Random Random Random Random Constructors

Definition

Overloads

Random() Random() Random()

Initializes a new instance of the Random class, using a time-dependent default seed value.

Random(Int32) Random(Int32) Random(Int32) Random(Int32)

Initializes a new instance of the Random class, using the specified seed value.

Random() Random() Random()

Initializes a new instance of the Random class, using a time-dependent default seed value.

public:
 Random();
public Random ();
Public Sub New ()

Examples

The following example uses the default constructor to instantiate three Random objects and displays a sequence of five random integers for each. Because the first two Random objects are created in close succession, they are instantiated using identical seed values based on the system clock and, therefore, they produce an identical sequence of random numbers. On the other hand, the default constructor of the third Random object is called after a two-second delay caused by calling the Thread.Sleep method. Because this produces a different seed value for the third Random object, it produces a different sequence of random numbers.

using System;
using System.Threading;

public class RandomNumbers
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      Random rand1 = new Random();
      Random rand2 = new Random();
      Thread.Sleep(2000);
      Random rand3 = new Random();
      ShowRandomNumbers(rand1);
      ShowRandomNumbers(rand2);
      ShowRandomNumbers(rand3);
   }

   private static void ShowRandomNumbers(Random rand)
   {
      Console.WriteLine();
      byte[] values = new byte[5];
      rand.NextBytes(values);
      foreach (byte value in values)
         Console.Write("{0, 5}", value);
      Console.WriteLine();   
   }
}
// The example displays the following output to the console:
//       28   35  133  224   58
//    
//       28   35  133  224   58
//    
//       32  222   43  251   49
Imports System.Threading

Module RandomNumbers
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim rand1 As New Random()
      Dim rand2 As New Random()
      Thread.Sleep(2000)
      Dim rand3 As New Random()
      ShowRandomNumbers(rand1)
      ShowRandomNumbers(rand2)
      ShowRandomNumbers(rand3)
   End Sub
   
   Private Sub ShowRandomNumbers(rand As Random)
      Console.WriteLine()
      Dim values(4) As Byte
      rand.NextBytes(values)
      For Each value As Byte In values
         Console.Write("{0, 5}", value)
      Next      
      Console.WriteLine() 
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays the following output to the console:
'       28   35  133  224   58
'    
'       28   35  133  224   58
'    
'       32  222   43  251   49

Remarks

The default seed value is derived from the system clock and has finite resolution. As a result, different Random objects that are created in close succession by a call to the default constructor will have identical default seed values and, therefore, will produce identical sets of random numbers. This problem can be avoided by using a single Random object to generate all random numbers. You can also work around it by modifying the seed value returned by the system clock and then explicitly providing this new seed value to the Random(Int32) constructor. For more information, see the Random(Int32) constructor.

Call this constructor if you want your random number generator to generate a random sequence of numbers. To generate a fixed sequence of random numbers that will be the same for different random number generators, call the Random(Int32) constructor with a fixed seed value . This Random constructor overload is frequently used when testing apps that use random numbers.

Once you've instantiated the random number generator, you call individual Random methods, such as Next() or NextDouble(), to generate random numbers.

Random(Int32) Random(Int32) Random(Int32) Random(Int32)

Initializes a new instance of the Random class, using the specified seed value.

public:
 Random(int Seed);
public Random (int Seed);
new Random : int -> Random
Public Sub New (Seed As Integer)

Parameters

Seed
Int32 Int32 Int32 Int32

A number used to calculate a starting value for the pseudo-random number sequence. If a negative number is specified, the absolute value of the number is used.

Examples

The following example creates Random objects with the class constructor that takes a seed parameter and generates a sequence of random integers and doubles. The example illustrates that the same sequence is generated when the Random object is created again with the constructor and seed parameter.

// Example of the Random class constructors and Random::NextDouble( ) 
// method.
using namespace System;
using namespace System::Threading;

// Generate random numbers from the specified Random object.
void RunIntNDoubleRandoms( Random^ randObj )
{
   
   // Generate the first six random integers.
   for ( int j = 0; j < 6; j++ )
      Console::Write( " {0,10} ", randObj->Next() );
   Console::WriteLine();
   
   // Generate the first six random doubles.
   for ( int j = 0; j < 6; j++ )
      Console::Write( " {0:F8} ", randObj->NextDouble() );
   Console::WriteLine();
}


// Create a Random object with the specified seed.
void FixedSeedRandoms( int seed )
{
   Console::WriteLine( "\nRandom numbers from a Random object with seed = {0}:", seed );
   Random^ fixRand = gcnew Random( seed );
   RunIntNDoubleRandoms( fixRand );
}


// Create a random object with a timer-generated seed.
void AutoSeedRandoms()
{
   
   // Wait to allow the timer to advance.
   Thread::Sleep( 1 );
   Console::WriteLine( "\nRandom numbers from a Random object "
   "with an auto-generated seed:" );
   Random^ autoRand = gcnew Random;
   RunIntNDoubleRandoms( autoRand );
}

int main()
{
   Console::WriteLine( "This example of the Random class constructors and Random"
   "::NextDouble( ) \ngenerates the following output.\n" );
   Console::WriteLine( "Create Random objects, and then generate and "
   "display six integers and \nsix doubles from each." );
   FixedSeedRandoms( 123 );
   FixedSeedRandoms( 123 );
   FixedSeedRandoms( 456 );
   FixedSeedRandoms( 456 );
   AutoSeedRandoms();
   AutoSeedRandoms();
   AutoSeedRandoms();
}

/*
This example of the Random class constructors and Random::NextDouble( )
generates the following output.

Create Random objects, and then generate and display six integers and
six doubles from each.

Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 123:
 2114319875  1949518561  1596751841  1742987178  1586516133   103755708
 0.01700087  0.14935942  0.19470390  0.63008947  0.90976122  0.49519146

Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 123:
 2114319875  1949518561  1596751841  1742987178  1586516133   103755708
 0.01700087  0.14935942  0.19470390  0.63008947  0.90976122  0.49519146

Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 456:
 2044805024  1323311594  1087799997  1907260840   179380355   120870348
 0.21988117  0.21026556  0.39236514  0.42420498  0.24102703  0.47310170

Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 456:
 2044805024  1323311594  1087799997  1907260840   179380355   120870348
 0.21988117  0.21026556  0.39236514  0.42420498  0.24102703  0.47310170

Random numbers from a Random object with an auto-generated seed:
 1624372556  1894939458   302472229   588108304    23919954  1085111949
 0.14595512  0.30162298  0.92267372  0.55707657  0.25430079  0.74143239

Random numbers from a Random object with an auto-generated seed:
 2105952511  1753605347   280739490   876793040  1129567796   524571616
 0.62652210  0.31846701  0.15984073  0.24458755  0.62160607  0.54857684

Random numbers from a Random object with an auto-generated seed:
  440048819  1612271236   259006751  1165477776    87731991  2111514930
 0.10708907  0.33531104  0.39700773  0.93209853  0.98891135  0.35572129
*/
// Example of the Random class constructors and Random.NextDouble( ) 
// method.
using System;
using System.Threading;

public class RandomObjectDemo  
{
    // Generate random numbers from the specified Random object.
    static void RunIntNDoubleRandoms( Random randObj )
    {
        // Generate the first six random integers.
        for( int j = 0; j < 6; j++ )
            Console.Write( " {0,10} ", randObj.Next( ) );
        Console.WriteLine( );

        // Generate the first six random doubles.
        for( int j = 0; j < 6; j++ )
            Console.Write( " {0:F8} ", randObj.NextDouble( ) );
        Console.WriteLine( );
    }

    // Create a Random object with the specified seed.
    static void FixedSeedRandoms( int seed )
    {
        Console.WriteLine( 
            "\nRandom numbers from a Random object with " +
            "seed = {0}:", seed );
        Random fixRand = new Random( seed );

        RunIntNDoubleRandoms( fixRand );
    }

    // Create a random object with a timer-generated seed.
    static void AutoSeedRandoms( )
    {
        // Wait to allow the timer to advance.
        Thread.Sleep( 1 );

        Console.WriteLine( 
            "\nRandom numbers from a Random object " +
            "with an auto-generated seed:" );
        Random autoRand = new Random( );

        RunIntNDoubleRandoms( autoRand );
    }

    static void Main( )
    {	
        Console.WriteLine(
            "This example of the Random class constructors and " +
            "Random.NextDouble( ) \n" +
            "generates the following output.\n" );
        Console.WriteLine(
            "Create Random objects, and then generate and " +
            "display six integers and \nsix doubles from each.");

        FixedSeedRandoms( 123 );
        FixedSeedRandoms( 123 );

        FixedSeedRandoms( 456 );
        FixedSeedRandoms( 456 );

        AutoSeedRandoms( );
        AutoSeedRandoms( );
        AutoSeedRandoms( );
    }
}

/*
This example of the Random class constructors and Random.NextDouble( )
generates the following output.

Create Random objects, and then generate and display six integers and
six doubles from each.

Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 123:
 2114319875  1949518561  1596751841  1742987178  1586516133   103755708
 0.01700087  0.14935942  0.19470390  0.63008947  0.90976122  0.49519146

Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 123:
 2114319875  1949518561  1596751841  1742987178  1586516133   103755708
 0.01700087  0.14935942  0.19470390  0.63008947  0.90976122  0.49519146

Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 456:
 2044805024  1323311594  1087799997  1907260840   179380355   120870348
 0.21988117  0.21026556  0.39236514  0.42420498  0.24102703  0.47310170

Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 456:
 2044805024  1323311594  1087799997  1907260840   179380355   120870348
 0.21988117  0.21026556  0.39236514  0.42420498  0.24102703  0.47310170

Random numbers from a Random object with an auto-generated seed:
  380213349   127379247  1969091178  1983029819  1963098450  1648433124
 0.08824121  0.41249688  0.36445811  0.05637512  0.62702451  0.49595560

Random numbers from a Random object with an auto-generated seed:
  861793304  2133528783  1947358439   124230908   921262645  1087892791
 0.56880819  0.42934091  0.60162512  0.74388610  0.99432979  0.30310005

Random numbers from a Random object with an auto-generated seed:
 1343373259  1992194672  1925625700   412915644  2026910487   527352458
 0.04937517  0.44618494  0.83879212  0.43139707  0.36163507  0.11024451
*/
' Example of the Random class constructors and Random.NextDouble( ) 
' method.
Imports System.Threading

Module RandomObjectDemo

    ' Generate random numbers from the specified Random object.
    Sub RunIntNDoubleRandoms( randObj As Random )

        ' Generate the first six random integers.
        Dim j As Integer
        For j = 0 To 5
            Console.Write( " {0,10} ", randObj.Next( ) )
        Next j
        Console.WriteLine( )
            
        ' Generate the first six random doubles.
        For j = 0 To 5
            Console.Write( " {0:F8} ", randObj.NextDouble( ) )
        Next j
        Console.WriteLine( )
    End Sub 
        
    ' Create a Random object with the specified seed.
    Sub FixedSeedRandoms( seed As Integer )

        Console.WriteLine( vbCrLf & _
            "Random numbers from a Random object with " & _
            "seed = {0}:", seed )
        Dim fixRand As New Random( seed )
            
        RunIntNDoubleRandoms( fixRand )
    End Sub 
        
    ' Create a random object with a timer-generated seed.
    Sub AutoSeedRandoms( )

        ' Wait to allow the timer to advance.
        Thread.Sleep( 1 )
            
        Console.WriteLine( vbCrLf & _
            "Random numbers from a Random object " & _ 
            "with an auto-generated seed:" )
        Dim autoRand As New Random( )
            
        RunIntNDoubleRandoms( autoRand )
    End Sub 
        
    Sub Main( )
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "This example of the Random class constructors " & _
            "and Random.NextDouble( ) " & vbCrLf & _
            "generates the following output." & vbCrLf )
        Console.WriteLine( "Create Random " & _
            "objects, and then generate and display six " & _
            "integers and " & vbCrLf & "six doubles from each." )
            
        FixedSeedRandoms( 123 )
        FixedSeedRandoms( 123 )
            
        FixedSeedRandoms( 456 )
        FixedSeedRandoms( 456 )
            
        AutoSeedRandoms( )
        AutoSeedRandoms( )
        AutoSeedRandoms( )
    End Sub
End Module 

' This example of the Random class constructors and Random.NextDouble( )
' generates the following output.
' 
' Create Random objects, and then generate and display six integers and
' six doubles from each.
' 
' Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 123:
'  2114319875  1949518561  1596751841  1742987178  1586516133   103755708
'  0.01700087  0.14935942  0.19470390  0.63008947  0.90976122  0.49519146
' 
' Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 123:
'  2114319875  1949518561  1596751841  1742987178  1586516133   103755708
'  0.01700087  0.14935942  0.19470390  0.63008947  0.90976122  0.49519146
' 
' Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 456:
'  2044805024  1323311594  1087799997  1907260840   179380355   120870348
'  0.21988117  0.21026556  0.39236514  0.42420498  0.24102703  0.47310170
' 
' Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 456:
'  2044805024  1323311594  1087799997  1907260840   179380355   120870348
'  0.21988117  0.21026556  0.39236514  0.42420498  0.24102703  0.47310170
' 
' Random numbers from a Random object with an auto-generated seed:
'  1920831619  1346865774  2006582766  1968819760   332463652   110770792
'  0.71326689  0.50383335  0.50446082  0.66312569  0.94517193  0.58059287
' 
' Random numbers from a Random object with an auto-generated seed:
'   254927927  1205531663  1984850027   110020849  1438111494  1697714106
'  0.19383387  0.52067738  0.74162783  0.35063667  0.31247720  0.38773733
' 
' Random numbers from a Random object with an auto-generated seed:
'   736507882  1064197552  1963117288   398705585   396275689  1137173773
'  0.67440084  0.53752140  0.97879483  0.03814764  0.67978248  0.19488178

Remarks

Providing an identical seed value to different Random objects causes each instance to produce identical sequences of random numbers. This is often done when testing apps that rely on random number generators.

If your application requires different random number sequences, invoke this constructor repeatedly with different seed values. One way to produce a unique seed value is to make it time-dependent. For example, derive the seed value from the system clock, as the Random() overload does. However, the system clock might not have sufficient resolution to provide different invocations of this constructor with a different seed value. This results in random number generators that generate identical sequences of pseudo-random numbers, as illustrated by the first two Random objects in the following example. To prevent this, apply an algorithm to differentiate the seed value in each invocation, or call the Thread.Sleep method to ensure that you provide each constructor with a different seed value.

using System;
using System.Threading;

public class Example
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      Random rand1 = new Random((int) DateTime.Now.Ticks & 0x0000FFFF);
      Random rand2 = new Random((int) DateTime.Now.Ticks & 0x0000FFFF);
      Thread.Sleep(20);
      Random rand3 = new Random((int) DateTime.Now.Ticks & 0x0000FFFF);
      ShowRandomNumbers(rand1);
      ShowRandomNumbers(rand2);
      ShowRandomNumbers(rand3);
   }

   private static void ShowRandomNumbers(Random rand)
   {
      Console.WriteLine();
      byte[] values = new byte[4];
      rand.NextBytes(values);
      foreach (var value in values)
         Console.Write("{0, 5}", value);

      Console.WriteLine(); 
   }
}
// The example displays output similar to the following:
//   145  214  177  134  173
// 
//   145  214  177  134  173
// 
//   126  185  175  249  157
Imports System.Threading

Module RandomNumbers
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim rand1 As New Random(CInt(Date.Now.Ticks And &h0000FFFF))
      Dim rand2 As New Random(CInt(Date.Now.Ticks And &h0000FFFF))
      Thread.Sleep(20)
      Dim rand3 As New Random(CInt(Date.Now.Ticks And &h0000FFFF))
      ShowRandomNumbers(rand1)
      ShowRandomNumbers(rand2)
      ShowRandomNumbers(rand3)
   End Sub
   
   Private Sub ShowRandomNumbers(rand As Random)
      Console.WriteLine()
      Dim values(4) As Byte
      rand.NextBytes(values)
      For Each value As Byte In values
         Console.Write("{0, 5}", value)
      Next      
      Console.WriteLine() 
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays output similar to the following:
'      145  214  177  134  173
'    
'      145  214  177  134  173
'    
'      126  185  175  249  157

Another option is to instantiate a single Random object that you use to generate all the random numbers in your application. This yields slightly better performance, since instantiating a random number generator is fairly expensive.

Applies to