Recordset.Seek Method

Access Developer Reference

Locates the record in an indexed table-type Recordset object that satisfies the specified criteria for the current index and makes that record the current record (Microsoft Access workspaces only).

Syntax

expression.Seek(Comparison, Key1, Key2, Key3, Key4, Key5, Key6, Key7, Key8, Key9, Key10, Key11, Key12, Key13)

expression A variable that represents a Recordset object.

Parameters

Name Required/Optional Data Type Description
Comparison Required String One of the following string expressions: <, <=, =, >=, or >.
Key1, Key2...Key13 Required Variant One or more values corresponding to fields in the Recordset object's current index, as specified by its Index property setting. You can use up to 13 key arguments.

Remarks

You must set the current index with the Index property before you use Seek. If the index identifies a nonunique key field, Seek locates the first record that satisfies the criteria.

The Seek method searches through the specified key fields and locates the first record that satisfies the criteria specified by comparison and key1. Once found, it makes that record current and sets the NoMatch property to False. If the Seek method fails to locate a match, the NoMatch property is set to True, and the current record is undefined.

If comparison is equal (=), greater than or equal (>=), or greater than (>), Seek starts at the beginning of the index and searches forward.

If comparison is less than (<) or less than or equal (<=), Seek starts at the end of the index and searches backward. However, if there are duplicate index entries at the end of the index, Seek starts at an arbitrary entry among the duplicates and then searches backward.

You must specify values for all fields defined in the index. If you use Seek with a multiple-column index, and you don't specify a comparison value for every field in the index, then you cannot use the equal (=) operator in the comparison. That's because some of the criteria fields (key2, key3, and so on) will default to Null, which will probably not match. Therefore, the equal operator will work correctly only if you have a record which is all null except the key you're looking for. It's recommended that you use the greater than or equal (>=) operator instead.

The key1 argument must be of the same field data type as the corresponding field in the current index. For example, if the current index refers to a number field (such as Employee ID), key1 must be numeric. Similarly, if the current index refers to a Text field (such as Last Name), key1 must be a string.

There doesn't have to be a current record when you use Seek.

You can use the Indexes collection to enumerate the existing indexes.

To locate a record in a dynaset- or snapshot-type Recordset that satisfies a specific condition that is not covered by existing indexes, use the Find methods. To include all records, not just those that satisfy a specific condition, use the Move methods to move from record to record.

You can't use the Seek method on a linked table because you can't open linked tables as table-type Recordset objects. However, if you use the OpenDatabase method to directly open an installable ISAM (non-ODBC) database, you can use Seek on tables in that database.

Example

This example demonstrates the Seek method by allowing the user to search for a product based on an ID number.

Visual Basic for Applications
  Sub SeekX()

   Dim dbsNorthwind As Database
   Dim rstProducts As Recordset
   Dim intFirst As Integer
   Dim intLast As Integer
   Dim strMessage As String
   Dim strSeek As String
   Dim varBookmark As Variant

   Set dbsNorthwind = OpenDatabase("Northwind.mdb")
   ' You must open a table-type Recordset to use an index, 
   ' and hence the Seek method.
   Set rstProducts = _
      dbsNorthwind.OpenRecordset("Products", dbOpenTable)

   With rstProducts
      ' Set the index.
      .Index = "PrimaryKey"

      ' Get the lowest and highest product IDs.
      .MoveLast
      intLast = !ProductID
      .MoveFirst
      intFirst = !ProductID

      Do While True
         ' Display current record information and ask user 
         ' for ID number.
         strMessage = "Product ID: " & !ProductID & vbCr & _
            "Name: " & !ProductName & vbCr & vbCr & _
            "Enter a product ID between " & intFirst & _
            " and " & intLast & "."
         strSeek = InputBox(strMessage)

         If strSeek = "" Then Exit Do

         ' Store current bookmark in case the Seek fails.
         varBookmark = .Bookmark

         .Seek "=", Val(strSeek)

         ' Return to the current record if the Seek fails.
         If .NoMatch Then
            MsgBox "ID not found!"
            .Bookmark = varBookmark
         End If
      Loop

      .Close
   End With

   dbsNorthwind.Close

End Sub

This example uses the NoMatch property to determine whether a Seek and a FindFirst were successful, and if not, to give appropriate feedback. The SeekMatch and FindMatch procedures are required for this procedure to run.

Visual Basic for Applications
  Sub NoMatchX()

   Dim dbsNorthwind As Database
   Dim rstProducts As Recordset
   Dim rstCustomers As Recordset
   Dim strMessage As String
   Dim strSeek As String
   Dim strCountry As String
   Dim varBookmark As Variant

   Set dbsNorthwind = OpenDatabase("Northwind.mdb")
   ' Default is dbOpenTable; required if Index property will 
   ' be used.
   Set rstProducts = dbsNorthwind.OpenRecordset("Products")

   With rstProducts
      .Index = "PrimaryKey"

      Do While True
         ' Show current record information; ask user for 
         ' input.
         strMessage = "NoMatch with Seek method" & vbCr & _
            "Product ID: " & !ProductID & vbCr & _
            "Product Name: " & !ProductName & vbCr & _
            "NoMatch = " & .NoMatch & vbCr & vbCr & _
            "Enter a product ID."
         strSeek = InputBox(strMessage)
         If strSeek = "" Then Exit Do

         ' Call procedure that seeks for a record based on 
         ' the ID number supplied by the user.
         SeekMatch rstProducts, Val(strSeek)
      Loop

      .Close
   End With

   Set rstCustomers = dbsNorthwind.OpenRecordset( _
      "SELECT CompanyName, Country FROM Customers " & _
      "ORDER BY CompanyName", dbOpenSnapshot)

   With rstCustomers

      Do While True
         ' Show current record information; ask user for 
         ' input.
         strMessage = "NoMatch with FindFirst method" & _
            vbCr & "Customer Name: " & !CompanyName & _
            vbCr & "Country: " & !Country & vbCr & _
            "NoMatch = " & .NoMatch & vbCr & vbCr & _
            "Enter country on which to search."
         strCountry = Trim(InputBox(strMessage))
         If strCountry = "" Then Exit Do

         ' Call procedure that finds a record based on 
         ' the country name supplied by the user.
         FindMatch rstCustomers, _
            "Country = '" & strCountry & "'"
      Loop

      .Close
   End With

   dbsNorthwind.Close

End Sub

Sub SeekMatch(rstTemp As Recordset, _
   intSeek As Integer)

   Dim varBookmark As Variant
   Dim strMessage As String

   With rstTemp
      ' Store current record location.
      varBookmark = .Bookmark
      .Seek "=", intSeek

      ' If Seek method fails, notify user and return to the 
      ' last current record.
      If .NoMatch Then
         strMessage = _
            "Not found! Returning to current record." & _
            vbCr & vbCr & "NoMatch = " & .NoMatch
         MsgBox strMessage
         .Bookmark = varBookmark
      End If

   End With

End Sub

Sub FindMatch(rstTemp As Recordset, _
   strFind As String)

   Dim varBookmark As Variant
   Dim strMessage As String

   With rstTemp
      ' Store current record location.
      varBookmark = .Bookmark
      .FindFirst strFind

      ' If Find method fails, notify user and return to the 
      ' last current record.
      If .NoMatch Then
         strMessage = _
            "Not found! Returning to current record." & _
            vbCr & vbCr & "NoMatch = " & .NoMatch
         MsgBox strMessage
         .Bookmark = varBookmark
      End If

   End With

End Sub

See Also