ILGenerator.ThrowException(Type) Method

Definition

Emits an instruction to throw an exception.

public:
 virtual void ThrowException(Type ^ excType);
public virtual void ThrowException (Type excType);
abstract member ThrowException : Type -> unit
override this.ThrowException : Type -> unit
Public Overridable Sub ThrowException (excType As Type)

Parameters

excType
Type

The class of the type of exception to throw.

Exceptions

excType is not the Exception class or a derived class of Exception.

-or-

The type does not have a parameterless constructor.

excType is null.

Examples

The following code sample demonstrates the contextual usage of ThrowException to throw an exception inside the MSIL of a dynamic method.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Threading;
using namespace System::Reflection;
using namespace System::Reflection::Emit;

int main()
{
   AppDomain^ myDomain = Thread::GetDomain();
   AssemblyName^ myAsmName = gcnew AssemblyName;
   myAsmName->Name = "AdderExceptionAsm";
   AssemblyBuilder^ myAsmBldr = myDomain->DefineDynamicAssembly( myAsmName, 
      AssemblyBuilderAccess::RunAndSave );
   ModuleBuilder^ myModBldr = myAsmBldr->DefineDynamicModule( myAsmName->Name,
      myAsmName->Name + ".dll" );
   TypeBuilder^ myTypeBldr = myModBldr->DefineType( "Adder" );
   array<Type^>^adderParams = {int::typeid,int::typeid};
   
   // This method will add two numbers which are 100 or less. If either of the
   // passed integer vales are greater than 100, it will throw an exception.
   MethodBuilder^ adderBldr = myTypeBldr->DefineMethod( "DoAdd", 
      static_cast<MethodAttributes>(MethodAttributes::Public | MethodAttributes::Static), 
      int::typeid, adderParams );
   ILGenerator^ adderIL = adderBldr->GetILGenerator();
   
   // Types and methods used in the code to throw, catch, and
   // display OverflowException. Note that if the catch block were
   // for a more general type, such as Exception, we would need 
   // a MethodInfo for that type's ToString method.
   // 
   Type^ overflow = OverflowException::typeid;
   ConstructorInfo^ exCtorInfo = overflow->GetConstructor( 
      gcnew array<Type^> { String::typeid });
   MethodInfo^ exToStrMI = overflow->GetMethod( "ToString" );
   MethodInfo^ writeLineMI = Console::typeid->GetMethod( "WriteLine", 
      gcnew array<Type^> { String::typeid, Object::typeid } );

   LocalBuilder^ tmp1 = adderIL->DeclareLocal( int::typeid );
   LocalBuilder^ tmp2 = adderIL->DeclareLocal( overflow );

   // In order to successfully branch, we need to create labels
   // representing the offset IL instruction block to branch to.
   // These labels, when the MarkLabel(Label) method is invoked,
   // will specify the IL instruction to branch to.
   //
   Label failed = adderIL->DefineLabel();
   Label endOfMthd = adderIL->DefineLabel();

   // Begin the try block.
   Label exBlock = adderIL->BeginExceptionBlock();
   
   // First, load argument 0 and the integer value of S"100" onto the
   // stack. If arg0 > 100, branch to the label S"failed", which is marked
   // as the address of the block that throws an exception.
   adderIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldarg_0 );
   adderIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldc_I4_S, 100 );
   adderIL->Emit( OpCodes::Bgt_S, failed );
   
   // Now, check to see if argument 1 was greater than 100. If it was,
   // branch to S"failed." Otherwise, fall through and perform the addition,
   // branching unconditionally to the instruction at the label S"endOfMthd".
   adderIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldarg_1 );
   adderIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldc_I4_S, 100 );
   adderIL->Emit( OpCodes::Bgt_S, failed );

   adderIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldarg_0 );
   adderIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldarg_1 );
   adderIL->Emit( OpCodes::Add_Ovf_Un );
   // Store the result of the addition.
   adderIL->Emit( OpCodes::Stloc_S, tmp1 );
   adderIL->Emit( OpCodes::Br_S, endOfMthd );
   
   // If one of the arguments was greater than 100, we need to throw an
   // exception. We'll use "OverflowException" with a customized message.
   // First, we load our message onto the stack, and then create a new
   // exception Object using the constructor overload that accepts a
   // String* message.
   adderIL->MarkLabel( failed );
   adderIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldstr, "Cannot accept values over 100 for add." );
   adderIL->Emit( OpCodes::Newobj, exCtorInfo );
   
   // We're going to need to refer to that exception Object later, so let's
   // store it in a temporary variable. Since the store function pops the
   // the value/reference off the stack, and we'll need it to throw the
   // exception, we will subsequently load it back onto the stack as well.
   adderIL->Emit( OpCodes::Stloc_S, tmp2 );
   adderIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldloc_S, tmp2 );
   
   // Throw the exception now on the stack.
   adderIL->ThrowException( overflow );
   
   // Start the catch block for OverflowException.
   //
   adderIL->BeginCatchBlock( overflow );
   
   // When we enter the catch block, the thrown exception 
   // is on the stack. Store it, then load the format string
   // for WriteLine. 
   //
   adderIL->Emit(OpCodes::Stloc_S, tmp2);
   adderIL->Emit(OpCodes::Ldstr, "Caught {0}");

   // Push the thrown exception back on the stack, then 
   // call its ToString() method. Note that if this catch block
   // were for a more general exception type, like Exception,
   // it would be necessary to use the ToString for that type.
   //
   adderIL->Emit(OpCodes::Ldloc_S, tmp2);
   adderIL->EmitCall(OpCodes::Callvirt, exToStrMI, nullptr);
      
   // The format string and the return value from ToString() are
   // now on the stack. Call WriteLine(string, object).
   //
   adderIL->EmitCall( OpCodes::Call, writeLineMI, nullptr );
   
   // Since our function has to return an integer value, we'll load -1 onto
   // the stack to indicate an error, and store it in local variable tmp1.
   adderIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldc_I4_M1 );
   adderIL->Emit( OpCodes::Stloc_S, tmp1 );
   
   // End the exception handling block.
   adderIL->EndExceptionBlock();
   
   // The end of the method. If no exception was thrown, the correct value
   // will be saved in tmp1. If an exception was thrown, tmp1 will be equal
   // to -1. Either way, we'll load the value of tmp1 onto the stack and return.
   adderIL->MarkLabel( endOfMthd );
   adderIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldloc_S, tmp1 );
   adderIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ret );

   Type^ adderType = myTypeBldr->CreateType();

   Object^ addIns = Activator::CreateInstance( adderType );

   array<Object^>^addParams = gcnew array<Object^>(2);

   Console::Write( "Enter an integer value: " );
   addParams[ 0 ] = Convert::ToInt32( Console::ReadLine() );

   Console::Write( "Enter another integer value: " );
   addParams[ 1 ] = Convert::ToInt32( Console::ReadLine() );

   Console::WriteLine( "If either integer was > 100, an exception will be thrown." );

   Console::WriteLine( "---" );
   Console::WriteLine( " {0} + {1} = {2}", addParams[ 0 ], addParams[ 1 ], adderType->InvokeMember( "DoAdd", BindingFlags::InvokeMethod, nullptr, addIns, addParams ) );
}

/* This code produces output similar to the following:

Enter an integer value: 24
Enter another integer value: 101
If either integer was > 100, an exception will be thrown.
---
Caught System.OverflowException: Arithmetic operation resulted in an overflow.
   at Adder.DoAdd(Int32 , Int32 )
 24 + 101 = -1
 */
using System;
using System.Reflection;
using System.Reflection.Emit;

class ILThrowExceptionDemo 
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      AppDomain current = AppDomain.CurrentDomain;
      AssemblyName myAsmName = new AssemblyName();
      myAsmName.Name = "AdderExceptionAsm";
      AssemblyBuilder myAsmBldr = current.DefineDynamicAssembly(myAsmName,
                               AssemblyBuilderAccess.RunAndSave);

      ModuleBuilder myModBldr = myAsmBldr.DefineDynamicModule(myAsmName.Name, 
                         myAsmName.Name + ".dll");

      TypeBuilder myTypeBldr = myModBldr.DefineType("Adder");

      Type[] adderParams = new Type[] {typeof(int), typeof(int)};

      // This method will add two numbers which are 100 or less. If either of the
      // passed integer vales are greater than 100, it will throw an exception.

      MethodBuilder adderBldr = myTypeBldr.DefineMethod("DoAdd",
                         MethodAttributes.Public |
                         MethodAttributes.Static,
                         typeof(int),
                         adderParams);
      ILGenerator adderIL = adderBldr.GetILGenerator();
 
      // Types and methods used in the code to throw, catch, and
      // display OverflowException. Note that if the catch block were
      // for a more general type, such as Exception, we would need 
      // a MethodInfo for that type's ToString method.
      // 
      Type overflow = typeof(OverflowException);
      ConstructorInfo exCtorInfo = overflow.GetConstructor(
                        new Type[]
                        {typeof(string)});
      MethodInfo exToStrMI = overflow.GetMethod("ToString");
      MethodInfo writeLineMI = typeof(Console).GetMethod("WriteLine",
                        new Type[] 
                        {typeof(string),
                         typeof(object)});
                                                    
      LocalBuilder tmp1 = adderIL.DeclareLocal(typeof(int));   
      LocalBuilder tmp2 = adderIL.DeclareLocal(overflow);

      // In order to successfully branch, we need to create labels
      // representing the offset IL instruction block to branch to.
      // These labels, when the MarkLabel(Label) method is invoked,
      // will specify the IL instruction to branch to.
      //
      Label failed = adderIL.DefineLabel();
      Label endOfMthd = adderIL.DefineLabel();

      // Begin the try block.
      Label exBlock = adderIL.BeginExceptionBlock();

      // First, load argument 0 and the integer value of "100" onto the
      // stack. If arg0 > 100, branch to the label "failed", which is marked
      // as the address of the block that throws an exception.
      //
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_0);
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldc_I4_S, 100);
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Bgt_S, failed); 

      // Now, check to see if argument 1 was greater than 100. If it was,
      // branch to "failed." Otherwise, fall through and perform the addition,
      // branching unconditionally to the instruction at the label "endOfMthd".
      //
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_1);
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldc_I4_S, 100);
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Bgt_S, failed);

      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_0);
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_1);
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Add_Ovf_Un);
      // Store the result of the addition.
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Stloc_S, tmp1);
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Br_S, endOfMthd);

      // If one of the arguments was greater than 100, we need to throw an
      // exception. We'll use "OverflowException" with a customized message.
      // First, we load our message onto the stack, and then create a new
      // exception object using the constructor overload that accepts a
      // string message.
      //
      adderIL.MarkLabel(failed);
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldstr, "Cannot accept values over 100 for add.");
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Newobj, exCtorInfo);

      // We're going to need to refer to that exception object later, so let's
      // store it in a temporary variable. Since the store function pops the
      // the value/reference off the stack, and we'll need it to throw the
      // exception, we will subsequently load it back onto the stack as well.

      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Stloc_S, tmp2);
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, tmp2);

      // Throw the exception now on the stack.

      adderIL.ThrowException(overflow);
      
      // Start the catch block for OverflowException.
      //
      adderIL.BeginCatchBlock(overflow);

      // When we enter the catch block, the thrown exception 
      // is on the stack. Store it, then load the format string
      // for WriteLine. 
      //
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Stloc_S, tmp2);
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldstr, "Caught {0}");

      // Push the thrown exception back on the stack, then 
      // call its ToString() method. Note that if this catch block
      // were for a more general exception type, like Exception,
      // it would be necessary to use the ToString for that type.
      //
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, tmp2);
      adderIL.EmitCall(OpCodes.Callvirt, exToStrMI, null);
      
      // The format string and the return value from ToString() are
      // now on the stack. Call WriteLine(string, object).
      //
      adderIL.EmitCall(OpCodes.Call, writeLineMI, null);

      // Since our function has to return an integer value, we'll load -1 onto
      // the stack to indicate an error, and store it in local variable tmp1.
      //
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldc_I4_M1);
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Stloc_S, tmp1);

      // End the exception handling block.

      adderIL.EndExceptionBlock();   

      // The end of the method. If no exception was thrown, the correct value
      // will be saved in tmp1. If an exception was thrown, tmp1 will be equal
      // to -1. Either way, we'll load the value of tmp1 onto the stack and return.
      //
      adderIL.MarkLabel(endOfMthd);
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, tmp1);
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ret);
   
      Type adderType = myTypeBldr.CreateType();

      object addIns = Activator.CreateInstance(adderType); 

      object[] addParams = new object[2];

      Console.Write("Enter an integer value: ");
      addParams[0] = (object)Convert.ToInt32(Console.ReadLine());

      Console.Write("Enter another integer value: ");
      addParams[1] = (object)Convert.ToInt32(Console.ReadLine());

      Console.WriteLine("If either integer was > 100, an exception will be thrown.");
      Console.WriteLine("---");

      Console.WriteLine("{0} + {1} = {2}",
            addParams[0], addParams[1],
            adderType.InvokeMember("DoAdd",
               BindingFlags.InvokeMethod,
               null,
               addIns,
               addParams)); 
   }
}

/* This code produces output similar to the following:

Enter an integer value: 24
Enter another integer value: 101
If either integer was > 100, an exception will be thrown.
---
Caught System.OverflowException: Arithmetic operation resulted in an overflow.
   at Adder.DoAdd(Int32 , Int32 )
 24 + 101 = -1
 */
Imports System.Reflection
Imports System.Reflection.Emit

Class ILThrowExceptionDemo
   
   Public Shared Sub Main()
            
      Dim current As AppDomain = AppDomain.CurrentDomain
      Dim myAsmName As New AssemblyName()
      myAsmName.Name = "AdderExceptionAsm"
      Dim myAsmBldr As AssemblyBuilder = _
                 current.DefineDynamicAssembly(myAsmName, _
                     AssemblyBuilderAccess.RunAndSave)
      
      Dim myModBldr As ModuleBuilder = _
                     myAsmBldr.DefineDynamicModule(myAsmName.Name, _
                         myAsmName.Name & ".dll")
      
      Dim myTypeBldr As TypeBuilder = myModBldr.DefineType("Adder")
      
      Dim adderParams() As Type = {GetType(Integer), GetType(Integer)}
      
      ' This method will add two numbers which are 100 or less. If either of the
      ' passed integer vales are greater than 100, it will throw an exception.
      Dim adderBldr As MethodBuilder = myTypeBldr.DefineMethod("DoAdd", _
                  MethodAttributes.Public Or MethodAttributes.Static, _
                  GetType(Integer), adderParams)
      Dim adderIL As ILGenerator = adderBldr.GetILGenerator()

      ' Types and methods used in the code to throw, catch, and
      ' display OverflowException. Note that if the catch block were
      ' for a more general type, such as Exception, we would need 
      ' a MethodInfo for that type's ToString method.
      ' 
      Dim overflow As Type = GetType(OverflowException)
      Dim exCtorInfo As ConstructorInfo = overflow.GetConstructor( _
                     New Type() {GetType(String)})
      Dim exToStrMI As MethodInfo = overflow.GetMethod("ToString")
      Dim writeLineMI As MethodInfo = GetType(Console).GetMethod("WriteLine", _
                     New Type() {GetType(String), _
                            GetType(Object)})
      
      Dim tmp1 As LocalBuilder = adderIL.DeclareLocal(GetType(Integer))
      Dim tmp2 As LocalBuilder = adderIL.DeclareLocal(overflow)
      
      ' In order to successfully branch, we need to create labels
      ' representing the offset IL instruction block to branch to.
      ' These labels, when the MarkLabel(Label) method is invoked,
      ' will specify the IL instruction to branch to.
      '
      Dim failed As Label = adderIL.DefineLabel()
      Dim endOfMthd As Label = adderIL.DefineLabel()

      ' Begin the try block.      
      Dim exBlock As Label = adderIL.BeginExceptionBlock()

      ' First, load argument 0 and the integer value of "100" onto the
      ' stack. If arg0 > 100, branch to the label "failed", which is marked
      ' as the address of the block that throws an exception.
      '
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_0)
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldc_I4_S, 100)
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Bgt_S, failed)
      
      ' Now, check to see if argument 1 was greater than 100. If it was,
      ' branch to "failed." Otherwise, fall through and perform the addition,
      ' branching unconditionally to the instruction at the label "endOfMthd".
      '
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_1)
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldc_I4_S, 100)
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Bgt_S, failed)
      
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_0)
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_1)
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Add_Ovf_Un)
      ' Store the result of the addition.
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Stloc_S, tmp1)
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Br_S, endOfMthd)
      
      ' If one of the arguments was greater than 100, we need to throw an
      ' exception. We'll use "OverflowException" with a customized message.
      ' First, we load our message onto the stack, and then create a new
      ' exception object using the constructor overload that accepts a
      ' string message.
      adderIL.MarkLabel(failed)
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldstr, "Cannot accept values over 100 for add.")
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Newobj, exCtorInfo)
      
      ' Throw the exception now on the stack.
      adderIL.ThrowException(overflow)
      
      ' Start the catch block for OverflowException.
      '
      adderIL.BeginCatchBlock(overflow)

      ' When we enter the catch block, the thrown exception 
      ' is on the stack. Store it, then load the format string
      ' for WriteLine. 
      '
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Stloc_S, tmp2)
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldstr, "Caught {0}")

      ' Push the thrown exception back on the stack, then 
      ' call its ToString() method. Note that if this catch block
      ' were for a more general exception type, like Exception,
      ' it would be necessary to use the ToString for that type.
      '
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, tmp2)
      adderIL.EmitCall(OpCodes.Callvirt, exToStrMI, Nothing)
      
      ' The format string and the return value from ToString() are
      ' now on the stack. Call WriteLine(string, object).
      '
      adderIL.EmitCall(OpCodes.Call, writeLineMI, Nothing)
      
      ' Since our function has to return an integer value, load -1 onto
      ' the stack to indicate an error, and store it in local variable
      ' tmp1.
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldc_I4_M1)
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Stloc_S, tmp1)
      
      ' End the exception handling block.

      adderIL.EndExceptionBlock()
      
      ' The end of the method. If no exception was thrown, the correct value
      ' will be saved in tmp1. If an exception was thrown, tmp1 will be equal
      ' to -1. Either way, we'll load the value of tmp1 onto the stack and return.
      '
      adderIL.MarkLabel(endOfMthd)
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, tmp1)
      adderIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ret)
      
      Dim adderType As Type = myTypeBldr.CreateType()

      Dim addIns As Object = Activator.CreateInstance(adderType)
      
      Dim addParams(1) As Object
      
      Console.Write("Enter an integer value: ")
      addParams(0) = CType(Convert.ToInt32(Console.ReadLine()), Object)
      
      Console.Write("Enter another integer value: ")
      addParams(1) = CType(Convert.ToInt32(Console.ReadLine()), Object)
      
      Console.WriteLine("If either integer was > 100, an exception will be thrown.")
      Console.WriteLine("---")
      
      Console.WriteLine("{0} + {1} = {2}", addParams(0), addParams(1), _
         adderType.InvokeMember("DoAdd", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, _
                  Nothing, addIns, addParams))
   End Sub 

End Class 

' This code example produces output similar to the following:
'
'Enter an integer value: 24
'Enter another integer value: 101
'If either integer was > 100, an exception will be thrown.
'---
'Caught System.OverflowException: Arithmetic operation resulted in an overflow.
'   at Adder.DoAdd(Int32 , Int32 )
'24 + 101 = -1

Applies to