Additions to the csproj format for .NET Core
This document outlines the changes that were added to the project files as part of the move from project.json to csproj and MSBuild. For more information about general project file syntax and reference, see the MSBuild project file documentation.
Implicit package references
Metapackages are implicitly referenced based on the target framework(s) specified in the
<TargetFrameworks> property of your project file.
<TargetFrameworks> is ignored if
<TargetFramework> is specified, independent of order. For more information, see Packages, metapackages, and frameworks.
<PropertyGroup> <TargetFramework>netcoreapp2.1</TargetFramework> </PropertyGroup>
<PropertyGroup> <TargetFrameworks>netcoreapp2.1;net462</TargetFrameworks> </PropertyGroup>
NETStandard.Library metapackages are implicitly referenced, the following are our recommended best practices:
- When targeting .NET Core or .NET Standard, never have an explicit reference to the
NETStandard.Librarymetapackages via a
<PackageReference>item in your project file.
- If you need a specific version of the runtime when targeting .NET Core, you should use the
<RuntimeFrameworkVersion>property in your project (for example,
1.0.4) instead of referencing the metapackage.
- This might happen if you are using self-contained deployments and you need a specific patch version of 1.0.0 LTS runtime, for example.
- If you need a specific version of the
NETStandard.Librarymetapackage when targeting .NET Standard, you can use the
<NetStandardImplicitPackageVersion>property and set the version you need.
- Don't explicitly add or update references to either the
NETStandard.Librarymetapackage in .NET Framework projects. If any version of
NETStandard.Libraryis needed when using a .NET Standard-based NuGet package, NuGet automatically installs that version.
Implicit version for some package references
Most usages of
<PackageReference> require setting the
Version attribute to specify the NuGet package version to be used. When using .NET Core 2.1 or 2.2 and referencing Microsoft.AspNetCore.App or Microsoft.AspNetCore.All, however, the attribute is unnecessary. The .NET Core SDK can automatically select the version of these packages that should be used.
When referencing the
Microsoft.AspNetCore.All packages, do not specify their version. If a version is specified, the SDK may produce warning NETSDK1071. To fix this warning, remove the package version like in the following example:
<ItemGroup> <PackageReference Include="Microsoft.AspNetCore.App" /> </ItemGroup>
Known issue: the .NET Core 2.1 SDK only supported this syntax when the project also uses Microsoft.NET.Sdk.Web. This is resolved in the .NET Core 2.2 SDK.
These references to ASP.NET Core metapackages have a slightly different behavior from most normal NuGet packages. Framework-dependent deployments of applications that use these metapackages automatically take advantage of the ASP.NET Core shared framework. When you use the metapackages, no assets from the referenced ASP.NET Core NuGet packages are deployed with the application—the ASP.NET Core shared framework contains these assets. The assets in the shared framework are optimized for the target platform to improve application startup time. For more information about shared framework, see .NET Core distribution packaging.
If a version is specified, it's treated as the minimum version of ASP.NET Core shared framework for framework-dependent deployments and as an exact version for self-contained deployments. This can have the following consequences:
- If the version of ASP.NET Core installed on the server is less than the version specified on the PackageReference, the .NET Core process fails to launch. Updates to the metapackage are often available on NuGet.org before updates have been made available in hosting environments such as Azure. Updating the version on the PackageReference to ASP.NET Core could cause a deployed application to fail.
- If the application is deployed as a self-contained deployment, the application may not contain the latest security updates to .NET Core. When a version isn't specified, the SDK can automatically include the newest version of ASP.NET Core in the self-contained deployment.
Default compilation includes in .NET Core projects
With the move to the csproj format in the latest SDK versions, we've moved the default includes and excludes for compile items and embedded resources to the SDK properties files. This means that you no longer need to specify these items in your project file.
The main reason for doing this is to reduce the clutter in your project file. The defaults that are present in the SDK should cover most common use cases, so there is no need to repeat them in every project that you create. This leads to smaller project files that are much easier to understand as well as edit by hand, if needed.
The following table shows which element and which globs are both included and excluded in the SDK:
|Element||Include glob||Exclude glob||Remove glob|
|Compile||**/*.cs (or other language extensions)||**/*.user; **/*.*proj; **/*.sln; **/*.vssscc||N/A|
|EmbeddedResource||**/*.resx||**/*.user; **/*.*proj; **/*.sln; **/*.vssscc||N/A|
|None||**/*||**/*.user; **/*.*proj; **/*.sln; **/*.vssscc||**/*.cs; **/*.resx|
Exclude glob always excludes the
./obj folders, which are represented by the
$(BaseIntermediateOutputPath) MSBuild properties, respectively. As a whole, all excludes are represented by
If you have globs in your project and you try to build it using the newest SDK, you'll get the following error:
Duplicate Compile items were included. The .NET SDK includes Compile items from your project directory by default. You can either remove these items from your project file, or set the 'EnableDefaultCompileItems' property to 'false' if you want to explicitly include them in your project file.
In order to get around this error, you can either remove the explicit
Compile items that match the ones listed on the previous table, or you can set the
<EnableDefaultCompileItems> property to
false, like this:
<PropertyGroup> <EnableDefaultCompileItems>false</EnableDefaultCompileItems> </PropertyGroup>
Setting this property to
false will disable implicit inclusion, reverting to the behavior of previous SDKs where you had to specify the default globs in your project.
This change does not modify the main mechanics of other includes. However, if you wish to specify, for example, some files to get published with your app, you can still use the known mechanisms in csproj for that (for example, the
<EnableDefaultCompileItems> only disables
Compile globs but doesn't affect other globs, like the implicit
None glob, which also applies to *.cs items. Because of that, Solution Explorer will continue show *.cs items as part of the project, included as
None items. In a similar way, you can set
<EnableDefaultNoneItems> to false to disable the implicit
None glob, like this:
<PropertyGroup> <EnableDefaultNoneItems>false</EnableDefaultNoneItems> </PropertyGroup>
To disable all implicit globs, you can set the
<EnableDefaultItems> property to
false as in the following example:
<PropertyGroup> <EnableDefaultItems>false</EnableDefaultItems> </PropertyGroup>
How to see the whole project as MSBuild sees it
While those csproj changes greatly simplify project files, you might want to see the fully expanded project as MSBuild sees it once the SDK and its targets are included. Preprocess the project with the
/pp switch of the
dotnet msbuild command, which shows which files are imported, their sources, and their contributions to the build without actually building the project:
dotnet msbuild -pp:fullproject.xml
If the project has multiple target frameworks, the results of the command should be focused on only one of them by specifying it as an MSBuild property:
dotnet msbuild -p:TargetFramework=netcoreapp2.0 -pp:fullproject.xml
<Project> element of the .csproj file has a new attribute called
Sdk specifies which SDK will be used by the project. The SDK, as the layering document describes, is a set of MSBuild tasks and targets that can build .NET Core code. The following SDKs are available for .NET Core:
- The .NET Core SDK with the ID of
- The .NET Core web SDK with the ID of
- The .NET Core Razor Class Library SDK with the ID of
- The .NET Core Worker Service with the ID of
Microsoft.NET.Sdk.Worker(since .NET Core 3.0)
- The .NET Core WinForms and WPF with the ID of
Microsoft.NET.Sdk.WindowsDesktop(since .NET Core 3.0)
You need to have the
Sdk attribute set to one of those IDs on the
<Project> element in order to use the .NET Core tools and build your code.
<PackageReference> item element specifies a NuGet dependency in the project. The
Include attribute specifies the package ID.
<PackageReference Include="package-id" Version="" PrivateAssets="" IncludeAssets="" ExcludeAssets="" />
Version attribute specifies the version of the package to restore. The attribute respects the rules of the NuGet version range scheme. The default behavior is a minimum version, inclusive match. For example, specifying
Version="1.2.3" is equivalent to NuGet notation
[1.2.3, ) and means the resolved package will have the version 1.2.3 if available or greater otherwise.
IncludeAssets, ExcludeAssets, and PrivateAssets
IncludeAssets attribute specifies which assets belonging to the package specified by
<PackageReference> should be
consumed. By default, all package assets are included.
ExcludeAssets attribute specifies which assets belonging to the package specified by
<PackageReference> should not
PrivateAssets attribute specifies which assets belonging to the package specified by
<PackageReference> should be
consumed but not flow to the next project. The
ContentFiles assets are private by default
when this attribute is not present.
PrivateAssets is equivalent to the project.json/xproj
These attributes can contain one or more of the following items, separated by the semicolon
; character if more than
one is listed:
Compile– the contents of the lib folder are available to compile against.
Runtime– the contents of the runtime folder are distributed.
ContentFiles– the contents of the contentfiles folder are used.
Build– the props/targets in the build folder are used.
Native– the contents from native assets are copied to the output folder for runtime.
Analyzers– the analyzers are used.
Alternatively, the attribute can contain:
None– none of the assets are used.
All– all assets are used.
<DotNetCliToolReference> item element specifies the CLI tool that the user wants to restore in the context of the project. It's a replacement for the
tools node in project.json.
<DotNetCliToolReference Include="<package-id>" Version="" />
Version specifies the version of the package to restore. The attribute respects the rules of the NuGet versioning scheme. The default behavior is a minimum version, inclusive match. For example, specifying
Version="1.2.3" is equivalent to NuGet notation
[1.2.3, ) and means the resolved package will have the version 1.2.3 if available or greater otherwise.
<RuntimeIdentifiers> property element lets you specify a semicolon-delimited list of Runtime Identifiers (RIDs) for the project.
RIDs enable publishing self-contained deployments.
<RuntimeIdentifier> property element allows you to specify only one Runtime Identifier (RID) for the project. The RID enables publishing a self-contained deployment.
<RuntimeIdentifiers> (plural) instead if you need to publish for multiple runtimes.
<RuntimeIdentifier> can provide faster builds when only a single runtime is required.
<PackageTargetFallback> property element allows you to specify a set of compatible targets to be used when restoring packages. It's designed to allow packages that use the dotnet TxM (Target x Moniker) to operate with packages that don't declare a dotnet TxM. If your project uses the dotnet TxM, then all the packages it depends on must also have a dotnet TxM, unless you add the
<PackageTargetFallback> to your project in order to allow non-dotnet platforms to be compatible with dotnet.
The following example provides the fallbacks for all targets in your project:
<PackageTargetFallback> $(PackageTargetFallback);portable-net45+win8+wpa81+wp8 </PackageTargetFallback >
The following example specifies the fallbacks only for the
<PackageTargetFallback Condition="'$(TargetFramework)'=='netcoreapp2.1'"> $(PackageTargetFallback);portable-net45+win8+wpa81+wp8 </PackageTargetFallback >
The way that pre-build and post-build events are specified in the project file has changed. The properties PreBuildEvent and PostBuildEvent are not recommended in the SDK-style project format, because macros such as $(ProjectDir) are not resolved. For example, the following code is no longer supported:
<PropertyGroup> <PreBuildEvent>"$(ProjectDir)PreBuildEvent.bat" "$(ProjectDir)..\" "$(ProjectDir)" "$(TargetDir)"</PreBuildEvent> </PropertyGroup>
In SDK-style projects, use an MSBuild target named
PostBuild and set the
BeforeTargets property for
PreBuild or the
AfterTargets property for
PostBuild. For the preceding example, use the following code:
<Target Name="PreBuild" BeforeTargets="PreBuildEvent"> <Exec Command=""$(ProjectDir)PreBuildEvent.bat" "$(ProjectDir)..\" "$(ProjectDir)" "$(TargetDir)"" /> </Target> <Target Name="PostBuild" AfterTargets="PostBuildEvent"> <Exec Command="echo Output written to $(TargetDir)" /> </Target>
You can use any name for the MSBuild targets, but the Visual Studio IDE recognizes
PostBuild targets, so we recommend using those names so that you can edit the commands in the Visual Studio IDE.
NuGet metadata properties
With the move to MSBuild, we have moved the input metadata that is used when packing a NuGet package from project.json to .csproj files. The inputs are MSBuild properties so they have to go within a
<PropertyGroup> group. The following is the list of properties that are used as inputs to the packing process when using the
dotnet pack command or the
Pack MSBuild target that is part of the SDK:
A Boolean value that specifies whether the project can be packed. The default value is
Specifies the version that the resulting package will have. Accepts all forms of NuGet version string. Default is the value of
$(Version), that is, of the property
Version in the project.
Specifies the name for the resulting package. If not specified, the
pack operation will default to using the
AssemblyName or directory name as the name of the package.
A human-friendly title of the package, typically used in UI displays as on nuget.org and the Package Manager in Visual Studio. If not specified, the package ID is used instead.
A semicolon-separated list of packages authors, matching the profile names on nuget.org. These are displayed in the NuGet Gallery on nuget.org and are used to cross-reference packages by the same authors.
A long description of the package for UI display.
A long description for the assembly. If
PackageDescription is not specified, then this property is also used as the description of the package.
Copyright details for the package.
A Boolean value that specifies whether the client must prompt the consumer to accept the package license before installing the package. The default is
A Boolean value that specifies whether the package is marked as a development-only dependency, which prevents the package from being included as a dependency in other packages. With PackageReference (NuGet 4.8+), this flag also means that compile-time assets are excluded from compilation. For more information, see DevelopmentDependency support for PackageReference.
An SPDX license identifier or expression. For example,
Here is the complete list of SPDX license identifiers. NuGet.org accepts only OSI or FSF approved licenses when using license type expression.
The exact syntax of the license expressions is described below in ABNF.
license-id = <short form license identifier from https://spdx.org/spdx-specification-21-web-version#h.luq9dgcle9mo> license-exception-id = <short form license exception identifier from https://spdx.org/spdx-specification-21-web-version#h.ruv3yl8g6czd> simple-expression = license-id / license-id”+” compound-expression = 1*1(simple-expression / simple-expression "WITH" license-exception-id / compound-expression "AND" compound-expression / compound-expression "OR" compound-expression ) / "(" compound-expression ")" ) license-expression = 1*1(simple-expression / compound-expression / UNLICENSED)
Only one of
PackageLicenseUrl can be specified at a time.
Path to a license file within the package if you are using a license that hasn’t been assigned an SPDX identifier, or it is a custom license (Otherwise
PackageLicenseExpression is preferred)
PackageLicenseUrl, can't be combined with
PackageLicenseExpression, and requires Visual Studio version 15.9.4 and .NET SDK 2.1.502 or 2.2.101 or newer.
You will need to ensure the license file is packed by adding it explicitly to the project, example usage:
<PropertyGroup> <PackageLicenseFile>LICENSE.txt</PackageLicenseFile> </PropertyGroup> <ItemGroup> <None Include="licenses\LICENSE.txt" Pack="true" PackagePath="$(PackageLicenseFile)"/> </ItemGroup>
A URL to the license that is applicable to the package. (deprecated since Visual Studio 15.9.4, .NET SDK 2.1.502 and 2.2.101)
A URL for a 64x64 image with transparent background to use as the icon for the package in UI display.
Release notes for the package.
A semicolon-delimited list of tags that designates the package.
Determines the output path in which the packed package will be dropped. Default is
This Boolean value indicates whether the package should create an additional symbols package when the project is packed. The symbols package's format is controlled by the
Specifies the format of the symbols package. If "symbols.nupkg", a legacy symbols package will be created with a .symbols.nupkg extension containing PDBs, DLLs, and other output files. If "snupkg", a snupkg symbol package will be created containing the portable PDBs. Default is "symbols.nupkg".
This Boolean value indicates whether the pack process should create a source package. The source package contains the library's source code as well as PDB files. Source files are put under the
src/ProjectName directory in the resulting package file.
Specifies whether all output files are copied to the tools folder instead of the lib folder. This is different from a
DotNetCliTool, which is specified by setting the
PackageType in the .csproj file.
Specifies the URL for the repository where the source code for the package resides and/or from which it's being built.
Specifies the type of the repository. Default is "git".
Specifies the name of the source branch in the repository. When the project is packaged in a NuGet package, it's added to the package metadata.
Optional repository commit or changeset to indicate which source the package was built against.
RepositoryUrl must also be specified for this property to be included. When the project is packaged in a NuGet package, this commit or changeset is added to the package metadata.
Specifies that pack should not run package analysis after building the package.
Specifies the minimum version of the NuGet client that can install this package, enforced by nuget.exe and the Visual Studio Package Manager.
This Boolean value specifies whether the build output assemblies should be packed into the .nupkg file or not.
This Boolean value specifies whether any items that have a type of
Content will be included in the resulting package automatically. The default is
Specifies the folder where to place the output assemblies. The output assemblies (and other output files) are copied into their respective framework folders.
This property specifies the default location of where all the content files should go if
PackagePath is not specified for them. The default value is "content;contentFiles".
Relative or absolute path to the .nuspec file being used for packing.
If the .nuspec file is specified, it's used exclusively for packaging information and any information in the projects is not used.
Base path for the .nuspec file.
Semicolon separated list of key=value pairs.
Assembly attributes that were typically present in an AssemblyInfo file are now automatically generated from properties.
Properties per attribute
As shown in the following table, each attribute has a property that controls its content and another that disables its generation:
|Attribute||Property||Property to disable|
FileVersiondefault is to take the value of
$(Version)without suffix. For example, if
1.2.3-beta.4, then the value would be
InformationalVersiondefaults to the value of
$(SourceRevisionId)appended if the property is present. It can be disabled using
Descriptionproperties are also used for NuGet metadata.
Configurationis shared with all the build process and set via the
A Boolean that enable or disable all the AssemblyInfo generation. The default value is
The path of the generated assembly info file. Default to a file in the
$(IntermediateOutputPath) (obj) directory.