Adding Parameters That Process Command-Line Input

One source of input for a cmdlet is the command line. This topic describes how to add a parameter to the Get-Proc cmdlet (which is described in Creating Your First Cmdlet) so that the cmdlet can process input from the local computer based on explicit objects passed to the cmdlet. The Get-Proc cmdlet described here retrieves processes based on their names, and then displays information about the processes at a command prompt.

Defining the Cmdlet Class

The first step in cmdlet creation is cmdlet naming and the declaration of the .NET Framework class that implements the cmdlet. This cmdlet retrieves process information, so the verb name chosen here is "Get." (Almost any sort of cmdlet that is capable of retrieving information can process command-line input.) For more information about approved cmdlet verbs, see Cmdlet Verb Names.

Here's the class declaration for the Get-Proc cmdlet. Details about this definition are provided in Creating Your First Cmdlet.

[Cmdlet(VerbsCommon.Get, "proc")]
public class GetProcCommand: Cmdlet
<Cmdlet(VerbsCommon.Get, "Proc")> _
Public Class GetProcCommand
    Inherits Cmdlet

Declaring Parameters

A cmdlet parameter enables the user to provide input to the cmdlet. In the following example, Get-Proc and Get-Member are the names of pipelined cmdlets, and MemberType is a parameter for the Get-Member cmdlet. The parameter has the argument "property."

PS> get-proc ; get-member -membertype property

To declare parameters for a cmdlet, you must first define the properties that represent the parameters. In the Get-Proc cmdlet, the only parameter is Name, which in this case represents the name of the .NET Framework process object to retrieve. Therefore, the cmdlet class defines a property of type string to accept an array of names.

Here's the parameter declaration for the Name parameter of the Get-Proc cmdlet.

/// <summary>
/// Specify the cmdlet Name parameter.
/// </summary>
  [Parameter(Position = 0)]
  public string[] Name
    get { return processNames; }
    set { processNames = value; }
  private string[] processNames;

  #endregion Parameters
<Parameter(Position:=0), ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()> _
Public Property Name() As String()
        Return processNames
    End Get

    Set(ByVal value As String())
        processNames = value
    End Set

End Property

To inform the Windows PowerShell runtime that this property is the Name parameter, a System.Management.Automation.Parameterattribute attribute is added to the property definition. The basic syntax for declaring this attribute is [Parameter()].


A parameter must be explicitly marked as public. Parameters that are not marked as public default to internal and are not found by the Windows PowerShell runtime.

This cmdlet uses an array of strings for the Name parameter. If possible, your cmdlet should also define a parameter as an array, because this allows the cmdlet to accept more than one item.

Things to Remember About Parameter Definitions

  • Predefined Windows PowerShell parameter names and data types should be reused as much as possible to ensure that your cmdlet is compatible with Windows PowerShell cmdlets. For example, if all cmdlets use the predefined Id parameter name to identify a resource, user will easily understand the meaning of the parameter, regardless of what cmdlet they are using. Basically, parameter names follow the same rules as those used for variable names in the common language runtime (CLR). For more information about parameter naming, see Cmdlet Parameter Names.

  • Windows PowerShell reserves a few parameter names to provide a consistent user experience. Do not use these parameter names: WhatIf, Confirm, Verbose, Debug, Warn, ErrorAction, ErrorVariable, OutVariable, and OutBuffer. Additionally, the following aliases for these parameter names are reserved: vb, db, ea, ev, ov, and ob.

  • Name is a simple and common parameter name, recommended for use in your cmdlets. It is better to choose a parameter name like this than a complex name that is unique to a specific cmdlet and hard to remember.

  • Parameters are case-insensitive in Windows PowerShell, although by default the shell preserves case. Case-sensitivity of the arguments depends on the operation of the cmdlet. Arguments are passed to a parameter as specified at the command line.

  • For examples of other parameter declarations, see Cmdlet Parameters.

Declaring Parameters as Positional or Named

A cmdlet must set each parameter as either a positional or named parameter. Both kinds of parameters accept single arguments, multiple arguments separated by commas, and Boolean settings. A Boolean parameter, also called a switch, handles only Boolean settings. The switch is used to determine the presence of the parameter. The recommended default is false.

The sample Get-Proc cmdlet defines the Name parameter as a positional parameter with position 0. This means that the first argument the user enters on the command line is automatically inserted for this parameter. If you want to define a named parameter, for which the user must specify the parameter name from the command line, leave the Position keyword out of the attribute declaration.


Unless parameters must be named, we recommend that you make the most-used parameters positional so that users will not have to type the parameter name.

Declaring Parameters as Mandatory or Optional

A cmdlet must set each parameter as either an optional or a mandatory parameter. In the sample Get-Proc cmdlet, the Name parameter is defined as optional because the Mandatory keyword is not set in the attribute declaration.

Supporting Parameter Validation

The sample Get-Proc cmdlet adds an input validation attribute, System.Management.Automation.Validatenotnulloremptyattribute, to the Name parameter to enable validation that the input is neither null nor empty. This attribute is one of several validation attributes provided by Windows PowerShell. For examples of other validation attributes, see Validating Parameter Input.

[Parameter(Position = 0)]
public string[] Name

Overriding an Input Processing Method

If your cmdlet is to handle command-line input, it must override the appropriate input processing methods. The basic input processing methods are introduced in Creating Your First Cmdlet.

The Get-Proc cmdlet overrides the System.Management.Automation.Cmdlet.ProcessRecord method to handle the Name parameter input provided by the user or a script. This method gets the processes for each requested process name, or all for processes if no name is provided. Notice that in System.Management.Automation.Cmdlet.ProcessRecord, the call to System.Management.Automation.Cmdlet.WriteObject%28System.Object%2CSystem.Boolean%29 is the output mechanism for sending output objects to the pipeline. The second parameter of this call, enumerateCollection, is set to true to inform the Windows PowerShell runtime to enumerate the output array of process objects and write one process at a time to the command line.

protected override void ProcessRecord()
  // If no process names are passed to the cmdlet, get all processes.
  if (processNames == null)
    // Write the processes to the pipeline making them available
    // to the next cmdlet. The second argument of this call tells
    // PowerShell to enumerate the array, and send one process at a
    // time to the pipeline.
    WriteObject(Process.GetProcesses(), true);
    // If process names are passed to the cmdlet, get and write
    // the associated processes.
    foreach (string name in processNames)
      WriteObject(Process.GetProcessesByName(name), true);
Protected Overrides Sub ProcessRecord()

    '/ If no process names are passed to the cmdlet, get all processes.
    If processNames Is Nothing Then
        Dim processes As Process()
        processes = Process.GetProcesses()
    End If

    '/ If process names are specified, write the processes to the
    '/ pipeline to display them or make them available to the next cmdlet.

    For Each name As String In processNames
        '/ The second parameter of this call tells PowerShell to enumerate the
        '/ array, and send one process at a time to the pipeline.
        WriteObject(Process.GetProcessesByName(name), True)

End Sub 'ProcessRecord

Code Sample

For the complete C# sample code, see GetProcessSample02 Sample.

Defining Object Types and Formatting

Windows PowerShell passes information between cmdlets by using .NET Framework objects. Consequently, a cmdlet might need to define its own type, or a cmdlet might need to extend an existing type provided by another cmdlet. For more information about defining new types or extending existing types, see Extending Object Types and Formatting.

Building the Cmdlet

After you implement a cmdlet, you must register it with Windows PowerShell by using a Windows PowerShell snap-in. For more information about registering cmdlets, see How to Register Cmdlets, Providers, and Host Applications.

Testing the Cmdlet

When your cmdlet is registered with Windows PowerShell, you can test it by running it on the command line. Here are two ways to test the code for the sample cmdlet. For more information about using cmdlets from the command line, see Getting Started with Windows PowerShell.

  • At the Windows PowerShell prompt, use the following command to list the Internet Explorer process, which is named "IEXPLORE."

    get-proc -name iexplore

    The following output appears.

    Handles  NPM(K)  PM(K)   WS(K)  VS(M)  CPU(s)   Id   ProcessName
    -------  ------  -----   -----  -----   ------ --   -----------
        354      11  10036   18992    85   0.67   3284   iexplore
  • To list the Internet Explorer, Outlook, and Notepad processes named "IEXPLORE," "OUTLOOK," and "NOTEPAD," use the following command. If there are multiple processes, all of them are displayed.

    get-proc -name iexplore, outlook, notepad

    The following output appears.

    Handles  NPM(K)  PM(K)   WS(K)  VS(M)  CPU(s)   Id   ProcessName
    -------  ------  -----   -----  -----  ------   --   -----------
        732      21  24696    5000    138   2.25  2288   iexplore
        715      19  20556   14116    136   1.78  3860   iexplore
       3917      62  74096   58112    468 191.56  1848   OUTLOOK
         39       2   1024    3280     30   0.09  1444   notepad
         39       2   1024     356     30   0.08  3396   notepad

See Also

Adding Parameters that Process Pipeline Input

Creating Your First Cmdlet

Extending Object Types and Formatting

How to Register Cmdlets, Providers, and Host Applications

Windows PowerShell Reference

Cmdlet Samples