)

Creates, modifies, or deletes an environment variable stored in the current process.

SetEnvironmentVariable(String, String, EnvironmentVariableTarget) SetEnvironmentVariable(String, String, EnvironmentVariableTarget) SetEnvironmentVariable(String, String, EnvironmentVariableTarget) SetEnvironmentVariable(String, String, EnvironmentVariableTarget)

Creates, modifies, or deletes an environment variable stored in the current process or in the Windows operating system registry key reserved for the current user or local machine.

SetEnvironmentVariable(String, String) SetEnvironmentVariable(String, String) SetEnvironmentVariable(String, String) SetEnvironmentVariable(String, String)

Creates, modifies, or deletes an environment variable stored in the current process.

public:
 static void SetEnvironmentVariable(System::String ^ variable, System::String ^ value);
public static void SetEnvironmentVariable (string variable, string value);
static member SetEnvironmentVariable : string * string -> unit
Public Shared Sub SetEnvironmentVariable (variable As String, value As String)

Parameters

variable
String String String String

The name of an environment variable.

value
String String String String

A value to assign to variable.

Exceptions

variable contains a zero-length string, an initial hexadecimal zero character (0x00), or an equal sign ("=").

-or-

The length of variable or value is greater than or equal to 32,767 characters.

-or-

An error occurred during the execution of this operation.

The caller does not have the required permission to perform this operation.

Examples

The following example tests whether an environment variable named APPDOMAIN exists in the current process. If it does not, it creates it and sets its value to "True". If the value of the APPDOMAIN environment variable is "True", it calls the Message.Display method in a new application domain. Otherwise, it executes the Message.Display method in the current application domain.

using System;

public class Example
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      String envName = "AppDomain";
      String envValue = "True";
      
      // Determine whether the environment variable exists.
      if (Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable(envName) == null)
         // If it doesn't exist, create it.
         Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(envName, envValue);
      
      bool createAppDomain;
      Message msg;
      if (Boolean.TryParse(Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable(envName),
                          out createAppDomain) && createAppDomain) {
         AppDomain domain = AppDomain.CreateDomain("Domain2");
         msg = (Message) domain.CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(typeof(Example).Assembly.FullName, 
                                                        "Message");
         msg.Display();                                             
      }                                  
      else {
         msg = new Message();
         msg.Display();   
      }     
   }
}

public class Message : MarshalByRefObject
{
   public void Display()
   {
      Console.WriteLine("Executing in domain {0}", 
                        AppDomain.CurrentDomain.FriendlyName);
   }
}
Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim envName As String = "AppDomain"
      Dim envValue As String = "True"
      
      ' Determine whether the environment variable exists.
      If Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable(envName) Is Nothing Then
         ' If it doesn't exist, create it.
         Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(envName, envValue)
      End If
      
      Dim createAppDomain As Boolean
      Dim msg As Message
      If Boolean.TryParse(Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable(envName),
                          createAppDomain) AndAlso createAppDomain Then
         Dim domain As AppDomain = AppDomain.CreateDomain("Domain2")
         msg = CType(domain.CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(GetType(Example).Assembly.FullName, 
                                                    "Message"), Message)
         msg.Display()                                                                            
      Else
         msg = New Message()
         msg.Display()   
      End If     
   End Sub
End Module

Public Class Message : Inherits MarshalByRefObject
   Public Sub Display()
      Console.WriteLine("Executing in domain {0}", 
                        AppDomain.CurrentDomain.FriendlyName)
   End Sub
End Class

If you run the example for the first time, the message "Executing in domain Domain2" displays to the console. If you set the environment variable from the command line by using the command:

Set AppDomain=False

the example displays the message "Executing in domain exeName.exe", where exeName is the name of the executable.

The following example attempts to retrieve the value of an environment variable named Test1 from the process environment block. If the variable doesn't exist, the example creates the variable and retrieves its value. The example displays the value of the variable. If the example created the variable, it also calls the GetEnvironmentVariables(EnvironmentVariableTarget) method with each member of the EnvironmentVariableTarget enumeration to establish that the variable can be retrieved only from the current process environment block. Finally, if the example created the variable, it deletes it.

using System;

public class Example
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      string value;
      bool toDelete = false;
      
      // Check whether the environment variable exists.
      value = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("Test1");
      // If necessary, create it.
      if (value == null) {
         Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable("Test1", "Value1");
         toDelete = true;
         
         // Now retrieve it.
         value = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("Test1");
      }
      // Display the value.
      Console.WriteLine("Test1: {0}\n", value);
      
      // Confirm that the value can only be retrieved from the process
      // environment block.
      Console.WriteLine("Attempting to retrieve Test1 from:");
      foreach (EnvironmentVariableTarget enumValue in 
                         Enum.GetValues(typeof(EnvironmentVariableTarget))) {
         value = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("Test1", enumValue);
         Console.WriteLine("   {0}: {1}", enumValue, 
                           value != null ? value : "not found");
      }
      Console.WriteLine();
      
      // If we've created it, now delete it.
      if (toDelete) { 
         Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable("Test1", null);
         // Confirm the deletion.
         if (Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("Test1") == null)
            Console.WriteLine("Test1 has been deleted.");
      }         
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//       Test1: Value1
//       
//       Attempting to retrieve Test1 from:
//          Process: Value1
//          User: not found
//          Machine: not found
//       
//       Test1 has been deleted.
Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim value As String 
      Dim toDelete As Boolean = False
      
      ' Check whether the environment variable exists.
      value = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("Test1")
      ' If necessary, create it.
      If value Is Nothing Then
         Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable("Test1", "Value1")
         toDelete = True
         
         ' Now retrieve it.
         value = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("Test1")
      End If
      ' Display the value.
      Console.WriteLine("Test1: {0}", value)
      Console.WriteLine()
      
      ' Confirm that the value can only be retrieved from the process
      ' environment block.
      Console.WriteLine("Attempting to retrieve Test1 from:")
      For Each enumValue As EnvironmentVariableTarget In 
                         [Enum].GetValues(GetType(EnvironmentVariableTarget))
         value = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("Test1", enumValue)
         Console.WriteLine("   {0}: {1}", enumValue, 
                           If(value IsNot Nothing, value, "not found"))
      Next
      Console.WriteLine()
      
      ' If we've created it, now delete it.
      If toDelete Then 
         Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable("Test1", Nothing)
         ' Confirm the deletion.
         If Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("Test1") = Nothing Then
            Console.WriteLine("Test1 has been deleted.")
         End If
      End If         
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays output like the following:
'       Test1: Value1
'       
'       Attempting to retrieve Test1 from:
'          Process: Value1
'          User: not found
'          Machine: not found
'       
'       Test1 has been deleted.

Remarks

Calling this method is equivalent to calling the SetEnvironmentVariable(String, String, EnvironmentVariableTarget) overload with a value of EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process for the target argument.

If the value argument is not empty (see the discussion of deleting an environment variable later in this section for the definition of an empty value) and the environment variable named by the variable parameter does not exist, the environment variable is created and assigned the contents of value. If it does exist, its value is modified. Because the environment variable is defined in the environment block of the current process only, it does not persist after the process has ended.

If variable contains a non-initial hexadecimal zero character, the characters before the zero character are considered the environment variable name and all subsequent characters are ignored.

If value contains a non-initial hexadecimal zero character, the characters before the zero character are assigned to the environment variable and all subsequent characters are ignored.

If value is empty and the environment variable named by variable exists, the environment variable is deleted. If variable does not exist, no error occurs even though the operation cannot be performed. value is considered empty under any of the following conditions:

  • It is null.

  • It is String.Empty.

  • It consists of a single character whose value is U+0000.

Security

EnvironmentPermission
for full access to environment variables. Associated enumeration: Unrestricted

See Also

SetEnvironmentVariable(String, String, EnvironmentVariableTarget) SetEnvironmentVariable(String, String, EnvironmentVariableTarget) SetEnvironmentVariable(String, String, EnvironmentVariableTarget) SetEnvironmentVariable(String, String, EnvironmentVariableTarget)

Creates, modifies, or deletes an environment variable stored in the current process or in the Windows operating system registry key reserved for the current user or local machine.

public:
 static void SetEnvironmentVariable(System::String ^ variable, System::String ^ value, EnvironmentVariableTarget target);
public static void SetEnvironmentVariable (string variable, string value, EnvironmentVariableTarget target);
static member SetEnvironmentVariable : string * string * EnvironmentVariableTarget -> unit
Public Shared Sub SetEnvironmentVariable (variable As String, value As String, target As EnvironmentVariableTarget)

Parameters

variable
String String String String

The name of an environment variable.

value
String String String String

A value to assign to variable.

target
EnvironmentVariableTarget EnvironmentVariableTarget EnvironmentVariableTarget EnvironmentVariableTarget

One of the enumeration values that specifies the location of the environment variable.

Exceptions

variable contains a zero-length string, an initial hexadecimal zero character (0x00), or an equal sign ("=").

-or-

The length of variable is greater than or equal to 32,767 characters.

-or-

target is not a member of the EnvironmentVariableTarget enumeration.

-or-

target is Machine or User, and the length of variable is greater than or equal to 255.

-or-

target is Process and the length of value is greater than or equal to 32,767 characters.

-or-

An error occurred during the execution of this operation.

The caller does not have the required permission to perform this operation.

Examples

The following example creates environment variables for the EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process, EnvironmentVariableTarget.User, and Machine targets, checks whether the operating system registry contains the user and machine environment variables, then deletes the environment variables.

// This example demonstrates the
//     Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable,
//     Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable, and
//     Environment.GetEnvironmentVariables overloaded methods.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;
using namespace Microsoft::Win32;

namespace EnvironmentVariablesSample
{
    public ref class TestEnvironmentVariables sealed
    {
    public:
        // DoTest: Test get/set environment variables
        static void DoTest()
        {     
            // Environment variable values
            String^ existsA = "exists in the default target"
                " (Process)";
            String^ existsB = "exists in Process";
            String^ existsC = "exists in User";
            String^ existsD = "exists in Machine";     
            // Messages:
            String^ messageStep1 = "Step 1:\n"
                "  Check whether the environment variables already"
                " exist in \n"
                "  the various targets...\n";
            String^ messageStep2 = "Step 2:\n"
                "  Set the environment variable for each"
                " target...\n";
            String^ messageStep3Part1 = "Step 3, part 1:\n"
                "  Display the environment variables in each"
                " target...\n";
            String^ messageStep3Part2 = "Step 3, part 2:\n"
                "  Check whether the User and Machine "
                " environment variables \n"
                "  were created in the Windows operating"
                " system registry...\n";
            String^ messageStep4Part1 = "Step 4, part 1:\n"
                "  Delete the environment variables created "
                "for this sample...\n";
            String^ messageStep4Part2 = "Step 4, part 2:\n"
                "  Check whether the environment variables were "
                "deleted \n"
                "  in each target...\n";
            String^ messageStep4Part3 = "Step 4, part 3:\n"
                "  Check whether the User and Machine environment "
                "variables \n"
                "  were deleted from the Windows operating system "
                "registry...\n";
            String^ step2Format = "  {0,9}: Set {1} = \"{2}\"";  

            // Step 1:
            // Check whether the sample environment variables already
            // exist.
            // WARNING: These variables will be deleted at the end of
            // this sample.
            Console::WriteLine(messageStep1);
            CheckVariables();
            Console::WriteLine();   

            // Step 2:
            // Set the environment variable for each target.
            // This section demonstrates
            // Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable.
            Console::WriteLine(messageStep2);     

            // Set the environment variable for the default target
            // (the current process).
            Console::WriteLine(step2Format, "(default)", VariableA,
                existsA);
            Environment::SetEnvironmentVariable(VariableA, existsA);  

            // Set the environment variable for the current process.
            Console::WriteLine(step2Format, "Process", VariableB,
                existsB);
            Environment::SetEnvironmentVariable(VariableB, existsB,
                EnvironmentVariableTarget::Process);

            // Set the environment variable for the current user.
            Console::WriteLine(step2Format, "User", VariableC,
                existsC);
            Environment::SetEnvironmentVariable(VariableC, existsC,
                EnvironmentVariableTarget::User);

            // Set the environment variable for the local machine.
            Console::WriteLine(step2Format, "Machine", VariableD,
                existsD);
            Environment::SetEnvironmentVariable(VariableD, existsD,
                EnvironmentVariableTarget::Machine);
            Console::WriteLine();      

            // Step 3, part 1:
            // Display the environment variables in each target.
            Console::WriteLine(messageStep3Part1);
            PrintVariables();
            Console::WriteLine();     

            // Step 3, part 2:
            // Check whether the User and Machine environment
            // variables were created in the Windows operating system
            // registry.
            Console::WriteLine(messageStep3Part2);
            CheckRegistryVariables();
            Console::WriteLine();

            // Step 4, part 1:
            // Delete the environment variables created for this
            // sample. This section demonstrates using 
            // Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable to delete an 
            // environment variable.
            Console::WriteLine(messageStep4Part1);
            Environment::SetEnvironmentVariable(VariableA, nullptr);
            Environment::SetEnvironmentVariable(VariableB, nullptr,
                EnvironmentVariableTarget::Process);
            Environment::SetEnvironmentVariable(VariableC, nullptr,
                EnvironmentVariableTarget::User);
            Environment::SetEnvironmentVariable(VariableD, nullptr,
                EnvironmentVariableTarget::Machine);     

            // Step 4, part 2:
            // Check whether the environment variables were deleted 
            // in each target.
            Console::WriteLine(messageStep4Part2);
            CheckVariables();

            // Step 4, part 3:
            // Check whether the User and Machine environment
            // variables were deleted from the Windows operating
            // system registry.
            Console::WriteLine(messageStep4Part3);
            CheckRegistryVariables();
        }

    protected:
        // Globals:
        literal String^ NameValueFormat = "  {0} {1}.";
        literal String^ VariableSuffix = "_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE";

        // Four relatively unique environment variable names.
        // default process

        literal String^ VariableA = "A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE";

        // Current Process
        literal String^ VariableB = "B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE";

        // Current User
        literal String^ VariableC = "C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE";

        // Local Machine
        literal String^ VariableD = "D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE";

    private:
        // CheckVariablesInTarget:
        // Test whether a specific environment variable exists
        // in a target. This section demonstrates
        // Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable.
        static void CheckVariablesInTarget(String^ variable,
            EnvironmentVariableTarget target)
        {
            String^ variableName;

            // Zero means use the default target.
            if (target == (EnvironmentVariableTarget) 0)
            {
                variableName =
                    Environment::GetEnvironmentVariable(variable);
            }
            else
            {
                variableName = Environment::GetEnvironmentVariable(
                    variable, target);
            }
            Console::WriteLine(NameValueFormat, variable,
                (String::IsNullOrEmpty(variableName) ?
                "doesn't exist" : variableName));
        }

        // CheckVariable:
        // Uses CheckVariablesInTarget to test whether each
        // environment variable exists in a target.
        static void CheckVariables()
        {
            Console::WriteLine("Process:");

            // Check the default target(current process)
            CheckVariablesInTarget(VariableA,
                (EnvironmentVariableTarget) 0);
            CheckVariablesInTarget(VariableB,
                EnvironmentVariableTarget::Process);
            CheckVariablesInTarget(VariableC,
                EnvironmentVariableTarget::Process);
            CheckVariablesInTarget(VariableD,
                EnvironmentVariableTarget::Process);
            Console::WriteLine();

            Console::WriteLine("User:");
            CheckVariablesInTarget(VariableA,
                EnvironmentVariableTarget::User);
            CheckVariablesInTarget(VariableB,
                EnvironmentVariableTarget::User);
            CheckVariablesInTarget(VariableC,
                EnvironmentVariableTarget::User);
            CheckVariablesInTarget(VariableD,
                EnvironmentVariableTarget::User);
            Console::WriteLine();

            Console::WriteLine("Machine:");
            CheckVariablesInTarget(VariableA,
                EnvironmentVariableTarget::Machine);
            CheckVariablesInTarget(VariableB,
                EnvironmentVariableTarget::Machine);
            CheckVariablesInTarget(VariableC,
                EnvironmentVariableTarget::Machine);
            CheckVariablesInTarget(VariableD,
                EnvironmentVariableTarget::Machine);
            Console::WriteLine();
        }

        // PrintVariablesFromTarget: PrintVariables helper function.
        // This section demonstrates
        // Environment.GetEnvironmentVariables.
        static void PrintVariablesFromTarget(
            EnvironmentVariableTarget target)
        {
            String^ valueString;
            String^ keyString;

            for each (DictionaryEntry^ dictionary in
                Environment::GetEnvironmentVariables(target))
            {
                keyString = safe_cast<String^> (dictionary->Key);
                valueString = safe_cast<String^> (dictionary->Value);
                if (keyString->Contains(VariableSuffix))
                    Console::WriteLine(NameValueFormat, keyString,
                    valueString);
            }
            Console::WriteLine();
        }

        // PrintVariables:
        // Uses PrintVariablesFromTarget to test whether
        // each environment variable exists in a target.
        static void PrintVariables()
        {
            Console::WriteLine("Process:");
            PrintVariablesFromTarget(EnvironmentVariableTarget::Process);

            Console::WriteLine("User:");
            PrintVariablesFromTarget(EnvironmentVariableTarget::User);

            Console::WriteLine("Machine:");
            PrintVariablesFromTarget(EnvironmentVariableTarget::Machine);
        }

        // CheckRegistryVariablesForKey: CheckRegistryVariables
        // helper function. This function filters out irrelevant
        // environment variables.
        static void CheckRegistryVariablesForKey(RegistryKey^ targetKey)
        {
            bool exists = false;            

            for each (
                String^ variableName in targetKey->GetValueNames())
            {
                if (variableName->Contains(VariableSuffix))
                {
                    String^ variableValue =
                        safe_cast<String^>
                        (targetKey->GetValue(variableName));
                    Console::WriteLine(NameValueFormat, variableName,
                        variableValue);
                    exists = true;
                }
            }
            if (!exists)
            {
                Console::WriteLine(
                    "  Environment variable doesn't exist.");
            }
            Console::WriteLine();
        }

        // CheckRegistryVariables:
        // Uses CheckRegistryVariables to display the User and
        // Machine environment variables in the registry.
        static void CheckRegistryVariables()
        {
            String^ subkeyUser = "Environment";
            String^ subkeyMachine = "System\\CurrentControlSet\\"
                "Control\\Session Manager\\Environment";
            String^ subkeyFormat = "\"{0}\" key:";

            Console::WriteLine(subkeyFormat, subkeyUser);
            CheckRegistryVariablesForKey(
                Registry::CurrentUser->OpenSubKey(subkeyUser));

            Console::WriteLine(subkeyFormat, subkeyMachine);
            CheckRegistryVariablesForKey(
                Registry::LocalMachine->OpenSubKey(subkeyMachine));
        }
    };
};

using namespace EnvironmentVariablesSample;

int main()
{
    TestEnvironmentVariables::DoTest();
}

/*
This example produces the following results:

Step 1:
Check whether the environment variables already exist in
the various targets...

Process:
A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.

User:
A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.

Machine:
A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.


Step 2:
Set the environment variable for each target...

(default): Set A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE = "exists in the default target (Process)"
Process: Set B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE = "exists in Process"
User: Set C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE = "exists in User"
Machine: Set D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE = "exists in Machine"

Step 3, part 1:
Display the environment variables in each target...

Process:
B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE exists in Process.
A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE exists in the default target (Process).

User:
C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE exists in User.

Machine:
D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE exists in Machine.


Step 3, part 2:
Check whether the User and Machine environment variables
were created in the Windows operating system registry...

"Environment" key:
C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE exists in User.

"System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Environment" key:
D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE exists in Machine.


Step 4, part 1:
Delete the environment variables created for this sample...

Step 4, part 2:
Check whether the environment variables were deleted
in each target...

Process:
A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.

User:
A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.

Machine:
A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.

Step 4, part 3:
Check whether the User and Machine environment variables
were deleted from the Windows operating system registry...

"Environment" key:
Environment variable doesn't exist.

"System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Environment" key:
Environment variable doesn't exist.
*/


// This example demonstrates the 
//     Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable,
//     Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable, and 
//     Environment.GetEnvironmentVariables overloaded methods.

using System;
using System.Collections;
using Microsoft.Win32;

class Sample 
{
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Globals: 
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    protected static string fmtNameValue = "  {0} {1}.";
    protected static string myVarSuffix = "_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE";

// Four relatively unique environment variable names.
    protected static string myVarA = "A" + myVarSuffix; // default process
    protected static string myVarB = "B" + myVarSuffix; // Current Process
    protected static string myVarC = "C" + myVarSuffix; // Current User
    protected static string myVarD = "D" + myVarSuffix; // Local Machine
//=====================================================================================
// EachVariable: 
// Test whether a specific environment variable exists in a target.
// This section demonstrates Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable.
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    protected static void EachVariable(string var, EnvironmentVariableTarget tgt)
    {
    string str;
    //
    if (0 == tgt)          // Zero means use the default target.
        str = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable(var);
    else
        str = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable(var, tgt);
    Console.WriteLine(fmtNameValue, 
                      var, (String.IsNullOrEmpty(str) ? "doesn't exist" : str));
    }
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// CheckEachVariable: 
// Uses EachVariable to test whether each environment variable exists in a target.
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    protected static void CheckEachVariable()
    {
    Console.WriteLine("Process:");
    EachVariable(myVarA, 0);  // Check the default target (current process)
    EachVariable(myVarB, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process);
    EachVariable(myVarC, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process);
    EachVariable(myVarD, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process);
    Console.WriteLine();

    Console.WriteLine("User:");
    EachVariable(myVarA, EnvironmentVariableTarget.User);
    EachVariable(myVarB, EnvironmentVariableTarget.User);
    EachVariable(myVarC, EnvironmentVariableTarget.User);
    EachVariable(myVarD, EnvironmentVariableTarget.User);
    Console.WriteLine();

    Console.WriteLine("Machine:");
    EachVariable(myVarA, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine);
    EachVariable(myVarB, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine);
    EachVariable(myVarC, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine);
    EachVariable(myVarD, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine);
    Console.WriteLine();
    }
//=====================================================================================
// AllVariables: CheckAllVariables helper function.
// This section demonstrates Environment.GetEnvironmentVariables.
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    private static void AllVariables(EnvironmentVariableTarget tgt)
    {
    string value;
    string key;

    foreach(DictionaryEntry de in Environment.GetEnvironmentVariables(tgt))
        {
        key   = (string)de.Key;
        value = (string)de.Value;
        if (key.Contains(myVarSuffix))
            Console.WriteLine(fmtNameValue, key, value);
        }
    Console.WriteLine();
    }
//=====================================================================================
// CheckAllVariables: 
// Uses AllVariables to test whether each environment variable exists in a target.
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    protected static void CheckAllVariables()
    {
    Console.WriteLine("Process:");
    AllVariables(EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process);

    Console.WriteLine("User:");
    AllVariables(EnvironmentVariableTarget.User);

    Console.WriteLine("Machine:");
    AllVariables(EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine);
    }
//=====================================================================================
// ChkReg: CheckRegistry helper function.
// This function filters out irrelevant environment variables. 
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    private static void ChkReg(RegistryKey rk)
    {
    bool exists = false;
    string registryNone = "  Environment variable doesn't exist.";

    foreach (string s in rk.GetValueNames())
        {
        if (s.Contains(myVarSuffix))
            {
            Console.WriteLine(fmtNameValue, s, (string)rk.GetValue(s));
            exists = true;
            }
        }
    if (exists == false)
        Console.WriteLine(registryNone);
    Console.WriteLine();
    }
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// CheckRegistry: 
// Uses ChkReg to display the User and Machine environment variables in the registry.
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    protected static void CheckRegistry()
    {
    string subkeyU = @"Environment";
    string subkeyM = @"System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Environment";
    string fmtSubkey = "\"{0}\" key:";

    Console.WriteLine(fmtSubkey, subkeyU);
    ChkReg(Registry.CurrentUser.OpenSubKey(subkeyU));

    Console.WriteLine(fmtSubkey, subkeyM);
    ChkReg(Registry.LocalMachine.OpenSubKey(subkeyM));
    }
//=====================================================================================
// Main:
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    public static void Main() 
    {
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Environment variable values
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    string existsA = "exists in the default target (Process)";
    string existsB = "exists in Process";
    string existsC = "exists in User";
    string existsD = "exists in Machine";
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Messages:
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    string msg1  = "Step 1:\n" +
                       "  Check whether the environment variables already exist in \n" + 
                       "  the various targets...\n";
    string msg2  = "Step 2:\n" +
                       "  Set the environment variable for each target...\n";
    string msg31 = "Step 3, part 1:\n" + 
                       "  Display the environment variables in each target...\n";
    string msg32 = "Step 3, part 2:\n" +
                       "  Check whether the User and Machine environment variables \n" +
                       "  were created in the Windows operating system registry...\n";
    string msg41 = "Step 4, part 1:\n" +
                       "  Delete the environment variables created for this sample...\n";
    string msg42 = "Step 4, part 2:\n" +
                       "  Check whether the environment variables were deleted \n" +
                       "  in each target...\n";
    string msg43 = "Step 4, part 3:\n" + 
                       "  Check whether the User and Machine environment variables \n" +
                       "  were deleted from the Windows operating system registry...\n";
    string fmt2x   = "  {0,9}: Set {1} = \"{2}\"";
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Step 1:
// Check whether the sample environment variables already exist.
// WARNING: These variables will be deleted at the end of this sample.
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Console.WriteLine(msg1);
    CheckEachVariable();
    Console.WriteLine();
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Step 2:
// Set the environment variable for each target.
// This section demonstrates Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable.
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Console.WriteLine(msg2);
// Set the environment variable for the default target (the current process).
    Console.WriteLine(fmt2x, "(default)", myVarA, existsA);
    Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(myVarA, existsA);

// Set the environment variable for the current process.
    Console.WriteLine(fmt2x, "Process", myVarB, existsB);
    Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(myVarB, existsB, 
        EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process);

// Set the environment variable for the current user.
    Console.WriteLine(fmt2x, "User", myVarC, existsC);
    Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(myVarC, existsC, 
        EnvironmentVariableTarget.User);

// Set the environment variable for the local machine.
    Console.WriteLine(fmt2x, "Machine", myVarD, existsD);
    Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(myVarD, existsD, 
        EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine);
    Console.WriteLine();
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Step 3, part 1:
// Display the environment variables in each target.
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Console.WriteLine(msg31);
    CheckAllVariables();
    Console.WriteLine();
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Step 3, part 2:
// Check whether the User and Machine environment variables were created in the Windows 
// operating system registry.
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Console.WriteLine(msg32);
    CheckRegistry();
    Console.WriteLine();
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Step 4, part 1:
// Delete the environment variables created for this sample.
// This section demonstrates using Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable to delete an 
// environment variable.
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Console.WriteLine(msg41);
    Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(myVarA, null);
    Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(myVarB, null, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process);
    Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(myVarC, null, EnvironmentVariableTarget.User);
    Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(myVarD, null, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine);
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Step 4, part 2:
// Check whether the environment variables were deleted in each target.
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Console.WriteLine(msg42);
    CheckEachVariable();
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Step 4, part 3:
// Check whether the User and Machine environment variables were deleted from the 
// Windows operating system registry.
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Console.WriteLine(msg43);
    CheckRegistry();
    }
}
/*
This example produces the following results:

Step 1:
  Check whether the environment variables already exist in
  the various targets...

Process:
  A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
  B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
  C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
  D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.

User:
  A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
  B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
  C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
  D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.

Machine:
  A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
  B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
  C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
  D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.


Step 2:
  Set the environment variable for each target...

  (default): Set A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE = "exists in the default target (Process)"
    Process: Set B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE = "exists in Process"
       User: Set C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE = "exists in User"
    Machine: Set D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE = "exists in Machine"

Step 3, part 1:
  Display the environment variables in each target...

Process:
  B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE exists in Process.
  A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE exists in the default target (Process).

User:
  C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE exists in User.

Machine:
  D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE exists in Machine.


Step 3, part 2:
  Check whether the User and Machine environment variables
  were created in the Windows operating system registry...

"Environment" key:
  C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE exists in User.

"System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Environment" key:
  D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE exists in Machine.


Step 4, part 1:
  Delete the environment variables created for this sample...

Step 4, part 2:
  Check whether the environment variables were deleted
  in each target...

Process:
  A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
  B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
  C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
  D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.

User:
  A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
  B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
  C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
  D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.

Machine:
  A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
  B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
  C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
  D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.

Step 4, part 3:
  Check whether the User and Machine environment variables
  were deleted from the Windows operating system registry...

"Environment" key:
  Environment variable doesn't exist.

"System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Environment" key:
  Environment variable doesn't exist.
*/
' This example demonstrates the 
'     Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable,
'     Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable, and 
'     Environment.GetEnvironmentVariables overloaded methods.
Imports System
Imports System.Collections
Imports Microsoft.Win32
Imports Microsoft.VisualBasic

Class Sample
   '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   ' Globals: 
   '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Protected Shared fmtNameValue As String = "  {0} {1}."
   Protected Shared myVarSuffix As String = "_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE"
   
   ' Four relatively unique environment variable names.
   Protected Shared myVarA As String = "A" & myVarSuffix ' default process
   Protected Shared myVarB As String = "B" & myVarSuffix ' Current Process
   Protected Shared myVarC As String = "C" & myVarSuffix ' Current User
   Protected Shared myVarD As String = "D" & myVarSuffix ' Local Machine
   '=====================================================================================
   ' EachVariable: 
   ' Test whether a specific environment variable exists in a target.
   ' This section demonstrates Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable.
   '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Protected Shared Sub EachVariable(var As String, tgt As EnvironmentVariableTarget)
      Dim str As String
      '
      If 0 = tgt Then ' Zero means use the default target.
         str = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable(var)
      Else
         str = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable(var, tgt)
      End If
      Console.WriteLine(fmtNameValue, var, IIf(String.IsNullOrEmpty(str), _
                                              "doesn't exist", str))
   End Sub 'EachVariable
   
   '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   ' CheckEachVariable: 
   ' Uses EachVariable to test whether each environment variable exists in a target.
   '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Protected Shared Sub CheckEachVariable()
      Console.WriteLine("Process:")
      EachVariable(myVarA, 0) ' Check the default target (current process)
      EachVariable(myVarB, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process)
      EachVariable(myVarC, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process)
      EachVariable(myVarD, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process)
      Console.WriteLine()
      
      Console.WriteLine("User:")
      EachVariable(myVarA, EnvironmentVariableTarget.User)
      EachVariable(myVarB, EnvironmentVariableTarget.User)
      EachVariable(myVarC, EnvironmentVariableTarget.User)
      EachVariable(myVarD, EnvironmentVariableTarget.User)
      Console.WriteLine()
      
      Console.WriteLine("Machine:")
      EachVariable(myVarA, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine)
      EachVariable(myVarB, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine)
      EachVariable(myVarC, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine)
      EachVariable(myVarD, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine)
      Console.WriteLine()
   End Sub 'CheckEachVariable
   
   '=====================================================================================
   ' AllVariables: CheckAllVariables helper function.
   ' This section demonstrates Environment.GetEnvironmentVariables.
   '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Private Shared Sub AllVariables(tgt As EnvironmentVariableTarget)
      Dim value As String
      Dim key As String
      
      Dim de As DictionaryEntry
      For Each de In Environment.GetEnvironmentVariables(tgt)
         key = CStr(de.Key)
         value = CStr(de.Value)
         If key.Contains(myVarSuffix) Then
            Console.WriteLine(fmtNameValue, key, value)
         End If
      Next de
      Console.WriteLine()
   End Sub 'AllVariables
   
   '=====================================================================================
   ' CheckAllVariables: 
   ' Uses AllVariables to test whether each environment variable exists in a target.
   '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Protected Shared Sub CheckAllVariables()
      Console.WriteLine("Process:")
      AllVariables(EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process)
      
      Console.WriteLine("User:")
      AllVariables(EnvironmentVariableTarget.User)
      
      Console.WriteLine("Machine:")
      AllVariables(EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine)
   End Sub 'CheckAllVariables
   
   '=====================================================================================
   ' ChkReg: CheckRegistry helper function.
   ' This function filters out irrelevant environment variables. 
   '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Private Shared Sub ChkReg(rk As RegistryKey)
      Dim exists As Boolean = False
      Dim registryNone As String = "  Environment variable doesn't exist."
      
      Dim s As String
      For Each s In rk.GetValueNames()
         If s.Contains(myVarSuffix) Then
            Console.WriteLine(fmtNameValue, s, CStr(rk.GetValue(s)))
            exists = True
         End If
      Next s
      If exists = False Then
         Console.WriteLine(registryNone)
      End If
      Console.WriteLine()
   End Sub 'ChkReg
   
   '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   ' CheckRegistry: 
   ' Uses ChkReg to display the User and Machine environment variables in the registry.
   '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Protected Shared Sub CheckRegistry()
      Dim subkeyU As String = "Environment"
      Dim subkeyM As String = "System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Environment"
      Dim fmtSubkey As String = """{0}"" key:"
      
      Console.WriteLine(fmtSubkey, subkeyU)
      ChkReg(Registry.CurrentUser.OpenSubKey(subkeyU))
      
      Console.WriteLine(fmtSubkey, subkeyM)
      ChkReg(Registry.LocalMachine.OpenSubKey(subkeyM))
   End Sub 'CheckRegistry
   
   '=====================================================================================
   ' Main:
   '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Public Shared Sub Main()
      '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      ' Environment variable values
      '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Dim existsA As String = "exists in the default target (Process)"
      Dim existsB As String = "exists in Process"
      Dim existsC As String = "exists in User"
      Dim existsD As String = "exists in Machine"
      '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      ' Messages:
      '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Dim msg1  As String = "Step 1:" & vbCrLf & _
                            "  Check whether the environment variables already exist in " _
                 & vbCrLf & "  the various targets..." & vbCrLf
      Dim msg2  As String = "Step 2:" & vbCrLf & _
                            "  Set the environment variable for each target..." & vbCrLf
      Dim msg31 As String = "Step 3, part 1:" & vbCrLf & _
                            "  Display the environment variables in each target..." & vbCrLf
      Dim msg32 As String = "Step 3, part 2:" & vbCrLf & _
                            "  Check whether the User and Machine environment variables " _
                 & vbCrLf & "  were created in the Windows operating system registry..." _
                 & vbCrLf
      Dim msg41 As String = "Step 4, part 1:" & vbCrLf & _
                            "  Delete the environment variables created for this sample..." _
                 & vbCrLf
      Dim msg42 As String = "Step 4, part 2:" & vbCrLf & _
                            "  Check whether the environment variables were deleted " _
                 & vbCrLf & "  in each target..." & vbCrLf
      Dim msg43 As String = "Step 4, part 3:" & vbCrLf & _
                            "  Check whether the User and Machine environment variables " _
                 & vbCrLf & "  were deleted from the Windows operating system registry..." _
                 & vbCrLf
      Dim fmt2x As String = "  {0,9}: Set {1} = ""{2}"""
      '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      ' Step 1:
      ' Check whether the sample environment variables already exist.
      ' WARNING: These variables will be deleted at the end of this sample.
      '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Console.WriteLine(msg1)
      CheckEachVariable()
      Console.WriteLine()
      '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      ' Step 2:
      ' Set the environment variable for each target.
      ' This section demonstrates Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable.
      '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Console.WriteLine(msg2)
      ' Set the environment variable for the default target (the current process).
      Console.WriteLine(fmt2x, "(default)", myVarA, existsA)
      Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(myVarA, existsA)
      
      ' Set the environment variable for the current process.
      Console.WriteLine(fmt2x, "Process", myVarB, existsB)
      Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(myVarB, existsB, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process)
      
      ' Set the environment variable for the current user.
      Console.WriteLine(fmt2x, "User", myVarC, existsC)
      Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(myVarC, existsC, EnvironmentVariableTarget.User)
      
      ' Set the environment variable for the local machine.
      Console.WriteLine(fmt2x, "Machine", myVarD, existsD)
      Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(myVarD, existsD, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine)
      Console.WriteLine()
      '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      ' Step 3, part 1:
      ' Display the environment variables in each target.
      '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Console.WriteLine(msg31)
      CheckAllVariables()
      Console.WriteLine()
      '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      ' Step 3, part 2:
      ' Check whether the User and Machine environment variables were created in the Windows 
      ' operating system registry.
      '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Console.WriteLine(msg32)
      CheckRegistry()
      Console.WriteLine()
      '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      ' Step 4, part 1:
      ' Delete the environment variables created for this sample.
      ' This section demonstrates using Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable to delete an 
      ' environment variable.
      '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Console.WriteLine(msg41)
      Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(myVarA, Nothing)
      Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(myVarB, Nothing, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process)
      Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(myVarC, Nothing, EnvironmentVariableTarget.User)
      Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(myVarD, Nothing, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine)
      '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      ' Step 4, part 2:
      ' Check whether the environment variables were deleted in each target.
      '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Console.WriteLine(msg42)
      CheckEachVariable()
      '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      ' Step 4, part 3:
      ' Check whether the User and Machine environment variables were deleted from the 
      ' Windows operating system registry.
      '-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Console.WriteLine(msg43)
      CheckRegistry()
   End Sub 'Main
End Class 'Sample
'
'This example produces the following results:
'
'Step 1:
'  Check whether the environment variables already exist in
'  the various targets...
'
'Process:
'  A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'  B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'  C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'  D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'
'User:
'  A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'  B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'  C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'  D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'
'Machine:
'  A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'  B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'  C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'  D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'
'
'Step 2:
'  Set the environment variable for each target...
'
'  (default): Set A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE = "exists in the default target (Process)"
'    Process: Set B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE = "exists in Process"
'       User: Set C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE = "exists in User"
'    Machine: Set D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE = "exists in Machine"
'
'Step 3, part 1:
'  Display the environment variables in each target...
'
'Process:
'  B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE exists in Process.
'  A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE exists in the default target (Process).
'
'User:
'  C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE exists in User.
'
'Machine:
'  D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE exists in Machine.
'
'
'Step 3, part 2:
'  Check whether the User and Machine environment variables
'  were created in the Windows operating system registry...
'
'"Environment" key:
'  C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE exists in User.
'
'"System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Environment" key:
'  D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE exists in Machine.
'
'
'Step 4, part 1:
'  Delete the environment variables created for this sample...
'
'Step 4, part 2:
'  Check whether the environment variables were deleted
'  in each target...
'
'Process:
'  A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'  B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'  C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'  D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'
'User:
'  A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'  B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'  C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'  D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'
'Machine:
'  A_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'  B_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'  C_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'  D_GETSET_ENVAR_SAMPLE doesn't exist.
'
'Step 4, part 3:
'  Check whether the User and Machine environment variables
'  were deleted from the Windows operating system registry...
'
'"Environment" key:
'  Environment variable doesn't exist.
'
'"System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Environment" key:
'  Environment variable doesn't exist.
'

Remarks

The SetEnvironmentVariable(String, String, EnvironmentVariableTarget) method lets you define an environment variable that is available to the current process (the Process value). Environment variables that are unique to the current process environment block persist only until the process ends.

In addition, on Windows systems only, the SetEnvironmentVariable(String, String, EnvironmentVariableTarget) method lets you define an environment variable that is available to all processes that run on a machine (the EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine value) and to all processes run by a user (the EnvironmentVariableTarget.User value). Per-machine and per-user environment variables are copied into the environment block of the current process.

On .NET Core on maxOS and Linux systems, calls to the SetEnvironmentVariable(String, String, EnvironmentVariableTarget) method with a value of EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine or EnvironmentVariableTarget.User are ignored.

If the value argument is not empty (see the discussion of deleting an environment variable later in this section for the definition of an empty value) and the environment variable named by the variable argument does not exist, the environment variable is created and assigned the contents of value. If it does exist, its value is modified.

If variable contains a non-initial hexadecimal zero character, the characters before the zero character are considered the environment variable name and all subsequent characters are ignored.

If value contains a non-initial hexadecimal zero character, the characters before the zero character are assigned to the environment variable and all subsequent characters are ignored.

If value is empty and the environment variable named by variable exists, the environment variable is deleted. value is considered empty under any of the following conditions:

  • It is null.

  • It is String.Empty.

  • It consists of a single character whose value is U+0000.

If variable does not exist, no error occurs although the operation cannot be performed. Be careful when target is Machine, because you can accidentally delete an environment variable that affects your entire local machine, not just the current process or user.

EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine and EnvironmentVariableTarget.User on Windows systems

If target is EnvironmentVariableTarget.User, the environment variable is stored in the HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Environment key of the local computer's registry. It is also copied to instances of File Explorer that are running as the current user. The environment variable is then inherited by any new processes that the user launches from File Explorer.

Similarly, if target is EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine, the environment variable is stored in the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\ControlSet001\Control\Session Manager\Environment key of the local computer's registry. It is also copied to all instances of File Explorer. The environment variable is then inherited by any new processes that are launched from File Explorer.

If target is User or Machine, other applications are notified of the set operation by a Windows WM_SETTINGCHANGE message.

If target is EnvironmentVariableTarget.User or EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine, we recommend that the length of value be less than 2048 characters.

Security

EnvironmentPermission
for full access to environment variables. Associated enumeration: Unrestricted

See Also

Applies to