1.1 Glossary

This document uses the following terms:

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES): A block cipher that supersedes the Data Encryption Standard (DES). AES can be used to protect electronic data. The AES algorithm can be used to encrypt (encipher) and decrypt (decipher) information. Encryption converts data to an unintelligible form called ciphertext; decrypting the ciphertext converts the data back into its original form, called plaintext. AES is used in symmetric-key cryptography, meaning that the same key is used for the encryption and decryption operations. It is also a block cipher, meaning that it operates on fixed-size blocks of plaintext and ciphertext, and requires the size of the plaintext as well as the ciphertext to be an exact multiple of this block size. AES is also known as the Rijndael symmetric encryption algorithm [FIPS197].

big-endian: Multiple-byte values that are byte-ordered with the most significant byte stored in the memory location with the lowest address.

domain: A set of users and computers sharing a common namespace and management infrastructure. At least one computer member of the set must act as a domain controller (DC) and host a member list that identifies all members of the domain, as well as optionally hosting the Active Directory service. The domain controller provides authentication of members, creating a unit of trust for its members. Each domain has an identifier that is shared among its members. For more information, see [MS-AUTHSOD] section 1.1.1.5 and [MS-ADTS].

little-endian: Multiple-byte values that are byte-ordered with the least significant byte stored in the memory location with the lowest address.

Near Field Communication (NFC): An international standard for short-range wireless, contactless connectivity that provides intuitive, simple, and safe communication between electronic devices. NFC is the technology on smartphones that makes proximity scenarios possible. For example, it allows a user to wave the smartphone over a NFC-compatible device to send information without needing to touch the devices together or go through multiple steps setting up a connection.

NFPB: The Near Field Proximity: Bidirectional Services Protocol [MS-NFPB].

OPC file: See OPC package.

OPC package: A .ZIP file archive [PKZIP] that follows the Open Packaging Conventions (OPC).

Open Packaging Conventions (OPC): An open standard for a portable container technology that defines a structured way to store application data with related resources by using a standard .ZIP file format. OPC is a component of Office Open XML File Formats [ECMA-376].

pub/sub: Refers to publication/subscription, a design model in which publishers send notification of events that are received by subscribers, which have registered for those events.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): A protocol used with the Internet Protocol (IP) to send data in the form of message units between computers over the Internet. TCP handles keeping track of the individual units of data (called packets) that a message is divided into for efficient routing through the Internet.

UTF-8: A byte-oriented standard for encoding Unicode characters, defined in the Unicode standard. Unless specified otherwise, this term refers to the UTF-8 encoding form specified in [UNICODE5.0.0/2007] section 3.9.

MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.