How to: Find a TreeViewItem in a TreeView

The TreeView control provides a convenient way to display hierarchical data. If your TreeView is bound to a data source, the SelectedItem property provides a convenient way for you to quickly retrieve the selected data object. It is typically best to work with the underlying data object, but sometimes you may need to programmatically manipulate the data's containing TreeViewItem. For example, you may need to programmatically expand the TreeViewItem, or select a different item in the TreeView.

To find a TreeViewItem that contains a specific data object, you must traverse each level of the TreeView. The items in a TreeView can also be virtualized to improve performance. In the case where items might be virtualized, you also must realize a TreeViewItem to check whether it contains the data object.

Example

Description

The following example searches a TreeView for a specific object and returns the object's containing TreeViewItem. The example ensures that each TreeViewItem is instantiated so that its child items can be searched. This example also works if the TreeView does not use virtualized items.

Note

The following example works for any TreeView, regardless of the underlying data model, and searches every TreeViewItem until the object is found. Another technique that has better performance is to search the data model for the specified object, keep track of its location within the data hierarchy, and then find the corresponding TreeViewItem in the TreeView. However, the technique that has better performance requires knowledge of the data model and cannot be generalized for any given TreeView.

Code

/// <summary>
/// Recursively search for an item in this subtree.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="container">
/// The parent ItemsControl. This can be a TreeView or a TreeViewItem.
/// </param>
/// <param name="item">
/// The item to search for.
/// </param>
/// <returns>
/// The TreeViewItem that contains the specified item.
/// </returns>
private TreeViewItem GetTreeViewItem(ItemsControl container, object item)
{
    if (container != null)
    {
        if (container.DataContext == item)
        {
            return container as TreeViewItem;
        }

        // Expand the current container
        if (container is TreeViewItem && !((TreeViewItem)container).IsExpanded)
        {
            container.SetValue(TreeViewItem.IsExpandedProperty, true);
        }

        // Try to generate the ItemsPresenter and the ItemsPanel.
        // by calling ApplyTemplate.  Note that in the 
        // virtualizing case even if the item is marked 
        // expanded we still need to do this step in order to 
        // regenerate the visuals because they may have been virtualized away.

        container.ApplyTemplate();
        ItemsPresenter itemsPresenter = 
            (ItemsPresenter)container.Template.FindName("ItemsHost", container);
        if (itemsPresenter != null)
        {
            itemsPresenter.ApplyTemplate();
        }
        else
        {
            // The Tree template has not named the ItemsPresenter, 
            // so walk the descendents and find the child.
            itemsPresenter = FindVisualChild<ItemsPresenter>(container);
            if (itemsPresenter == null)
            {
                container.UpdateLayout();

                itemsPresenter = FindVisualChild<ItemsPresenter>(container);
            }
        }

        Panel itemsHostPanel = (Panel)VisualTreeHelper.GetChild(itemsPresenter, 0);


        // Ensure that the generator for this panel has been created.
        UIElementCollection children = itemsHostPanel.Children; 

        MyVirtualizingStackPanel virtualizingPanel = 
            itemsHostPanel as MyVirtualizingStackPanel;

        for (int i = 0, count = container.Items.Count; i < count; i++)
        {
            TreeViewItem subContainer;
            if (virtualizingPanel != null)
            {
                // Bring the item into view so 
                // that the container will be generated.
                virtualizingPanel.BringIntoView(i);

                subContainer = 
                    (TreeViewItem)container.ItemContainerGenerator.
                    ContainerFromIndex(i);
            }
            else
            {
                subContainer = 
                    (TreeViewItem)container.ItemContainerGenerator.
                    ContainerFromIndex(i);

                // Bring the item into view to maintain the 
                // same behavior as with a virtualizing panel.
                subContainer.BringIntoView();
            }

            if (subContainer != null)
            {
                // Search the next level for the object.
                TreeViewItem resultContainer = GetTreeViewItem(subContainer, item);
                if (resultContainer != null)
                {
                    return resultContainer;
                }
                else
                {
                    // The object is not under this TreeViewItem
                    // so collapse it.
                    subContainer.IsExpanded = false;
                }
            }
        }
    }

    return null;
}

/// <summary>
/// Search for an element of a certain type in the visual tree.
/// </summary>
/// <typeparam name="T">The type of element to find.</typeparam>
/// <param name="visual">The parent element.</param>
/// <returns></returns>
private T FindVisualChild<T>(Visual visual) where T : Visual
{
    for (int i = 0; i < VisualTreeHelper.GetChildrenCount(visual); i++)
    {
        Visual child = (Visual)VisualTreeHelper.GetChild(visual, i);
        if (child != null)
        {
            T correctlyTyped = child as T;
            if (correctlyTyped != null)
            {
                return correctlyTyped;
            }

            T descendent = FindVisualChild<T>(child);
            if (descendent != null)
            {
                return descendent;
            }
        }
    }

    return null;
}
''' <summary> 
''' Recursively search for an item in this subtree. 
''' </summary> 
''' <param name="container"> 
''' The parent ItemsControl.  This can be a TreeView or a TreeViewItem.
''' </param> 
''' <param name="item"> 
''' The item to search for. 
''' </param> 
''' <returns> 
''' The TreeViewItem that contains the specified item. 
''' </returns> 
Private Function GetTreeViewItem(ByVal container As ItemsControl,
                                 ByVal item As Object) As TreeViewItem

    If container IsNot Nothing Then
        If container.DataContext Is item Then
            Return TryCast(container, TreeViewItem)
        End If

        ' Expand the current container 
        If TypeOf container Is TreeViewItem AndAlso
           Not DirectCast(container, TreeViewItem).IsExpanded Then

            container.SetValue(TreeViewItem.IsExpandedProperty, True)
        End If

        ' Try to generate the ItemsPresenter and the ItemsPanel. 
        ' by calling ApplyTemplate. Note that in the 
        ' virtualizing case, even if IsExpanded = true, 
        ' we still need to do this step in order to 
        ' regenerate the visuals because they may have been virtualized away. 
        container.ApplyTemplate()

        Dim itemsPresenter As ItemsPresenter =
            DirectCast(container.Template.FindName("ItemsHost", container), ItemsPresenter)

        If itemsPresenter IsNot Nothing Then
            itemsPresenter.ApplyTemplate()
        Else
            ' The Tree template has not named the ItemsPresenter, 
            ' so walk the descendents and find the child. 
            itemsPresenter = FindVisualChild(Of ItemsPresenter)(container)

            If itemsPresenter Is Nothing Then
                container.UpdateLayout()

                itemsPresenter = FindVisualChild(Of ItemsPresenter)(container)
            End If
        End If

        Dim itemsHostPanel As Panel =
            DirectCast(VisualTreeHelper.GetChild(itemsPresenter, 0), Panel)


        ' Do this to ensure that the generator for this panel has been created. 
        Dim children As UIElementCollection = itemsHostPanel.Children

        Dim virtualizingPanel As MyVirtualizingStackPanel =
            TryCast(itemsHostPanel, MyVirtualizingStackPanel)


        For index As Integer = 0 To container.Items.Count - 1

            Dim subContainer As TreeViewItem

            If virtualizingPanel IsNot Nothing Then

                ' Bring the item into view so 
                ' that the container will be generated. 
                virtualizingPanel.BringIntoView(index)

                subContainer =
                    DirectCast(container.ItemContainerGenerator.ContainerFromIndex(index), 
                        TreeViewItem)
            Else
                subContainer =
                    DirectCast(container.ItemContainerGenerator.ContainerFromIndex(index), 
                        TreeViewItem)

                ' Bring the item into view to maintain the 
                ' same behavior as with a virtualizing panel. 
                subContainer.BringIntoView()
            End If

            If subContainer IsNot Nothing Then

                ' Search the next level for the object.
                Dim resultContainer As TreeViewItem =
                    GetTreeViewItem(subContainer, item)

                If resultContainer IsNot Nothing Then
                    Return resultContainer
                Else
                    ' The object is not under this TreeViewItem
                    ' so collapse it.
                    subContainer.IsExpanded = False
                End If
            End If
        Next
    End If

    Return Nothing
End Function

''' <summary> 
''' Search for an element of a certain type in the visual tree. 
''' </summary> 
''' <typeparam name="T">The type of element to find.</typeparam> 
''' <param name="visual">The parent element.</param> 
''' <returns></returns> 
Private Function FindVisualChild(Of T As Visual)(ByVal visual As Visual) As T

    For i As Integer = 0 To VisualTreeHelper.GetChildrenCount(visual) - 1

        Dim child As Visual = DirectCast(VisualTreeHelper.GetChild(visual, i), Visual)

        If child IsNot Nothing Then

            Dim correctlyTyped As T = TryCast(child, T)
            If correctlyTyped IsNot Nothing Then
                Return correctlyTyped
            End If

            Dim descendent As T = FindVisualChild(Of T)(child)
            If descendent IsNot Nothing Then
                Return descendent
            End If
        End If
    Next

    Return Nothing
End Function

The previous code relies on a custom VirtualizingStackPanel that exposes a method named BringIntoView. The following code defines the custom VirtualizingStackPanel.

public class MyVirtualizingStackPanel : VirtualizingStackPanel
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Publically expose BringIndexIntoView.
    /// </summary>
    public void BringIntoView(int index)
    {

        this.BringIndexIntoView(index);
    }
}
Public Class MyVirtualizingStackPanel
    Inherits VirtualizingStackPanel
    ''' <summary> 
    ''' Publically expose BringIndexIntoView. 
    ''' </summary> 
    Public Overloads Sub BringIntoView(ByVal index As Integer)

        Me.BringIndexIntoView(index)
    End Sub
End Class

The following XAML shows how to create a TreeView that uses the custom VirtualizingStackPanel.

<TreeView VirtualizingStackPanel.IsVirtualizing="True">

  <!--Use the custom class MyVirtualizingStackPanel
      as the ItemsPanel for the TreeView and
      TreeViewItem object.-->
  <TreeView.ItemsPanel>
    <ItemsPanelTemplate>
      <src:MyVirtualizingStackPanel/>
    </ItemsPanelTemplate>
  </TreeView.ItemsPanel>
  <TreeView.ItemContainerStyle>
    <Style TargetType="TreeViewItem">
      <Setter Property="ItemsPanel">
        <Setter.Value>
          <ItemsPanelTemplate>
            <src:MyVirtualizingStackPanel/>
          </ItemsPanelTemplate>
        </Setter.Value>
      </Setter>
    </Style>
  </TreeView.ItemContainerStyle>
</TreeView>

See Also

Improve the Performance of a TreeView