DeflateStream Class

Definition

Provides methods and properties for compressing and decompressing streams by using the Deflate algorithm.

public ref class DeflateStream : System::IO::Stream
public class DeflateStream : System.IO.Stream
type DeflateStream = class
    inherit Stream
Public Class DeflateStream
Inherits Stream
Inheritance
DeflateStream
Inheritance

Remarks

This class represents the Deflate algorithm, which is an industry-standard algorithm for lossless file compression and decompression. Starting with the .NET Framework 4.5, the DeflateStream class uses the zlib library. As a result, it provides a better compression algorithm and, in most cases, a smaller compressed file than it provides in earlier versions of the .NET Framework.

This class does not inherently provide functionality for adding files to or extracting files from zip archives. To work with zip archives, use the ZipArchive and the ZipArchiveEntry classes.

The DeflateStream class uses the same compression algorithm as the gzip data format used by the GZipStream class.

The compression functionality in DeflateStream and GZipStream is exposed as a stream. Data is read on a byte-by-byte basis, so it is not possible to perform multiple passes to determine the best method for compressing entire files or large blocks of data. The DeflateStream and GZipStream classes are best used on uncompressed sources of data. If the source data is already compressed, using these classes may actually increase the size of the stream.

Examples

The following example shows how to use the DeflateStream class to compress and decompress a file.

using System;
using System.IO;
using System.IO.Compression;

public static class FileCompressionModeExample
{
    private const string Message = "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.";
    private const string OriginalFileName = "original.txt";
    private const string CompressedFileName = "compressed.dfl";
    private const string DecompressedFileName = "decompressed.txt";

    public static void Main()
    {
        CreateFileToCompress();
        CompressFile();
        DecompressFile();
        PrintResults();
        DeleteFiles();

        /*
         Output:

            The original file 'original.txt' weighs 445 bytes. Contents: "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum."

            The compressed file 'compressed.dfl' weighs 265 bytes.

            The decompressed file 'decompressed.txt' weighs 445 bytes. Contents: "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum."
         */
    }

    private static void CreateFileToCompress() => File.WriteAllText(OriginalFileName, Message);

    private static void CompressFile()
    {
        using FileStream originalFileStream = File.Open(OriginalFileName, FileMode.Open);
        using FileStream compressedFileStream = File.Create(CompressedFileName);
        using var compressor = new DeflateStream(compressedFileStream, CompressionMode.Compress);
        originalFileStream.CopyTo(compressor);
    }

    private static void DecompressFile()
    {
        using FileStream compressedFileStream = File.Open(CompressedFileName, FileMode.Open);
        using FileStream outputFileStream = File.Create(DecompressedFileName);
        using var decompressor = new DeflateStream(compressedFileStream, CompressionMode.Decompress);
        decompressor.CopyTo(outputFileStream);
    }

    private static void PrintResults()
    {
        long originalSize = new FileInfo(OriginalFileName).Length;
        long compressedSize = new FileInfo(CompressedFileName).Length;
        long decompressedSize = new FileInfo(DecompressedFileName).Length;
        
        Console.WriteLine($"The original file '{OriginalFileName}' weighs {originalSize} bytes. Contents: \"{File.ReadAllText(OriginalFileName)}\"");
        Console.WriteLine($"The compressed file '{CompressedFileName}' weighs {compressedSize} bytes.");
        Console.WriteLine($"The decompressed file '{DecompressedFileName}' weighs {decompressedSize} bytes. Contents: \"{File.ReadAllText(DecompressedFileName)}\"");
    }

    private static void DeleteFiles()
    {
        File.Delete(OriginalFileName);
        File.Delete(CompressedFileName);
        File.Delete(DecompressedFileName);
    }
}
Imports System.IO
Imports System.IO.Compression

Module FileCompressionModeExample
    Private Const Message As String = "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum."
    Private Const OriginalFileName As String = "original.txt"
    Private Const CompressedFileName As String = "compressed.dfl"
    Private Const DecompressedFileName As String = "decompressed.txt"

    Sub Main()
        CreateFileToCompress()
        CompressFile()
        DecompressFile()
        PrintResults()
        DeleteFiles()

        'Output:

        '   The original file 'original.txt' weighs 445 bytes. Contents: "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum."

        '   The compressed file 'compressed.dfl' weighs 265 bytes.

        '   The decompressed file 'decompressed.txt' weighs 445 bytes. Contents: "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum."

    End Sub

    Private Sub CreateFileToCompress()
        File.WriteAllText(OriginalFileName, Message)
    End Sub

    Private Sub CompressFile()
        Using originalFileStream As FileStream = File.Open(OriginalFileName, FileMode.Open)
            Using compressedFileStream As FileStream = File.Create(CompressedFileName)
                Using compressor = New DeflateStream(compressedFileStream, CompressionMode.Compress)
                    originalFileStream.CopyTo(compressor)
                End Using
            End Using
        End Using
    End Sub

    Private Sub DecompressFile()
        Using compressedFileStream As FileStream = File.Open(CompressedFileName, FileMode.Open)
            Using outputFileStream As FileStream = File.Create(DecompressedFileName)
                Using decompressor = New DeflateStream(compressedFileStream, CompressionMode.Decompress)
                    decompressor.CopyTo(outputFileStream)
                End Using
            End Using
        End Using
    End Sub

    Private Sub PrintResults()
        Dim originalSize As Long = New FileInfo(OriginalFileName).Length
        Dim compressedSize As Long = New FileInfo(CompressedFileName).Length
        Dim decompressedSize As Long = New FileInfo(DecompressedFileName).Length

        Console.WriteLine($"The original file '{OriginalFileName}' weighs {originalSize} bytes. Contents: ""{File.ReadAllText(OriginalFileName)}""")
        Console.WriteLine($"The compressed file '{CompressedFileName}' weighs {compressedSize} bytes.")
        Console.WriteLine($"The decompressed file '{DecompressedFileName}' weighs {decompressedSize} bytes. Contents: ""{File.ReadAllText(DecompressedFileName)}""")
    End Sub

    Private Sub DeleteFiles()
        File.Delete(OriginalFileName)
        File.Delete(CompressedFileName)
        File.Delete(DecompressedFileName)
    End Sub
End Module

Constructors

DeflateStream(Stream, CompressionLevel)

Initializes a new instance of the DeflateStream class by using the specified stream and compression level.

DeflateStream(Stream, CompressionLevel, Boolean)

Initializes a new instance of the DeflateStream class by using the specified stream and compression level, and optionally leaves the stream open.

DeflateStream(Stream, CompressionMode)

Initializes a new instance of the DeflateStream class by using the specified stream and compression mode.

DeflateStream(Stream, CompressionMode, Boolean)

Initializes a new instance of the DeflateStream class by using the specified stream and compression mode, and optionally leaves the stream open.

Properties

BaseStream

Gets a reference to the underlying stream.

CanRead

Gets a value indicating whether the stream supports reading while decompressing a file.

CanSeek

Gets a value indicating whether the stream supports seeking.

CanTimeout

Gets a value that determines whether the current stream can time out.

(Inherited from Stream)
CanWrite

Gets a value indicating whether the stream supports writing.

Length

This property is not supported and always throws a NotSupportedException.

Position

This property is not supported and always throws a NotSupportedException.

ReadTimeout

Gets or sets a value, in milliseconds, that determines how long the stream will attempt to read before timing out.

(Inherited from Stream)
WriteTimeout

Gets or sets a value, in milliseconds, that determines how long the stream will attempt to write before timing out.

(Inherited from Stream)

Methods

BeginRead(Byte[], Int32, Int32, AsyncCallback, Object)

Begins an asynchronous read operation. (Consider using the ReadAsync(Byte[], Int32, Int32) method instead.)

BeginRead(Byte[], Int32, Int32, AsyncCallback, Object)

Begins an asynchronous read operation. (Consider using ReadAsync(Byte[], Int32, Int32) instead.)

(Inherited from Stream)
BeginWrite(Byte[], Int32, Int32, AsyncCallback, Object)

Begins an asynchronous write operation. (Consider using the WriteAsync(Byte[], Int32, Int32) method instead.)

BeginWrite(Byte[], Int32, Int32, AsyncCallback, Object)

Begins an asynchronous write operation. (Consider using WriteAsync(Byte[], Int32, Int32) instead.)

(Inherited from Stream)
Close()

Closes the current stream and releases any resources (such as sockets and file handles) associated with the current stream. Instead of calling this method, ensure that the stream is properly disposed.

(Inherited from Stream)
CopyTo(Stream)

Reads the bytes from the current stream and writes them to another stream. Both streams positions are advanced by the number of bytes copied.

(Inherited from Stream)
CopyTo(Stream, Int32)

Reads the bytes from the current Deflate stream and writes them to another stream, using a specified buffer size.

CopyTo(Stream, Int32)

Reads the bytes from the current stream and writes them to another stream, using a specified buffer size. Both streams positions are advanced by the number of bytes copied.

(Inherited from Stream)
CopyToAsync(Stream)

Asynchronously reads the bytes from the current stream and writes them to another stream. Both streams positions are advanced by the number of bytes copied.

(Inherited from Stream)
CopyToAsync(Stream, CancellationToken)

Asynchronously reads the bytes from the current stream and writes them to another stream, using a specified cancellation token. Both streams positions are advanced by the number of bytes copied.

(Inherited from Stream)
CopyToAsync(Stream, Int32)

Asynchronously reads the bytes from the current stream and writes them to another stream, using a specified buffer size. Both streams positions are advanced by the number of bytes copied.

(Inherited from Stream)
CopyToAsync(Stream, Int32, CancellationToken)

Asynchronously reads the bytes from the current Deflate stream and writes them to another stream, using a specified buffer size.

CopyToAsync(Stream, Int32, CancellationToken)

Asynchronously reads the bytes from the current stream and writes them to another stream, using a specified buffer size and cancellation token. Both streams positions are advanced by the number of bytes copied.

(Inherited from Stream)
CreateObjRef(Type)

Creates an object that contains all the relevant information required to generate a proxy used to communicate with a remote object.

(Inherited from MarshalByRefObject)
CreateWaitHandle()
Obsolete.
Obsolete.
Obsolete.

Allocates a WaitHandle object.

(Inherited from Stream)
Dispose()

Releases all resources used by the Stream.

(Inherited from Stream)
Dispose(Boolean)

Releases the unmanaged resources used by the DeflateStream and optionally releases the managed resources.

DisposeAsync()

Asynchronously releases the unmanaged resources used by the DeflateStream.

DisposeAsync()

Asynchronously releases the unmanaged resources used by the Stream.

(Inherited from Stream)
EndRead(IAsyncResult)

Waits for the pending asynchronous read to complete. (Consider using the ReadAsync(Byte[], Int32, Int32) method instead.)

EndRead(IAsyncResult)

Waits for the pending asynchronous read to complete. (Consider using ReadAsync(Byte[], Int32, Int32) instead.)

(Inherited from Stream)
EndWrite(IAsyncResult)

Ends an asynchronous write operation. (Consider using the WriteAsync(Byte[], Int32, Int32) method instead.)

EndWrite(IAsyncResult)

Ends an asynchronous write operation. (Consider using WriteAsync(Byte[], Int32, Int32) instead.)

(Inherited from Stream)
Equals(Object)

Determines whether the specified object is equal to the current object.

(Inherited from Object)
Flush()

The current implementation of this method has no functionality.

FlushAsync()

Asynchronously clears all buffers for this stream and causes any buffered data to be written to the underlying device.

(Inherited from Stream)
FlushAsync(CancellationToken)

Asynchronously clears all buffers for this Deflate stream, causes any buffered data to be written to the underlying device, and monitors cancellation requests.

FlushAsync(CancellationToken)

Asynchronously clears all buffers for this stream, causes any buffered data to be written to the underlying device, and monitors cancellation requests.

(Inherited from Stream)
GetHashCode()

Serves as the default hash function.

(Inherited from Object)
GetLifetimeService()
Obsolete.

Retrieves the current lifetime service object that controls the lifetime policy for this instance.

(Inherited from MarshalByRefObject)
GetType()

Gets the Type of the current instance.

(Inherited from Object)
InitializeLifetimeService()
Obsolete.

Obtains a lifetime service object to control the lifetime policy for this instance.

(Inherited from MarshalByRefObject)
MemberwiseClone()

Creates a shallow copy of the current Object.

(Inherited from Object)
MemberwiseClone(Boolean)

Creates a shallow copy of the current MarshalByRefObject object.

(Inherited from MarshalByRefObject)
ObjectInvariant()
Obsolete.

Provides support for a Contract.

(Inherited from Stream)
Read(Byte[], Int32, Int32)

Reads a number of decompressed bytes into the specified byte array.

Read(Span<Byte>)

Reads a sequence of bytes from the current Deflate stream into a byte span and advances the position within the Deflate stream by the number of bytes read.

Read(Span<Byte>)

When overridden in a derived class, reads a sequence of bytes from the current stream and advances the position within the stream by the number of bytes read.

(Inherited from Stream)
ReadAsync(Byte[], Int32, Int32)

Asynchronously reads a sequence of bytes from the current stream and advances the position within the stream by the number of bytes read.

(Inherited from Stream)
ReadAsync(Byte[], Int32, Int32, CancellationToken)

Asynchronously reads a sequence of bytes from the current Deflate stream, writes them to a byte array, advances the position within the Deflate stream by the number of bytes read, and monitors cancellation requests.

ReadAsync(Byte[], Int32, Int32, CancellationToken)

Asynchronously reads a sequence of bytes from the current stream, advances the position within the stream by the number of bytes read, and monitors cancellation requests.

(Inherited from Stream)
ReadAsync(Memory<Byte>, CancellationToken)

Asynchronously reads a sequence of bytes from the current Deflate stream, writes them to a byte memory range, advances the position within the Deflate stream by the number of bytes read, and monitors cancellation requests.

ReadAsync(Memory<Byte>, CancellationToken)

Asynchronously reads a sequence of bytes from the current stream, advances the position within the stream by the number of bytes read, and monitors cancellation requests.

(Inherited from Stream)
ReadAtLeast(Span<Byte>, Int32, Boolean) (Inherited from Stream)
ReadAtLeastAsync(Memory<Byte>, Int32, Boolean, CancellationToken) (Inherited from Stream)
ReadByte()

Reads a byte from the Deflate stream and advances the position within the stream by one byte, or returns -1 if at the end of the Deflate stream.

ReadByte()

Reads a byte from the stream and advances the position within the stream by one byte, or returns -1 if at the end of the stream.

(Inherited from Stream)
ReadExactly(Byte[], Int32, Int32) (Inherited from Stream)
ReadExactly(Span<Byte>) (Inherited from Stream)
ReadExactlyAsync(Byte[], Int32, Int32, CancellationToken) (Inherited from Stream)
ReadExactlyAsync(Memory<Byte>, CancellationToken) (Inherited from Stream)
Seek(Int64, SeekOrigin)

This operation is not supported and always throws a NotSupportedException.

SetLength(Int64)

This operation is not supported and always throws a NotSupportedException.

ToString()

Returns a string that represents the current object.

(Inherited from Object)
Write(Byte[], Int32, Int32)

Writes compressed bytes to the underlying stream from the specified byte array.

Write(ReadOnlySpan<Byte>)

Writes a sequence of bytes to the current Deflate stream and advances the current position within this Deflate stream by the number of bytes written.

Write(ReadOnlySpan<Byte>)

When overridden in a derived class, writes a sequence of bytes to the current stream and advances the current position within this stream by the number of bytes written.

(Inherited from Stream)
WriteAsync(Byte[], Int32, Int32)

Asynchronously writes a sequence of bytes to the current stream and advances the current position within this stream by the number of bytes written.

(Inherited from Stream)
WriteAsync(Byte[], Int32, Int32, CancellationToken)

Asynchronously writes compressed bytes to the underlying Deflate stream from the specified byte array.

WriteAsync(Byte[], Int32, Int32, CancellationToken)

Asynchronously writes a sequence of bytes to the current stream, advances the current position within this stream by the number of bytes written, and monitors cancellation requests.

(Inherited from Stream)
WriteAsync(ReadOnlyMemory<Byte>, CancellationToken)

Asynchronously writes compressed bytes to the underlying Deflate stream from the specified read-only memory region.

WriteAsync(ReadOnlyMemory<Byte>, CancellationToken)

Asynchronously writes a sequence of bytes to the current stream, advances the current position within this stream by the number of bytes written, and monitors cancellation requests.

(Inherited from Stream)
WriteByte(Byte)
WriteByte(Byte)

Writes a byte to the current position in the stream and advances the position within the stream by one byte.

(Inherited from Stream)

Extension Methods

AsInputStream(Stream)

Converts a managed stream in the .NET for Windows Store apps to an input stream in the Windows Runtime.

AsOutputStream(Stream)

Converts a managed stream in the .NET for Windows Store apps to an output stream in the Windows Runtime.

AsRandomAccessStream(Stream)

Converts the specified stream to a random access stream.

ConfigureAwait(IAsyncDisposable, Boolean)

Configures how awaits on the tasks returned from an async disposable are performed.

Applies to