Architectural Patterns for Distributed Computing

The Architecture Journal

Joshy Joseph, Jason Hogg, Dmitri Ossipov, Massimo Mascaro, and Danny Garber

Summary: As the technologies supporting design, development, and deployment of distributed applications continue to advance, it is more important than ever for architects and developers to establish stable libraries of architectural patterns based on recurrent experiences developing such distributed solutions. This article will explore patterns harvested from customer engagements—mapping real-world scenarios to patterns and then describing how said patterns were implemented on current technologies. Our analysis also includes a discussion of the forces leading to the application of a particular pattern and the resulting context that must be considered.


Implementation of Services and Business Processes
Consumption of Services
Service Administration


Distributed systems architecture has rapidly evolved by applying and combining different architecture patterns and styles. In recent years, decoupling interfaces and implementation, scalable hosting models, and service orientation were the prominent tenets of building distributed systems. Distributed systems have grown from independent enterprise applications to Internet-connected networks of managed services, hosted on-premise and/or clouds.

Creating successful distributed systems requires that you address how that system is designed, developed, maintained, supported, and governed. Microsoft’s Service Oriented Architecture Maturity Model (SOAMM) assessment method helps customers assess maturity elements and prioritize the evolution of their enterprise architecture. Organizations are applying methods, patterns, and technologies to model systems and enable proper governance.

We will discuss patterns harvested from different consulting engagements and examine how these patterns were implemented on current technology offerings from Microsoft. Building distributed systems involves three core capabilities, based on the following roles:

  1. Implementation of applications/services.
  2. Consumption of services from within and external to organizations.
  3. Administration of services or composite services.

Implementation of Services and Business Processes

Let’s start with the implementation capabilities needed to build and expose services. Implementation capabilities describe an organization’s methods to implement effective best practices, identify and apply patterns, and provide services.

Service Design

Five years ago, the Patterns & Practices (P&P) team was asked to create a reference application for developing distributed applications to accompany the release of the second version of .NET Framework. To design this reference application, P&P spent much time talking with customers and consultants in the field to understand the challenges they encountered when designing, developing, and deploying applications. As a result of these interactions, P&P identified recurring patterns relevant to SOA from narrative-based pattern guides culminating with the Web Service Software Factory.

Patterns. An early promise of services was support for interoperability within a heterogeneous environment, but given the wide range of technologies and emerging nature of many of the WS* standards, it was critical for the service’s business logic to be completely independent of the service’s interface, allowing the bindings and policies associated with the service to evolve separately. Furthermore, the actual technology used to implement the services could also minimize the impact on business logic. The Service Interface pattern described a means of designing services to cater to these forces.

In addition to separating the design of the service interface from the service’s implementation, cross-cutting concerns such as authentication, authorization, message validation, and auditing were implemented using a pipeline similar to the Pipes and Filters pattern. This pipeline allowed these cross-cutting concerns to be specified declaratively independent of the service’s business logic. This pattern is used within the WSSF to ensure that cross-cutting concerns such as validation are configured declaratively.

A core tenant of SOA is the concept that a service’s boundaries are explicit; interactions are performed by using well-defined messages. Furthermore, the service must ensure that such messages provided as input are validated because incoming data may be malformed and transmitted for malicious reasons. The service must also ensure that erroneous behaviors occurring within the service related to the internal implementation of the service are not accidentally leaked. The Message Validator pattern describes several approaches that can validate incoming messages prior to execution of business logic. The WSSF actually uses the Enterprise Library Validation Block to support these requirements. A second pattern, called the Exception Shielding pattern, describes precautions that a service author can take to ensure that exceptions are caught and sanitized prior to returning a fault to a client, while still ensuring that sufficient information is logged for administrators to troubleshoot.

Figure 1 illustrates this patterns interaction.


Figure 1. Exception Shielding pattern

Finally, when it came time to deploy these early services to a production environment one challenge that many customers faced was that the operations folks would not allow the clients to talk directly to the Web service. For customers with external clients, it was against company policy to have an external application interact directly with an application residing on an internal network. The solution was to deploy a Perimeter Service Router into the perimeter network, allowing it to take responsibility for directing incoming messages to appropriate internal resources.

Figure 2 illustrates this scenario.


Figure 2. Perimeter Service Router pattern

Process Design

The goal of any IT system is to implement the logic behind an organization’s business processes. As organizations automate more and more processes, the IT department’s perceived value grows, as well as its responsibilities on the business-process realization itself.

This is particularly true in industries where the products are materialized as IT systems, such as areas of commerce and trading, banking, and insurance. An IT department’s effective implementation of the business process can lead to predominant market positions and impressive returns. In turn, IT inertias and the inability to execute quickly can lead to business disasters.

Cost and time important considerations when designing and implementing business processes is the need to optimize cost and time. To reduce costs, reuse effective patterns, software factories, and agile/test-driven software methodologies. Noncompliance with specifications and changing business processes and policies during the course of the implementation contribute to delays.

Business-critical processes must ensure process reliability and availability and enable governance.

When dealing with reuse effectiveness, the graphical composition of complex processes from small reusable building blocks and the augmentation of those technologies with domain-specific extensions showed greater value. A good system will allow for process templating—for example, the ability to create a macro process template that derives a number of processes that follow the same template. The usage of graphical composition tools allows non developer users to review and change processes. In order to run a process, you need a hosting environment, as well as the ability to locate and read the process definition and efficiently execute it. In addition, environments should provide reliability, fault tolerance, on-demand migration to different environments, and transactionality.

Scenario Description. We are involved with a banking automation project in Europe. This bank is active in the retail market with a large diffusion of branches across the territory, and is gaining a lot of traction from its customer-directed financial products.

Bank management has opted for a strategy that is based on four pillars:

  • Maintain customer contact, but steer the branch from a mere teller office to a financial services shop.
  • Boost self-service teller operations across all the bank delivery channels (including ATMs).
  • Invest in cross-selling and customer-centric offerings at any customer’s point of contact, based on context.
  • Enlarge the customer channel reach boosting call center, mobile, and intermediary sales of financial products.

This bank is currently in the process of rebuilding its main branch application through a new business process using SOA methods.

Key Functional and Nonfunctional Characteristics. In our experience, effective business-process design and execution infrastructure should provision:

  • Composition of business processes and integration of back-end systems.
  • Smart-client interaction with the services’ infrastructure, composition, and front-end/back-end integration.
  • Conversational capabilities of processes.
  • Shortcut of the analyst-developer interaction with process-driven development.
  • Reduction of the impact of change requests.
  • Online/offline support at the process level; the ability to relocate business processes out of the center.
  • Large-scale deployment, configuration, and management.
  • Separation of rules from process code for maximum flexibility.

Patterns. We gathered patterns that are related to business-process development that illustrate a collection of architectural and workflow patterns:

  • Basic workflow patterns—Control-flow, resource, data, and exception-handling–related patterns.
  • Advanced workflow patterns—Wizard-based tools that drive contract-first development, inclusion of transparent processes or intermediaries, context-based process selection, enabling stateful interactions, and externalization of business rules. Some of these patterns are not formalized elsewhere.
  • Workflow-hosting patterns—A flexible hosting platform exposing workflows as Web services, locating and selecting business processes from a repository based on context, scalable process execution environment, and pluggable workflow runtimes.
  • Business-activity monitoring—Monitoring the current state of a business activity.

These patterns force you to build service compositions with the flexibility to dynamically change the activities through an appropriate service implementation based on business rules.

Technologies Realizing Patterns. Microsoft offers two technology solutions to address business-process development and hosting: BizTalk server and Windows Workflow (WF). BizTalk offers a platform and tools to connect with services inside and outside of organizations, including a large number of adapters to legacy systems. WF is the programming model, engine, and tools for quickly building workflow-enabled applications. In addition, Microsoft consulting developed a wizard-driven toolkit and runtime, Distributed Connectivity Service (DCS), to provide guidance on developing and hosting business processes that are based on the aforementioned patterns. DCS provides service-management capabilities such as service location transparency, dynamic clients, context-driven business-process selection, scalable hosting of workflows, and a security token service for exposing business processes as services. Depending on the enterprise scenario and hosting requirements, you could select BizTalk, DCS, or a combination.

Table 1 lists the patterns category, along with the problem statements and associated technology implementations.

Table 1. Business-process workflow-design patterns category

Patterns category



Process-driven development

How to develop business process conforming to the well-known workflow patterns; how to adapt quickly to process-change requirements

·         Use extensible graphical workflow systems to build domain-specific environments, such as WF.

·         Workflow patterns provide a set of patterns for control-flow, resource, data, and exception handling.

·         DCS Software factory toolkit automates known patterns such as process templating, process interception, context-based process selection, and stateful interactions.

·         Externalizing business rules from workflow using WF Rule engine or BizTalk Rule Engine.

Separation of contracts and implementations

How to ensure the same service contracts can be implemented in multiple fashions

·         Use WCF contract-extendibility features.

·         Use MSE to virtualize different services and re-expose them with a unified contract.

·         DCS Task Factory application toolkit provides a framework to dynamically choose the implementation.

Transparent process migration and resilience

How to move processes seamless among the machines that need to host them, to handle disconnected scenarios and faults

·         Use DCS WF hosting capabilities to persist/move workflows.

Composite applications and services

How to write client applications (across multiple channels) to compose existing UI components and services quickly, in different ways

·         Build and host services using ESB Guidance Toolkit.

·         Use DCS Software Factory toolkit.

·         Use either the CAB or Prism to build composite smart clients.

·         Use Customer Care Framework (CCF) 2009 to build front ends and back ends (it embeds DCS) with composite capabilities spanning multiple channels and WF-activated services.

Conversational processes

How to allow a process to maintain its state across multiple calls coming from one or more caller

·         Use BizTalk orchestration exposed as services.

·         Use WF-activated services in .NET Framework 3.5 and WF-standard persistence.

·         Use DCS to build persistent, WF-designed logic.

Stateful interceptors

How to intercept service calls transparently, modifying their behavior via stateful interceptors able to correlate multiple operations—for example, to apply new marketing-driven, customer state-specific behaviors

·         Use DCS business Transparent Processes and DCS hosting engine.

Process-status monitoring, business activity-monitoring

How to monitor the current state of a process or business activity

·         Use BizTalk BAM to monitor either the BizTalk orchestrations or the WF-hosted services (via BTS BAM interceptor).

·         Use default tracking capabilities in workflow foundation (no OOB provision for intraprocess monitoring).


Deploying Service

Deploying services to a production environment is complicated. Operational staffs need to decide how the service should be exposed, who has access to the service, which protocols should be supported, and how to version a service. In some cases it is against company policy to have an external application interact directly with an application residing on an internal network. Some customers restrict service access to a specific set of credentials. Organizations would like to expose multiple versions of the service for old and newer clients. Services may use legacy protocols that clients don’t support.

Patterns. While addressing these scenarios, numerous patterns emerged:

  • Deploying a Perimeter Service Router into the network allows it to take responsibility for directing incoming messages to appropriate internal resources.
  • Service Catalog Pattern—Extracts and stores service-related metadata (policy, endpoint information, protocol binding/channels, service/client behaviors).
  • Service Virtualization—Consolidates a single service or multiple services to a virtualized service.
  • Service Versioning—Enables multiple versions of the same service to deploy simultaneously.
  • Service Activity Monitoring—A central hub monitors client interaction with the service.

These patterns resulted in a technology framework called Managed Services Engine. As Figure 3 shows, MSE provides a message hub with message normalization, brokering, and dispatching capabilities.


Figure 3. The Managed Services Engine

Consumption of Services

The consumption of services from within the enterprise (as well as those external to it) requires business enablement and platform capabilities. These capabilities help enterprises to effectively adopt and promote the use of services by providing a foundation to support and enhance the consumption of enterprise services by others.

Enterprise Service Bus. The term Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) is widely used in the context of implementing an infrastructure for enabling a service-oriented architecture (SOA). An ESB product supports a variety of patterns, hence by breaking various ESB’s down into their constituent patterns, you get a real sense of the capabilities implemented within each solution.

Scenario Description. We worked with a major insurance provider that used the BizTalk server as a platform choice for the integration of legacy systems. Recently, this company became a provider of auto claim services. Receiving an auto claim from claim office, creating the claim process, and sending the claim to an independent adjuster for damage inspection and receiving a repair estimate for approval, parts procurement, and further repairs is a common scenario. These imply configurable policy-based service mediation and composition of enterprise and third-party services, thereby coordinating the execution of distributed business processes.

Key Functional and Nonfunctional Characteristics. Key functional requirements to define the architecture included:

  • Loosely coupled messaging environment and protocol mediation.
  • Registry-driven resolution of business-service endpoints.
  • Itinerary-based message routing.
  • Service life-cycle management and dynamic business changes.
  • Monitoring the health of individual and composed services.
  • Enabling automated service provisioning to service registry.

Patterns. You can think of an ESB as a collection of architectural patterns based on traditional enterprise application integration (EAI) patterns, message-oriented middleware, Web services, interoperability, host system integration, and interoperability with service registries and repositories.

Applying message-routing patterns forces you to build service compositions with flexibility in a dynamically evolving enterprise:

  • Routing Slip Pattern—Routing a message through consecutive number of steps when the sequence of steps is not known and may vary for each message
  • Recipient List Pattern—Routing a message to a dynamic list of recipients
  • Content-Based Router—Routing a message to its destination, based on message content
  • Scatter-Gather—Maintaining the overall message flow when a message must be sent to multiple recipients, where each may send a reply
  • Repair and Resubmit—Modifying content of externalized fault that contains the original message and resubmitting to resume the processing sequence

Applying message-transformation patterns forces you to use canonical data models to minimize intra-application dependencies when different data formats are being used:

  • Data Transformation—Transforming a message from one format to another, when the format is semantically equivalent
  • Content Enricher—Communicating with another system to include additional information in the message content

Technologies Realizing Patterns. To implement best practices for building service compositions, developers and architects should clearly articulate the following:

  • Identify a baseline architecture that provides a view of an executable slice through the overall system that is designed to implement the significant use cases.
  • Choose integration topology that suits most of the known requirements.
  • Incorporate functional scenarios into baseline architecture by mapping the design into a set of known integration patterns.

Enterprise Service Bus Guidance (ESBG) for Microsoft BizTalk Server R2 provides best practices for implementing ESB usage patterns using the Microsoft platform.

Table 2 lists the patterns category along with the respective problems and solutions.

Table 2. Service-Composition Patterns categories

Patterns category



Message-routing patterns

How to define service compositions

How to enforce development best practices for service discovery

  • Use the Routing Slip pattern for implementing itinerary-based routing.
  • Leverage key itinerary abstractions to compose messaging and orchestrations into a sequence of itinerary steps.


How to force the reuse of complex messaging scenarios independently from service contracts

  • Use service registry and categorization schemas for service discovery.
  • Define service orchestrations as reusable components. These components can be incorporated as reusable itinerary steps.

Message-transformation patterns

How to apply data-model transformations dynamically

  • Define data-model transformations to be executed as part of itinerary-based routing.

Operations management

How to troubleshoot messaging activities, repair, and resubmit a message

How to track execution of itinerary-based routing

  • Apply the Repair and Resubmit pattern by providing infrastructures with capabilities of externalizing faults to a centralized store and use management applications for generating alerts, message editing, and resubmission to a service endpoint when applicable.
  • Use BizTalk BAM to track message interchanges and execution history of itinerary steps.


Patterns Addressing Internet Service Bus (ISB) Scenarios

Internet Service Bus (ISB) addresses cross enterprise service collaboration scenarios. Organizations attempting to implement such scenarios with a traditional Web services composition/ESB approach are facing challenges when it comes to spanning business processes across the enterprise boundaries.

In this section, we offer a design pattern, Agent Traveling Design Pattern, and specifically two of its subsidiary patterns, Itinerary Pattern and Ticket Forward Pattern, which can help to solve these challenges. Traveling patterns deal with various aspects of managing the movements of mobile agents, such as routing and quality of service. Examples of the Itinerary pattern can be found in various implementations of ESB.

We will demonstrate how with help of MSE and ESBG one can achieve the desired Itinerary pattern architecture that spans network and geographic boundaries.

Scenario Description. We are involved with a medical insurance provider that decided to embark on SOA to modernize its Information technology while leveraging existing legacy data centers and Web services deployed across the nation. Its main data center is connected in a cross-star network to several satellite data centers as well as to the third-party partner’s medical claims management agencies.

This provider decided to embrace all of its data-center services and LOB applications into a set of workflow processes, utilizing the Itinerary pattern, which is dynamically controlled by the business rules, runtime policies, and SLAs.

Key Functional and Nonfunctional Characteristics. The requirements included:

  • Leveraging legacy data-center systems while creating new services.
  • Supporting multiple communications protocols (WCF, SOAP, REST, and so on).
  • Operating in an environment with several geographically dispersed data centers.
  • Implementing multiple itinerary workflows, some of which are nested in each other.
  • Providing the ability for real-time monitoring and routing of transactions.

Patterns. For evaluation purposes, we selected the Itinerary-Ticket pattern for this customer scenario, which is a combination of two traveling patterns: Itinerary pattern and Ticket pattern. The Itinerary pattern is an example of a traveling pattern that is concerned with routing among multiple destinations. An itinerary maintains a list of destinations, defines a routing scheme, handles special cases such as what to do if a destination does not exist, and always knows where to go next. Objectifying the itinerary allows you to save it and reuse it later. The Ticket pattern is an enriched version of a URL that embodies requirements concerning quality of service, permissions, and other data. For example, it may include time-out information for dispatching an agent to a remote data center in our customer scenario. It can also contain the security and auditing metadata required by the regulations and controlled (injected) by the execution policies. Thus, instead of naively trying to dispatch to a disconnected host forever, the agent now has the necessary information to make reasonable decisions while travelling. An agent is capable of navigating itself independently to multiple hosts. Specifically, it should be able to handle exceptions such as unknown hosts while trying to dispatch itself to new destinations or make a composite tour (for example, return to destinations it has already visited). It might even need to modify its itinerary dynamically. Consequently, it is probably preferable to separate the handling of navigation from the agent’s behavior and message handling, thus promoting modularity of every part.

We developed an architecture consisting of BizTalk Server, MSE, and ESB Guidance components. In this case, all three of Microsoft’s SOA technologies were brought into play to provide the required functionality.

Figure 4 illustrates the interaction of these components:


Figure 4. The interaction of BizTalk Server, MSE, and ESB Guidance components

Service Administration

Administration covers systems management, governance, and operational aspects of distributed systems. Most distributed system implementations today are referred to as “well-understood and well-behaved.” These implementations assume that the services being used are in a controlled environment, usually in a single data center or across a trusted partner channel. Increasingly, the Internet is being used as the delivery vehicle for innovative new service offerings such as Web 2.0. Businesses are developing bundled service offerings to provide value-added services to their customers over the Internet. These service offerings increasingly rely on the ability to aggregate multiple composite services from a wide variety of different sources. The challenges include service-level management, resource management, service provisioning, and monitoring. This mandates services to follow the principles of service enablement and supports methods for discovery, provisioning, monitoring, security, and usage measurements. These management features are similar to the well-known telecommunication patterns of Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, and Security (FCAPS).

Scenario Description. A few years back we were involved with a telecommunication service provider to automate its service delivery platform infrastructure. This company leveraged Web services capabilities to develop and expose its core service offerings and reused services from other service providers such as geo-location providers, ring-tone providers, and credit verification systems; for example, bundle a ring-tone download service from a public service provider along with network services and generate billing information for each successful download. This system is always available and the provider monitors the usage of the third-party services to validate the SLA.

Key Functional and Nonfunctional Characteristics. Key functional requirements included:

  • Developing and deploying services for manageability and operations-friendly.
  • Making services easily discoverable and composable.
  • Monitoring the health of individual and composed services.
  • Collecting metrics on service usage and performance.
  • Enabling automated provisioning of services.

Patterns. This experience helped us discover a series of patterns that are related to service management. These patterns and best practices have a deep-rooted background in building telecommunication network best practices, which is considered the most complex distributed-computing network with highly distributed and highly reliable systems.

Operations-Friendly Service-Modeling Patterns. It is a best practice to adopt the principles around knowledge-driven management while modeling services or composite services:

  • Exceptions are unavoidable—Always accept failures and build systems to adapt and provide recovery methods. Also, show exceptions as needed rather than flooding systems with the same or related exceptions.
  • Collecting metrics and logs—Collecting information regarding failures, performance measures, and usage will help identity the failure conditions and service-level management.
  • Automate everything—People and processes are error-prone. Automation will help avoid human errors. For example, “Minimize Human Intervention” pattern discusses this in the context of telecommunication networks.
  • Complex environmental factors—Distributed systems must collaborate with services from different domains, handle heterogeneous devices, complex configurations, and a large number of users. Consider factors around latency, network failures, and service-level agreements.

Analysts and architects should consider business and operational behaviors and model individual services, business processes, and service aggregates. These behaviors are documented as part of service models and communicated to developers to facilitate instrumentation. Standards are emerging to codify these requirements and constraints including Common Information Models (CIM), Service Modeling Language (SML), and Web Service Distributed Management (WSDM).

Design for Operations Patterns. Instrumenting services as operations-friendly is complex. Developers should instrument services and business processes with health events, measurement points, performance metrics, provisioning interfaces, and operational support metrics. These patterns are emerging to provide better guidance on how to instrument systems for manageability.

Operational-Management Patterns. Operational systems need management models, key performance indicators (KPI), and associated events to measure operational intelligence. These systems resemble the observer-event patterns or control bus pattern to define the interactions of managed entities (such as Web service) and management servers (such as System Center Operations Manager). For example, Management Packs will help codify the system requirements, correlation methods, and automation steps. SCOM will push or pull data from Web services to understand service health. Operational systems should monitor continuous availability, performance, and degrading conditions of service. Systems should provide capabilities to aggregate log files, send health-check events, and service failover methods. Standards such as WS-Management provide a way for systems to access and exchange management information.

Technologies Realizing Patterns. A service life-cycle management practice:

  • Creates a management model for distributed applications.
  • Designs and implements services for operations-friendliness.
  • Develops and deploys management packs, performance counters, and KPI models.
  • Monitors the performance, availability, and response times of services.
  • Audits service messages and enables secure transactions.
  • Enables business activity monitoring to manage service-level constraints.
  • Automates management systems to respond errors, violations, and generate notifications.

As Figure 5 shows, an architect defines management models, based on the system’s operational requirements; developers add code instrumentation; and systems administers look for events and patterns to take necessary actions.


Figure 5. Role-based management instrumentation

Table 3 lists the patterns categories in the service-management domain.

Table 3. Service-Management Patterns categories

Patterns category



Operations-friendly service-modeling pattern

How to collect nonfunctional and operational requirements/constraints and document these requirements

  • Use modeling tools such as Visual Studio Architect Modeler.
  • Use System Center Management Model Designer Power Tools.

Design for operations patterns

How to instrument in code for service manageability

  • Develop services using well-enabled service principles using WES Toolkit.
  • Develop instrumentation using Design for Operations tools.

Operational-management patterns

How to enable services or composites to be well-behaved

How to monitor business activities

  • Use SCOM for management.
  • Use SCOM Console to author/configure management packs.
  • MSE to collect system messages and events.
  • Enable BizTalk BAM for activity monitoring.



In this article, we discussed a number of patterns that have been observed during customer engagements focused on the development of distributed systems. Given our customers increased dependence on technology and the ever-increasing rate at which technology is evolving, it is in our opinion that it is more and more critical to ground how we design and describe our products in patterns. Without doing this, we increase the perceived complexity of moving from a legacy technology to a newer technology. The patterns described here were implemented in offerings such as DCS, ESBG, DCS, and the WSSF—all of which are built on top of WCF. When Oslo is released, these same patterns will continue to be valid with substantially lower cost.

We must take responsibility for capturing and sharing recurrent solutions to problems such that our solutions and products can provide better out-of-the-box support for core distributed-computing patterns. If you are interested in learning more about how to do this, please contact the authors, who are in the process of developing such a library of patterns.

The authors would like to thank Blair Shaw and William Oellermann for reviewing an early draft of this article.


“Agent Design Patterns: Elements of Agent Application Design,” by Yariv Aridor and Danny B. Lange. (

Assessment and Road Map for Service-Oriented Architecture (


Composite WPF (

Design for Operations (

Enterprise Service Bus Guidance Community (

Managed Services Engine Community (

Smart Client Guidance (

Web Service Software Factory (

“Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software,” by Erich Gamma et al. (

Distributed Management Task Force

Common Information Model (

Web Services for Management (

Enterprise Integration Patterns

Control Bus (

Recipient List (

Routing Slip (

Microsoft BizTalk Server (

Microsoft Services Providers: Customer Care Framework (CCF) (

Microsoft SOA Products: Oslo (

Microsoft System Center (

MSDN: BizTalk Server 2006: BAM FAQ (

MSDN: Building Services by Using the WES Toolkit (

MSDN: Microsoft patterns & practices (

OASIS Web Services Distributed Managements (WSDM) TC (

Service Modeling Language (SML) Working Group (

Workflow Patterns Initiative (

Visual Studio Team System 2008 Architecture Edition (

Visual Studio Team System Management Model Designer Power Tool (

About the authors

Joshy Joseph is a principal architect with Microsoft Services Managed Solutions Group. He can be reached at

Jason Hogg is an architect inside the Microsoft Services Managed Solutions Group. He can be reached at

Dmitri Ossipov is a program manager at Microsoft with the patterns & practices team, worked on ESB Guidance for Microsoft BizTalk Server 2006 R2 and the Web Service Software Factory.

Massimo Mascaro is a program manager in the Customer Care Framework group at Microsoft, working on large-scale enterprise architecture.


This article was published in the Architecture Journal, a print and online publication produced by Microsoft. For more articles from this publication, please visit the Architecture Journal Web site.