Install-​AD​DS​Forest

Installs an Active Directory forest configuration.

Syntax

Install-ADDSForest
       [-Confirm]
       [-CreateDnsDelegation]
       [-DatabasePath <String>]
       [-DnsDelegationCredential <PSCredential>]
       [-DomainMode <DomainMode>]
       -DomainName <String>
       [-DomainNetbiosName <String>]
       [-Force]
       [-ForestMode <ForestMode>]
       [-InstallDns]
       [-LogPath <String>]
       [-NoDnsOnNetwork]
       [-NoRebootOnCompletion]
       [-SafeModeAdministratorPassword <SecureString>]
       [-SkipAutoConfigureDns]
       [-SkipPreChecks]
       [-SysvolPath <String>]
       [-WhatIf]
       [<CommonParameters>]

Description

The Install-ADDSForest cmdlet installs an Active Directory forest configuration.

Examples

Example 1: Install a new forest

PS C:\> Install-ADDSForest -DomainName "corp.contoso.com" -InstallDNS

This command installs a new forest named corp.contoso.com, causes the user to be prompted to provide and confirm the Directory Services Restore Mode (DSRM) password and specifies a DNS server should also be installed during the forest installation process.

Example 2: Install a new forest and a DNS delegation

PS C:\> Install-ADDSForest -DomainName "corp.contoso.com" -CreateDNSDelegation -DomainMode Win2008R2 -ForestMode Win2008R2 -DatabasePath "d:\NTDS" -SysvolPath "d:\SYSVOL" -LogPath "e:\Logs"

This command installs a new forest named corp.contoso.com, creates a DNS delegation in the contoso.com domain, sets domain functional level to Windows Server 2008 R2 and sets forest functional level to Windows Server 2008, installs the Active Directory database and SYSVOL on the D:\ drive, installs the log files on the E:\ drive and has the server automatically restart after AD DS installation is complete and prompts the user to provide and confirm the DSRM password.

Required Parameters

-DomainName

Specifies the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) for the root domain in the forest.

Type:String
Position:Named
Default value:<mandatory>
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False

Optional Parameters

-Confirm

Prompts you for confirmation before running the cmdlet.

Type:SwitchParameter
Aliases:cf
Position:Named
Default value:False
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-CreateDnsDelegation

Indicates that this cmdlet creates a DNS delegation that references the new DNS server that you install along with the domain controller. Valid for Active Directory-integrated DNS only. The default is computed automatically based on the environment.

Type:SwitchParameter
Position:Named
Default value:NULL
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-DatabasePath

Specifies the fully qualified, non-Universal Naming Convention (UNC) path to a directory on a fixed disk of the local computer that contains the domain database, for instance, C:\Databases\NTDS. The default is %SYSTEMROOT%\NTDS.

Type:String
Position:Named
Default value:NULL
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-DnsDelegationCredential

Specifies the user name and password for creating DNS delegation. This parameter is skipped if the value for the CreateDnsDelegation parameter is either specified or computed to be $False.

Type:PSCredential
Position:Named
Default value:NULL
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-DomainMode

Specifies the domain functional level of the first domain in the creation of a new forest. Supported values for this parameter can be either a valid integer or a corresponding enumerated string value. For instance, to set the domain mode level to Windows Server 2008 R2, you can specify either a value of 4 or Win2008R2.

The acceptable values for this parameter are:

  • Windows Server 2003: 2 or Win2003
  • Windows Server 2008: 3 or Win2008
  • Windows Server 2008 R2: 4 or Win2008R2
  • Windows Server 2012: 5 or Win2012
  • Windows Server 2012 R2: 6 or Win2012R2
  • Windows Server 2016: 7 or WinThreshold

The domain functional level cannot be lower than the forest functional level, but it can be higher. The default is automatically computed and set.

Type:DomainMode
Parameter Sets:Win2008, Win2008R2, Win2012, Win2012R2, WinThreshold, Default
Position:Named
Default value:Windows2008R2
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-DomainNetbiosName

Specifies the NetBIOS name for the root domain in the new forest. For NetBIOS names to be valid for use with this parameter they must be single label names of 15 characters or less.

If this parameter is set with a valid NetBIOS name value, then forest installation continues with the name specified. If this parameter is not set, then the default is automatically computed from the value of the DomainName parameter.

For example, if this parameter is not specified and a single-label prefix domain name of 15 characters or less is specified within the value of the DomainName parameter, then promotion continues with an automatically generated NetBIOS domain name. For example, the prefix label corp within a full domain name value of corp.contoso.com would be a successful name choice.

Note that if the name value given for this parameter is a name of 16 characters or more, then the forest installation fails.

Type:String
Position:Named
Default value:NULL
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-Force

Forces the command to run without asking for user confirmation.

Type:SwitchParameter
Position:Named
Default value:None
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-ForestMode

Specifies the forest functional level for the new forest. Supported values for this parameter can be either a valid integer or a corresponding enumerated string value. For example, to set the forest mode level to Windows Server 2008 R2, you can specify either a value of 4 or Win2008R2.

The acceptable values for this parameter are:

  • Windows Server 2003: 2 or Win2003
  • Windows Server 2008: 3 or Win2008
  • Windows Server 2008 R2: 4 or Win2008R2
  • Windows Server 2012: 5 or Win2012
  • Windows Server 2012 R2: 6 or Win2012R2
  • Windows Server 2016: 7 or WinThreshold

The default forest functional level in Windows Server is typically the same as the version you are running. However, the default forest functional level in Windows Server 2008 R2 when you create a new forest is Windows Server 2003 or 2.

Type:ForestMode
Parameter Sets:Win2008, Win2008R2, Win2012, Win2012R2, WinThreshold, Default
Position:Named
Default value:Windows2008R2
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-InstallDns

Indicates that this cmdlet installs and configures the DNS Server service for the new forest. For forest installation, the default is $True.

Type:SwitchParameter
Position:Named
Default value:NULL
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-LogPath

Specifies the fully qualified, non-UNC path to a directory on a fixed disk of the local computer where the log file for this operation is written. For instance, C:\Logs. The default log file path if no other path is specified with this parameter is %SYSTEMROOT%\NTDS.

Type:String
Position:Named
Default value:NULL
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-NoDnsOnNetwork

Indicates that the DNS service is not available on the network. This parameter is used only when the IP setting of the network adapter for this computer is not configured with the name of a DNS server for name resolution. It indicates that a DNS server is installed on this computer for name resolution. Otherwise, the IP settings of the network adapter must first be configured with the address of a DNS server.

Omitting this parameter indicates that the TCP/IP client settings of the network adapter on this server computer is used to contact a DNS server. Therefore, if you do not specify this parameter, ensure that TCP/IP client settings are first configured with a preferred DNS server address.

Type:SwitchParameter
Position:Named
Default value:None
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-NoRebootOnCompletion

Indicates that the cmdlet does not reboot the computer upon completion of this command. Omitting this parameter indicates the computer is rebooted upon completion of the command, regardless of success or failure. As a general rule, Microsoft support recommends that you do not use this parameter except for testing or troubleshooting purposes because once configuration has completed the server will not function correctly as either a member server or a DC until it is rebooted.

Type:SwitchParameter
Position:Named
Default value:None
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-SafeModeAdministratorPassword

Supplies the password for the administrator account when the computer is started in Safe Mode or a variant of Safe Mode, such as Directory Services Restore Mode. You must supply a password that meets the password complexity rules of the domain and the password cannot be blank. If specified with a value, the value must be a secure string.

If this parameter is not specified, the cmdlet prompts you to enter and confirm a masked password. This is the preferred usage when running the cmdlet interactively. If additionally there are no other arguments specified with the cmdlet, you are prompted to enter a masked password for this parameter but no confirmation of the password entered is made. This is not recommended as it could allow a mistyped password to be configured. Another available advanced option is to use the ConvertTo-SecureString cmdlet and specify the password string inline as unmasked console input, which is also not a recommended security best practice in production deployments.

Type:SecureString
Position:Named
Default value:<mandatory>
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-SkipAutoConfigureDns

Indicates that the cmdlet skips automatic configuration of DNS client settings, forwarders, and root hints. This parameter is in effect only if the DNS Server service is already installed.

Type:SwitchParameter
Position:Named
Default value:NULL
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-SkipPreChecks

Indicates that the cmdlet performs only a base set of validations. This behavior is equivalent to the validations that were performed when using Dcpromo.exe in earlier versions of Windows Server to add a new forest. When this switch parameter is set, it specifies that additional preliminary checks should be bypassed. For more information on the scope of these additional preliminary checks that the ADDSDeployment module performs by default when using Windows Server 2012, refer to the table in the section ADPrep and Prerequisite Checking Architecture in AD DS Simplified Administration.

Type:SwitchParameter
Position:Named
Default value:None
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-SysvolPath

Specifies the fully qualified, non-UNC path to a directory on a fixed disk of the local computer where the Sysvol file is written. For example, C:\Logs\SYSVOL. The default path if no other path is specified with this parameter is %SYSTEMROOT%\SYSVOL.

Type:String
Position:Named
Default value:NULL
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-WhatIf

Shows what would happen if the cmdlet runs. The cmdlet is not run.

Type:SwitchParameter
Aliases:wi
Position:Named
Default value:False
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False

Notes

  • By default, the DNS Server service is installed when you create a new forest. It is strongly recommended that you install and use the Windows DNS Server to support the needs for DNS name resolution in your Active Directory deployment. You do not need to specifically include the InstallDNS to install it.

  • If you are using Active Directory-integrated DNS, the IP address for the preferred DNS server for the first domain controller in the forest is automatically set to the loopback address of 127.0.0.1. This helps assure that the IP address of the first domain controller is resolved in DNS even if the address is changed.