Data types in Power BI Desktop

This article describes data types supported in Power BI Desktop and Data Analysis Expressions (DAX).

When you load data into Power BI Desktop, it will attempt to convert the data type of the source column into a data type that better supports more efficient storage, calculations, and data visualization. For example, if a column of values you import from Excel has no fractional values, Power BI Desktop will convert the entire column of data to a Whole Number data type, which is better suited for storing integers.

This concept is important because some DAX functions have special data type requirements. While in many cases DAX will implicitly convert a data type for you, there are some cases where it will not. For instance, if a DAX function requires a Date data type and the data type for your column is Text, the DAX function will not work correctly. So, it’s both important and useful to get the correct data type for a column. Implicit conversions are described later in this article.

Determine and specify a column’s data type

In Power BI Desktop, you can determine and specify a column’s data type in the Power Query Editor, or in Data View or Report View:

Data types in Power Query Editor

Screenshot of the Data type ribbon, showing it in the Query Editor.

Data types in Data View or Report View

Screenshot of the Data type ribbon, showing it in the Data View.

The Data Type drop down in Power Query Editor has two data types not currently present in Data or Report View: Date/Time/Timezone and Duration. When a column with these data types is loaded into the model and viewed in Data or Report view, a column with a Date/Time/Timezone data type will be converted into a Date/Time, and a column with a Duration data type is converted into a Decimal Number.

The Binary data type is not currently supported outside of the Power Query Editor. Inside the Power Query Editor you can use it when loading binary files if you convert it to other data types before loading it to the Power BI model. It exists in the Data View and Report View menus for legacy reasons but if you try to load binary columns to the Power BI model you may run into errors.

Number types

Power BI Desktop supports three number types:

Decimal Number – Represents a 64 bit (eight-byte) floating point number. It’s the most common number type and corresponds to numbers as you usually think of them. Although designed to handle numbers with fractional values, it also handles whole numbers. The Decimal Number type can handle negative values from -1.79E +308 through -2.23E -308, 0, and positive values from 2.23E -308 through 1.79E + 308. For example, numbers like 34, 34.01, and 34.000367063 are valid decimal numbers. The largest precision that can be represented in a Decimal Number type is 15 digits long. The decimal separator can occur anywhere in the number. The Decimal Number type corresponds to how Excel stores its numbers. The Decimal Number data type is specified in the Tabular Object Model (TOM) as DataType.Double Enum type 1.

Fixed Decimal Number – Has a fixed location for the decimal separator. The decimal separator always has four digits to its right and allows for 19 digits of significance. The largest value it can represent is 922,337,203,685,477.5807 (positive or negative). The Fixed Decimal Number type is useful in cases where rounding might introduce errors. When you work with many numbers that have small fractional values, they can sometimes accumulate and force a number to be slightly off. Since the values past the four digits to the right of decimal separator are truncated, the Fixed Decimal type can help you avoid these kinds of errors. If you’re familiar with SQL Server, this data type corresponds to SQL Server’s Decimal (19,4), or the Currency data type in Analysis Services and Power Pivot in Excel. The Fixed Decimal Number data type is specified in TOM as DataType.Decimal Enum type 1.

Whole Number – Represents a 64 bit (eight-byte) integer value. Because it’s an integer, it has no digits to the right of the decimal place. It allows for 19 digits; positive or negative whole numbers between -9,223,372,036,854,775,807 (-2^63+1) and 9,223,372,036,854,775,806 (2^63-2). It can represent the largest possible precision of the various numeric data types. As with the Fixed Decimal type, the Whole Number type can be useful in cases where you need to control rounding. The Whole Number data type is specified in TOM as DataType.Int64 Enum type 1.

Note

The Power BI Desktop data model supports 64 bit integer values, but the largest number the visuals can safely express is 9,007,199,254,740,991 (2^53-1) due to JavaScript limitations. If you work with numbers in your data model above this, you can reduce the size through calculations before adding them to a visual.

1 - DataType Enums are specified in the tabular Column DataType property. To learn more about programmatically modifying objects in Power BI, see Programming Power BI datasets with the Tabular Object Model.

Ensuring accuracy of number type calculations

Column values of Decimal Number data type are stored as approximate data types according to the IEEE 754 Standard for floating point numbers. Approximate data types have inherent limitations in their precision because instead of storing the exact value of a number, they may be stored as an extremely close, or rounded, approximation of it. This means that it's possible for precision loss, or imprecision, to occur if the number of floating point digits cannot be reliably quantified in the floating-point value. The potential for imprecision can appear as unexpected or inaccurate calculation results in some reporting scenarios.

Calculations performing equality related comparisons (=, < >, >= and <=) between values of Decimal Number data type can potentially return unexpected results. This is most apparent when using the RANKX function in a DAX expression where the result is calculated twice, resulting in slightly different numbers. The difference between the two numbers is not noticeable by the report user but the rank result can be noticeably inaccurate. To avoid unexpected results, you can change the column data type from Decimal Number to either Fixed Decimal Number or Whole Number, or do a forced rounding using ROUND. The Fixed Decimal Number data type has greater precision because the decimal separator always has four digits to its right.

While rare, calculations that sum the values of a column of Decimal Number data type can potentially return unexpected results. This is most likely with columns that have both a large amount of positive numbers and a large amount of negative numbers. The result of the sum is affected by the distribution of values across rows in the column. If the calculation required to return a query result sums most of the positive numbers before summing most of the negative numbers, the partial sum at the beginning can potentially lose precision as it can be skewed by the large positive partial sum. On the other hand, if a query happens to add balanced positive and negative numbers, the sum will retain more precision and therefore more accurate results are returned. To avoid unexpected results, you can change the column data type from Decimal Number to Fixed Decimal Number or Whole Number.

Date/time types

Power BI Desktop supports five Date/Time data types in Query View. Both Date/Time/Timezone and Duration are converted during load into the model. The Power BI Desktop data model only supports date/time, but they can be formatted as dates or times independently.

Date/Time – Represents both a date and time value. Underneath the covers, the Date/Time value is stored as a Decimal Number Type. So you can actually convert between the two. The time portion of a date is stored as a fraction to whole multiples of 1/300 seconds (3.33 ms). Dates between years 1900 and 9999 are supported.

Date – Represents just a Date (no time portion). When converted into the model, a Date is the same as a Date/Time value with zero for the fractional value.

Time – Represents just Time (no Date portion). When converted into the model, a Time value is the same as a Date/Time value with no digits to the left of the decimal place.

Date/Time/Timezone – Represents a UTC Date/Time with a timezone offset. It’s converted into Date/Time when loaded into the model. The Power BI model doesn't adjust the timezone based on a user's location or locale etc. If a value of 09:00 is loaded into the model in the USA, it will display as 09:00 wherever the report is opened or viewed.

Duration – Represents a length of time. It’s converted into a Decimal Number Type when loaded into the model. As a Decimal Number type it can be added or subtracted from a Date/Time field with correct results. As a Decimal Number type, you can easily use it in visualizations that show magnitude.

Text type

Text - A Unicode character data string. Can be strings, numbers, or dates represented in a text format. Maximum string length is 268,435,456 Unicode characters (256 mega characters) or 536,870,912 bytes.

Power BI stores data in ways that can cause it to display data differently in certain situations. This section describes common situations when working with Text data may appear to change slightly between querying data using Power Query, and then, after the data has been loaded.

Case (in-)sensitivity

The engine that stores and queries data in Power BI is case insensitive - which means the engine treats different capitalization of letters as the same value: a is equal to A. Power Query, however, is case sensitive: a is not equal to A. The difference in case sensitivity leads to situations where text data is loaded into Power BI and subsequently changes capitalization, seemingly inexplicably. In the following simple example, we loaded data about orders: an OrderNo column which is unique for each order and an Addressee column that contains the addressee's name, which is entered manually at the time of order. In Power Query this data is shown as follows:

Textual data with various capitalizations in Power Query

Notice there are multiple orders with the same name as addressee, although entered into the system slightly differently.

When we go to the Data tab in Power BI after the data was loaded, the same table looks like the following table.

The same textual data after loading into Power BI has changed capitalization

Notice that the capitalization of some of the names has changed from the way it was originally entered. This change is because the engine that stores data in Power BI is case insensitive and treats the lowercase and uppercase version of the same character as the same. Power Query is case sensitive, so makes that distinction and therefore shows the data exactly as it was stored in the source system. However, the data in the second screenshot has been loaded into the engine of Power BI and therefore has changed.

When loading data, the engine evaluates each row, one by one, starting from the top. For each text column (such as Addressee), the engine stores a dictionary of unique values to achieve performance through data compression. While processing the Addressee column, the first three values the engine comes across are unique and stored in the dictionary. However, from the fourth name (order 1004) onwards, since the engine is case insensitive, the names are seen as the same: Taina Hasu is the same as TAINA HASU as well as Taina HASU. As a result, the engine does not store that name, but instead refers to the first name it came across. That also explains why the name MURALI DAS is written in capitals, as that is simply the way the name was written when the engine first evaluated it when loading the data top to bottom.

This image explains this process: Depiction of the data load process and mapping text values to a dictionary of unique values

In the example above, the engine loads the first row of data, creates the Addressee dictionary and adds Taina Hasu to it. It also adds a reference to that value in the Addressee column on the table it loaded. It does this for the second and third row as well, as both of these names are not equivalent to the others when compared ignoring case.

The Addressee for the fourth row is compared against the names in the dictionary and is found: since the engine is case insensitive, TAINA HASU and Taina Hasu are the same. As a result, the engine does not add a new name to the Addressee dictionary, instead it refers to the existing name. This is the same for the remaining rows.

Note

Since the engine that stores and queries data in Power BI is case-insensitive, special care must be taken when working in DirectQuery mode with a source that is case-sensitive. Power BI assumes that the source has eliminated duplicate rows; since Power BI is case-insensitive, two values that differ by case only are treated as duplicate, whereas the source might not treated as such. In such cases the final result is undefined and should be avoided. If you are using DirectQuery mode and your data source is case-sensitive, you must normalize casing in the source query or in Power Query.

Trailing spaces

When working with data that contains leading or trailing spaces, you should use the Text.Trim function to remove spaces at the beginning or end of the text to avoid confusion, since the Power BI engine automatically trims any trailing spaces but not leading spaces. Without removing leading or trailing spaces, you might fail to create a relationship because duplicate values are detected or visuals might return unexpected results. As a simple example, we loaded data about customers: a Name column which contains the name of the customer and an Index column that is unique for each entry. Notice the customer name is repeated four times, but each time with different combinations of leading and trailing spaces:

Row Leading space Trailing space Name (within quotes for clarity) Index Text length
1 No No "Dylan Williams" 1 14
2 No Yes "Dylan Williams " 10 15
3 Yes No " Dylan Williams" 20 15
4 Yes Yes " Dylan Williams " 40 16

These variations can occur with manual data entry over time. In Power Query, the resulting data is shown as follows.

Screenshot of textual data with various leading and trailing spaces in Power Query

When we go to the Data tab in Power BI after the data was loaded, the same table looks like the following image.

Screenshot of the same textual data after loading into Power BI returns the same number of rows as before.

However, a visual based on this data returns just two rows.

Screenshot of a table visual based on the same data returns just two lines of data - the first row has a total index of 60 and the second row has a total index of 11.

As the above image shows, the first row has a total value of '60' for the Index field, which leads to the conclusion that the first row in the visual represents the last two rows of the data loaded previously, whereas the second row with total Index value of '11' represents the first two rows. The difference between the number of rows between the visual and the data table is caused by the engine automatically removing (trimming) any trailing spaces, but not any leading spaces. So the first and second row and the third and fourth row are deemed the same and therefore the visual returns these results.

This behavior can occur when working with visuals, and also with error messages related to relationships because duplicate values are detected. For example, depending on the configuration of your relationships, you might see an error similar to the following image.

Screenshot of an error message showing: Column 'Name' in Table 'Customers' contains a duplicate value 'Dylan Williams' and this is not allowed for columns on the one side of a many-to-one relationship or for columns that are used as the primary key of a table.

In other situations, you might be unable to create a many-to-one or one-to-one relationship because duplicate values are detected.

Screenshot of the relationship dialog showing a 'the cardinality you selected isn't valid for this relationship' error, which is related to duplicate values being detected.

These errors are traced back to leading or trailing spaces and can be resolved by using the Text.Trim function to remove the spaces in the Data Transformation window.

True/false type

True/False – A Boolean value of either a True or False.

Power BI converts and displays data differently in certain situations. This section describes common cases of converting Boolean values, and how to address conversions that create unexpected results in Power BI.

For the best and most consistent results, when loading a column that contains Boolean information (true/false) into Power BI, set the column type to True/False as described and explained in the following example.

In this example, we loaded data about whether our customers have signed up for our newsletter: a value of TRUE indicates the customer has signed up for the newsletter, a value of FALSE indicates the customer has not signed up. However, when we publish the report to the Power BI service, we notice that the column tracking the newsletter sign-up status shows as 0 and -1 instead of the expected values of TRUE or FALSE. The following collections of steps involving querying, publishing, and refreshing the data describe how conversions occur, and how to address them.

The simplified query for this table shown in the following image.

Columns set to boolean

The data type of the Subscribed To Newsletter column is set to Any, and as a result of that data type setting, the data is loaded as text into the Power BI model:

Data loaded into Power B I appears as expected

When we add a simple visualization showing the detailed information per customer, the data appears in the visual as expected, both in Power BI Desktop, and when published to the Power BI service.

Visual shows data appearing as expected

However, when we refresh the dataset in the Power BI service the Subscribed To Newsletter column in the visuals displays values as -1 and 0, instead of displaying them as TRUE or FALSE:

Visual shows data appearing in an unexpected format after refresh

If we republish the report from Power BI Desktop, the Subscribed To Newsletter column will again show TRUE or FALSE as we expect, but once a refresh occurs in the Power BI service, the values are again changed to show -1 and 0.

The solution to ensure this doesn't happen is to set any Boolean columns to type True/False in Power BI Desktop, and republish your report.

Change the data type of the column to true false

When the change is made, the visualization shows the values in the Subscribed To Newsletter column slightly differently; rather than the text being all capital letters (as entered in the table), they are now italic and only the first letter is capitalized, which is the result of change the column's data type.

Values appear differently when the data type is changed

Once the data type is changed and republished to the Power BI service, and when a refresh occurs, the values are displayed as True or False, as expected.

When true or false values use the true false data type, data appears as expected after refresh

In summary, when working with Boolean data in Power BI, make sure your columns are set to the True/False data type in Power BI Desktop.

Blanks/nulls type

Blank - Is a data type in DAX that represents and replaces SQL nulls. You can create a blank by using the BLANK function, and test for blanks by using the ISBLANK logical function.

Binary data type

The Binary data type can be used to represent any other data with a binary format. Inside the Power Query Editor, you can use it when loading binary files if you convert it to other data types before loading it to the Power BI model. Binary columns aren't supported in the Power BI data model. It exists in the Data View and Report View menus for legacy reasons but if you try to load binary columns to the Power BI model you may run into errors.

Note

If a binary column is in the output of the steps of a query, attempting to refresh the data through a gateway can cause errors. It's recommended that you explicitly remove any binary columns as the last step in your queries.

Table data type

DAX uses a table data type in many functions, such as aggregations and time intelligence calculations. Some functions require a reference to a table; other functions return a table that can then be used as input to other functions. In some functions that require a table as input, you can specify an expression that evaluates to a table; for some functions, a reference to a base table is required. For information about the requirements of specific functions, see DAX Function Reference.

Implicit and explicit data type conversion in DAX formulas

Each DAX function has specific requirements as to the types of data that are used as inputs and outputs. For example, some functions require integers for some arguments and dates for others; other functions require text or tables.

If the data in the column you specify as an argument is incompatible with the data type required by the function, DAX in many cases will return an error. However, wherever possible DAX will attempt to implicitly convert the data to the required data type. For example:

  • You can type a date as a string, and DAX will parse the string and attempt to cast it as one of the Windows date and time formats.
  • You can add TRUE + 1 and get the result 2, because TRUE is implicitly converted to the number 1 and the operation 1+1 is performed.
  • If you add values in two columns, and one value happens to be represented as text ("12") and the other as a number (12), DAX implicitly converts the string to a number and then does the addition for a numeric result. The following expression returns 44: = "22" + 22.
  • If you attempt to concatenate two numbers, Excel will present them as strings and then concatenate. The following expression returns "1234": = 12 & 34.

Table of implicit data conversions

The type of conversion that is performed is determined by the operator, which casts the values it requires before performing the requested operation. These tables list the operators, and indicate the conversion that is performed on each data type in the column when it is paired with the data type in the intersecting row.

Note

Text data types are not included in these tables. When a number is represented as in a text format, in some cases Power BI will attempt to determine the number type and represent it as a number.

Addition (+)

Operator(+) INTEGER CURRENCY REAL Date/time
INTEGER INTEGER CURRENCY REAL Date/time
CURRENCY CURRENCY CURRENCY REAL Date/time
REAL REAL REAL REAL Date/time
Date/time Date/time Date/time Date/time Date/time

For example, if a real number is used in an addition operation in combination with currency data, both values are converted to REAL, and the result is returned as REAL.

Subtraction (-)

In the following table, the row header is the minuend (left side) and the column header is the subtrahend (right side).

Operator(-) INTEGER CURRENCY REAL Date/time
INTEGER INTEGER CURRENCY REAL REAL
CURRENCY CURRENCY CURRENCY REAL REAL
REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL
Date/time Date/time Date/time Date/time Date/time

For example, if a date is used in a subtraction operation with any other data type, both values are converted to dates, and the return value is also a date.

Note

Data models also support the unary operator, - (negative), but this operator does not change the data type of the operand.

Multiplication (*)

Operator(*) INTEGER CURRENCY REAL Date/time
INTEGER INTEGER CURRENCY REAL INTEGER
CURRENCY CURRENCY REAL CURRENCY CURRENCY
REAL REAL CURRENCY REAL REAL

For example, if an integer is combined with a real number in a multiplication operation, both numbers are converted to real numbers, and the return value is also REAL.

Division (/)

In the following table, the row header is the numerator and the column header is the denominator.

Operator(/) (Row/Column) INTEGER CURRENCY REAL Date/time
INTEGER REAL CURRENCY REAL REAL
CURRENCY CURRENCY REAL CURRENCY REAL
REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL
Date/time REAL REAL REAL REAL

For example, if an integer is combined with a currency value in a division operation, both values are converted to real numbers, and the result is also a real number.

Comparison operators

In comparison expressions, Boolean values are considered greater than string values and string values are considered greater than numeric or date/time values; numbers and date/time values are considered to have the same rank. No implicit conversions are performed for Boolean or string values; BLANK or a blank value is converted to 0/""/false depending on the data type of the other compared value.

The following DAX expressions illustrate this behavior:

=IF(FALSE()>"true","Expression is true", "Expression is false"), returns "Expression is true"

=IF("12">12,"Expression is true", "Expression is false"), returns "Expression is true"

=IF("12"=12,"Expression is true", "Expression is false"), returns "Expression is false"

Conversions are performed implicitly for numeric or date/time types as described in the following table:

Comparison Operator INTEGER CURRENCY REAL Date/time
INTEGER INTEGER CURRENCY REAL REAL
CURRENCY CURRENCY CURRENCY REAL REAL
REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL
Date/time REAL REAL REAL Date/Time

Handling blanks, empty strings, and zero values

In DAX, a null, blank value, empty cell, or a missing value is all represented by the same new value type, a BLANK. You can also generate blanks by using the BLANK function, or test for blanks by using the ISBLANK function.

How blanks are handled in operations such as addition or concatenation depends on the individual function. The following table summarizes the differences between DAX and Microsoft Excel formulas, in the way that blanks are handled.

Expression DAX Excel
BLANK + BLANK BLANK 0(zero)
BLANK + 5 5 5
BLANK * 5 BLANK 0(zero)
5/BLANK Infinity Error
0/BLANK NaN Error
BLANK/BLANK BLANK Error
FALSE OR BLANK FALSE FALSE
FALSE AND BLANK FALSE FALSE
TRUE OR BLANK TRUE TRUE
TRUE AND BLANK FALSE TRUE
BLANK OR BLANK BLANK Error
BLANK AND BLANK BLANK Error

Next steps

You can do all sorts of things with Power BI Desktop and data. For more information on its capabilities, check out the following resources: