Get started with Desired State Configuration (DSC) for Windows

This topic explains how to get started using PowerShell Desired State Configuration (DSC) for Windows. For general information about DSC, see Get Started with Windows PowerShell Desired State Configuration.

Supported Windows operation system versions

The following versions are supported:

  • Windows Server 2019
  • Windows Server 2016
  • Windows Server 2012R2
  • Windows Server 2012
  • Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1
  • Windows 10
  • Windows 8.1
  • Windows 7

The Microsoft Hyper-V Server standalone product sku doesn't contain an implementation of Desired State Configuration so it cannot be managed by PowerShell DSC or Azure Automation State Configuration.

Installing DSC

PowerShell Desired State Configuration is included in Windows and updated through Windows Management Framework. The latest version is Windows Management Framework 5.1.

Note

You do not need to enable the Windows Server feature 'DSC-Service' to manage a machine using DSC. That feature is only needed when building a Windows Pull Server instance.

Using DSC for Windows

The following sections explain how to create and run DSC configurations on Windows computers.

Creating a configuration MOF document

The Windows PowerShell Configuration keyword is used to create a configuration. The following steps describe the creation of a configuration document using Windows PowerShell.

Define a configuration and generate the configuration document:

Configuration EnvironmentVariable_Path
{
    param ()

    Import-DscResource -ModuleName 'PSDscResources'

    Node localhost
    {
        Environment CreatePathEnvironmentVariable
        {
            Name = 'TestPathEnvironmentVariable'
            Value = 'TestValue'
            Ensure = 'Present'
            Path = $true
            Target = @('Process', 'Machine')
        }
    }
}

EnvironmentVariable_Path -OutputPath:"C:\EnvironmentVariable_Path"

Install a module containing DSC resources

Windows PowerShell Desired State Configuration includes built-in modules containing DSC resources. You can also load modules from external sources such as the PowerShell Gallery, using the PowerShellGet cmdlets.

Install-Module 'PSDscResources' -Verbose

Apply the configuration to the machine

Note

To allow DSC to run, Windows needs to be configured to receive PowerShell remote commands even when you're running a localhost configuration. To easily configure your environment correctly, just run Set-WsManQuickConfig -Force in an elevated PowerShell Terminal.

Configuration documents (MOF files) can be applied to the machineusing the Start-DscConfiguration cmdlet.

Start-DscConfiguration -Path 'C:\EnvironmentVariable_Path' -Wait -Verbose

Get the current state of the configuration

The Get-DscConfiguration cmdlet queries the current status of the machine and returns the current values for the configuration.

Get-DscConfiguration

The Get-DscLocalConfigurationManager cmdlet returns the current meta-configuration applied to the machine.

Get-DscLocalConfigurationManager

Remove the current configuration from a machine

The Remove-DscConfigurationDocument

Remove-DscConfigurationDocument -Stage Current -Verbose

Configure settings in Local Configuration Manager

Apply a Meta Configuration MOF file to the machine using the Set-DSCLocalConfigurationManager cmdlet. Requires the path to the Meta Configuration MOF.

Set-DSCLocalConfigurationManager -Path 'c:\metaconfig\localhost.meta.mof' -Verbose

Windows PowerShell Desired State Configuration log files

Logs for DSC are written to Windows Event Log in the path Microsoft-Windows-Dsc/Operational. Additional logs for debugging purposes can be enabled following the steps in Where Are DSC Event Logs.