Work with Universal Actions for Adaptive Cards

Universal Actions for Adaptive Cards provide a way to implement Adaptive Card based scenarios for both, Teams and Outlook. This document covers the following topics:

Quick start guide to use Universal Actions for Adaptive Cards in Teams

  1. Replace all instances of Action.Submit with Action.Execute to update an existing scenario on Teams.

  2. Add a refresh clause to your Adaptive Card, if you want to use the automatic refresh model or if your scenario requires User Specific Views.


    Specify the userIds property to identify, which users get automatic updates.

  3. Handle adaptiveCard/action invoke requests in your bot.

  4. Use the invoke request's context to respond back with cards that are created for a user.


    Whenever your bot returns a new card as a result of processing an Action.Execute, the response must conform to the response format.

Schema for Universal Actions for Adaptive Cards

Universal Actions for Adaptive Cards are introduced in the Adaptive Cards schema version 1.4. To use Adaptive Card effectively, the version property of your Adaptive Card must be set to 1.4.


Setting the version property to 1.4 makes your Adaptive Card incompatible with older clients of the platforms or applications, such as Outlook and Teams, as they do not support the Universal Actions for Adaptive Cards.

If you set the card version to less than 1.4 and use either or both, refresh property and Action.Execute, the following happens:

Client Behavior
Teams Your card stops working. Card is not refreshed and Action.Execute does not render depending on the version of the Teams client. To ensure maximum compatibility in Teams, define Action.Execute with an Action.Submit in the fallback property.

For more information on how to support older clients, see backward compatibility.


When authoring Adaptive Cards, replace Action.Submit and Action.Http with Action.Execute. The schema for Action.Execute is similar to that of Action.Submit.

For more information, see Action.Execute schema and properties.

Now, you can use the refresh model to allow Adaptive Cards to update automatically.

Refresh model

To automatically refresh your Adaptive Card, define its refresh property, which embeds an action of type Action.Execute and an userIds array.

For more information, see refresh schema and properties.

User IDs in refresh

The following are the features of UserIds in refresh:

  • UserIds is an array of user MRIs, which is part of the refresh property in Adaptive Cards.

  • If the userIds list property is specified as userIds: [] in the refresh section of the card, the card is not automatically refreshed. Instead, a Refresh Card option is displayed to the user in the triple dot menu in web or desktop and in the long press context menu in mobile, that is, Android or iOS to manually refresh the card.

  • UserIds property is added because channels in Teams can include a large number of members. If all members are viewing the channel at the same time, an unconditional automatic refresh results in many concurrent calls to the bot. The userIds property must always be included to identify which users must get an automatic refresh with a maximum of 60 (sixty) user MRIs.

  • You can fetch Teams conversation member's user MRIs. For more information on how to add in userIds list in refresh section of Adaptive Card, see fetch roster or user profile.

  • Sample Teams user MRI is 29:1bSnHZ7Js2STWrgk6ScEErLk1Lp2zQuD5H2qQ960rtvstKp8tKLl-3r8b6DoW0QxZimuTxk_kupZ1DBMpvIQQUAZL-PNj0EORDvRZXy8kvWk


The userIds property is ignored in Outlook, and the refresh property is always automatically activated. There is no scale issue in Outlook because users view the card at different times.

Next step is to use the adaptiveCard/action invoke activity to understand what request must be made after Action.Execute is executed.

adaptiveCard/action invoke activity

When Action.Execute is executed in the client, a new type of Invoke activity adaptiveCard/action is made to your bot.

For more information, see request format and properties for a typical adaptiveCard/action invoke activity.

For more information, see response format and properties for a typical adaptiveCard/action invoke activity with supported response types.

Next, you can apply backward compatibility to older clients across different platforms and make your Adaptive Card compatible.

Backward compatibility

Universal Actions for Adaptive Cards allow you to set properties that enable backward compatibility with older versions of Outlook and Teams.


To ensure backward compatibility of your Adaptive Cards with older versions of Teams, you must include the fallback property and set its value to Action.Submit. Also, your bot code must process both Action.Execute and Action.Submit.

For more information, see backward compatibility on Teams.

Code samples

Sample name Description .NETCore Node.js
Teams catering bot Create a bot that accepts food order using Adaptive Cards. View Not yet available
Sequential Workflows Adaptive Cards Demonstrate how to implement Sequential Workflows, User Specific Views, and up to date Adaptive Cards in bots. View View

See also