DynamicMethod Class

[ This article is for Windows Phone 8 developers. If you’re developing for Windows 10, see the latest documentation. ]

Defines and represents a dynamic method that can be compiled, executed, and discarded. Discarded methods are available for garbage collection.

Inheritance Hierarchy

System..::.Object
System.Reflection..::.MemberInfo
System.Reflection..::.MethodBase
System.Reflection..::.MethodInfo
System.Reflection.Emit..::.DynamicMethod

Namespace: System.Reflection.Emit
Assembly: mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)

Syntax

Public NotInheritable Class DynamicMethod _
    Inherits MethodInfo
public sealed class DynamicMethod : MethodInfo

The DynamicMethod type exposes the following members.

Constructors

Name Description
DynamicMethod(String, Type, array<Type>[]()[]) Creates an anonymously hosted dynamic method, specifying the method name, return type, and parameter types.
DynamicMethod(String, Type, array<Type>[]()[], Boolean) Creates an anonymously hosted dynamic method, specifying the method name, return type, parameter types, and whether just-in-time (JIT) visibility checks should be skipped for types and members accessed by the Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) of the dynamic method.
DynamicMethod(String, Type, array<Type>[]()[], Module) Security Critical. Creates a dynamic method that is global to a module, specifying the method name, return type, parameter types, and module.
DynamicMethod(String, Type, array<Type>[]()[], Type) Security Critical. Creates a dynamic method, specifying the method name, return type, parameter types, and the type with which the dynamic method is logically associated.
DynamicMethod(String, Type, array<Type>[]()[], Module, Boolean) Security Critical. Creates a dynamic method that is global to a module, specifying the method name, return type, parameter types, module, and whether just-in-time (JIT) visibility checks should be skipped for types and members accessed by the Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) of the dynamic method.
DynamicMethod(String, Type, array<Type>[]()[], Type, Boolean) Security Critical. Creates a dynamic method, specifying the method name, return type, parameter types, the type with which the dynamic method is logically associated, and whether just-in-time (JIT) visibility checks should be skipped for types and members accessed by the Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) of the dynamic method.
DynamicMethod(String, MethodAttributes, CallingConventions, Type, array<Type>[]()[], Module, Boolean) Security Critical. Creates a dynamic method that is global to a module, specifying the method name, attributes, calling convention, return type, parameter types, module, and whether just-in-time (JIT) visibility checks should be skipped for types and members accessed by the Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) of the dynamic method.
DynamicMethod(String, MethodAttributes, CallingConventions, Type, array<Type>[]()[], Type, Boolean) Security Critical. Creates a dynamic method, specifying the method name, attributes, calling convention, return type, parameter types, the type with which the dynamic method is logically associated, and whether just-in-time (JIT) visibility checks should be skipped for types and members accessed by the Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) of the dynamic method.

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Properties

Name Description
Attributes Gets the attributes specified when the dynamic method was created. (Overrides MethodBase..::.Attributes.)
CallingConvention Gets the calling convention specified when the dynamic method was created. (Overrides MethodBase..::.CallingConvention.)
ContainsGenericParameters Gets a value that indicates whether the generic method contains unassigned generic type parameters. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
CustomAttributes Gets a collection that contains this member's custom attributes. (Inherited from MemberInfo.)
DeclaringType Gets the type that declares the method, which is always nullNothingnullptra null reference (Nothing in Visual Basic) for dynamic methods. (Overrides MemberInfo..::.DeclaringType.)
InitLocals Gets or sets a value indicating whether the local variables in the method are zero-initialized.
IsAbstract Gets a value that indicates whether the method is abstract (MustInherit in Visual Basic). (Inherited from MethodBase.)
IsAssembly Gets a value that indicates whether the potential visibility of this method or constructor is described by MethodAttributes..::.Assembly; that is, the method or constructor is visible at most to other types in the same assembly, and is not visible to derived types outside the assembly. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
IsConstructor Gets a value that indicates whether the method is a constructor. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
IsFamily Gets a value that indicates whether the visibility of this method or constructor is described by MethodAttributes..::.Family; that is, the method or constructor is visible only within its class and derived classes. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
IsFamilyAndAssembly Gets a value that indicates whether the visibility of this method or constructor is described by MethodAttributes..::.FamANDAssem; that is, the method or constructor can be called by derived classes, but only if they are in the same assembly. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
IsFamilyOrAssembly Gets a value that indicates whether the potential visibility of this method or constructor is described by MethodAttributes..::.FamORAssem; that is, the method or constructor can be called by derived classes wherever they are, and by classes in the same assembly. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
IsFinal Gets a value that indicates whether this method is final (NotOverridable in Visual Basic). (Inherited from MethodBase.)
IsGenericMethod Gets a value that indicates whether the method is generic. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
IsGenericMethodDefinition Gets a value that indicates whether the method is a generic method definition. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
IsHideBySig Gets a value that indicates whether only a member of the same kind with exactly the same signature is hidden in the derived class. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
IsPrivate Gets a value that indicates whether this member is private. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
IsPublic Gets a value that indicates whether this is a public method. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
IsSpecialName Gets a value that indicates whether this method has a special name. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
IsStatic Gets a value that indicates whether the method is static (Shared in Visual Basic). (Inherited from MethodBase.)
IsVirtual Gets a value that indicates whether the method is virtual (Overridable in Visual Basic). (Inherited from MethodBase.)
MemberType Gets a MemberTypes value indicating that this member is a method. (Inherited from MethodInfo.)
MetadataToken Gets a value that identifies a metadata element. (Inherited from MemberInfo.)
MethodHandle Not supported for dynamic methods. (Overrides MethodBase..::.MethodHandle.)
MethodImplementationFlags Gets the MethodImplAttributes flags that specify the attributes of a method implementation. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Module Gets the module with which the dynamic method is logically associated. (Overrides MemberInfo..::.Module.)
Name Gets the name of the dynamic method. (Overrides MemberInfo..::.Name.)
ReflectedType Gets the class that was used in reflection to obtain the method. (Overrides MemberInfo..::.ReflectedType.)
ReturnParameter Gets the return parameter of the dynamic method. (Overrides MethodInfo..::.ReturnParameter.)
ReturnType Gets the type of return value for the dynamic method. (Overrides MethodInfo..::.ReturnType.)
ReturnTypeCustomAttributes Gets the custom attributes of the return type for the dynamic method. (Overrides MethodInfo..::.ReturnTypeCustomAttributes.)

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Methods

Name Description
CreateDelegate(Type) Completes the dynamic method and creates a delegate of the specified type, which can be used to execute the dynamic method. (Overrides MethodInfo..::.CreateDelegate(Type).)
CreateDelegate(Type, Object) Completes the dynamic method and creates a delegate that can be used to execute it, specifying the delegate type and an object the delegate is bound to. (Overrides MethodInfo..::.CreateDelegate(Type, Object).)
DefineParameter Defines a parameter of the dynamic method.
Equals Returns a value that indicates whether this instance is equal to a specified object. (Inherited from MethodInfo.)
Finalize Allows an object to try to free resources and perform other cleanup operations before the Object is reclaimed by garbage collection. (Inherited from Object.)
GetBaseDefinition Returns the base implementation for the method. (Overrides MethodInfo..::.GetBaseDefinition()()().)
GetCustomAttributes(Boolean) Returns all the custom attributes defined for the method. (Overrides MemberInfo..::.GetCustomAttributes(Boolean).)
GetCustomAttributes(Type, Boolean) Returns the custom attributes of the specified type that have been applied to the method. (Overrides MemberInfo..::.GetCustomAttributes(Type, Boolean).)
GetGenericArguments Returns an array of Type objects that represent the type arguments of a generic method or the type parameters of a generic method definition. (Inherited from MethodInfo.)
GetGenericMethodDefinition Returns a MethodInfo object that represents a generic method definition from which the current method can be constructed. (Inherited from MethodInfo.)
GetHashCode Returns the hash code for this instance. (Inherited from MethodInfo.)
GetILGenerator()()() Returns a Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) generator for the method with a default MSIL stream size of 64 bytes.
GetILGenerator(Int32) Returns a Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) generator for the method with the specified MSIL stream size.
GetMethodImplementationFlags Returns the implementation flags for the method. (Overrides MethodBase..::.GetMethodImplementationFlags()()().)
GetParameters Returns the parameters of the dynamic method. (Overrides MethodBase..::.GetParameters()()().)
GetType Gets the Type of the current instance. (Inherited from Object.)
Invoke(Object, array<Object>[]()[]) Invokes the method or constructor represented by the current instance, using the specified parameters. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Invoke(Object, BindingFlags, Binder, array<Object>[]()[], CultureInfo) Invokes the dynamic method using the specified parameters, under the constraints of the specified binder, with the specified culture information. (Overrides MethodBase..::.Invoke(Object, BindingFlags, Binder, array<Object>[]()[], CultureInfo).)
IsDefined Indicates whether the specified custom attribute type is defined. (Overrides MemberInfo..::.IsDefined(Type, Boolean).)
MakeGenericMethod Substitutes the elements of an array of types for the type parameters of the current generic method definition, and returns a MethodInfo object representing the resulting constructed method. (Inherited from MethodInfo.)
MemberwiseClone Creates a shallow copy of the current Object. (Inherited from Object.)
ToString Returns the signature of the method, represented as a string. (Overrides Object..::.ToString()()().)

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Extension Methods

Name Description
GetCustomAttribute(Type) Overloaded. Retrieves a custom attribute of a specified type that is applied to a specified member. (Defined by CustomAttributeExtensions.)
GetCustomAttribute(Type, Boolean) Overloaded. Retrieves a custom attribute of a specified type that is applied to a specified member, and optionally inspects the ancestors of that member. (Defined by CustomAttributeExtensions.)
GetCustomAttribute<(Of <(T>)>)()()() Overloaded. Retrieves a custom attribute of a specified type that is applied to a specified member. (Defined by CustomAttributeExtensions.)
GetCustomAttribute<(Of <(T>)>)(Boolean) Overloaded. Retrieves a custom attribute of a specified type that is applied to a specified member, and optionally inspects the ancestors of that member. (Defined by CustomAttributeExtensions.)
GetCustomAttributes()()() Overloaded. Retrieves a collection of custom attributes that are applied to a specified member. (Defined by CustomAttributeExtensions.)
GetCustomAttributes(Type) Overloaded. Retrieves a collection of custom attributes of a specified type that are applied to a specified member. (Defined by CustomAttributeExtensions.)
GetCustomAttributes<(Of <(T>)>)()()() Overloaded. Retrieves a collection of custom attributes of a specified type that are applied to a specified member. (Defined by CustomAttributeExtensions.)
GetCustomAttributes<(Of <(T>)>)(Boolean) Overloaded. Retrieves a collection of custom attributes of a specified type that are applied to a specified member, and optionally inspects the ancestors of that member. (Defined by CustomAttributeExtensions.)
GetRuntimeBaseDefinition Retrieves an object that represents the specified method on the direct or indirect base class where the method was first declared. (Defined by RuntimeReflectionExtensions.)
IsDefined Indicates whether custom attributes of a specified type are applied to a specified member. (Defined by CustomAttributeExtensions.)

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Remarks

You can use the DynamicMethod class to generate and execute a method at run time, without having to generate a dynamic assembly and a dynamic type to contain the method. The executable code created by the just-in-time (JIT) compiler is reclaimed when the DynamicMethod object is reclaimed. Dynamic methods are the most efficient way to generate and execute small amounts of code.

In Windows Phone applications, all dynamic methods are anonymously hosted. Anonymously hosted dynamic methods are located in a system-provided assembly, and therefore are isolated from other code. They do not have access to any non-public data.

Dynamic methods and their parameters do not have to be named, but you can specify names to assist in debugging. Custom attributes are not supported on dynamic methods or their parameters.

Note

Dynamic methods do not support symbol information, that is, local variable names and line-number mapping. This limitation might be removed in a future version.

Although dynamic methods behave like static methods (Shared methods in Visual Basic), the rules for delegate binding allow a dynamic method to be bound to an object, so that it acts like an instance method when it is called using that delegate instance. An example that demonstrates this is provided for the CreateDelegate(Type, Object) method overload. For more information about delegate binding rules, see the Delegate class.

Examples

The following example creates a dynamic method that takes two parameters. The example emits a simple function body that returns a formatted string. The first parameter is a string that the method embeds in the formatted string; the second parameter is an integer, which the method squares and then embeds in the formatted string. The example completes the method by creating a delegate, invokes the delegate with different parameters, and finally invokes the dynamic method by using the Invoke method.

Imports System.Reflection
Imports System.Reflection.Emit
Imports System.Globalization

Public Class Example
   ' Declare a delegate type that can be used to execute the completed
   ' dynamic method. 
   Private Delegate Function HelloDelegate(ByVal sendee As String, _
       ByVal square As Integer) As String

   Public Shared Sub Demo(ByVal outputBlock As System.Windows.Controls.TextBlock)
      ' Create an array that specifies the types of the parameters
      ' of the dynamic method. This dynamic method has a String
      ' parameter and an Integer parameter.
      Dim helloArgs() As Type = {GetType(String), GetType(Integer)}

      ' Create a dynamic method with the name "Hello", a return type
      ' of Integer, and two parameters whose types are specified by
      ' the array helloArgs. 
      Dim hello As New DynamicMethod("Hello", _
          GetType(String), _
          helloArgs)

      ' Create an array that specifies the parameter types of the
      ' overload of String.Format to be used in Hello.
      Dim formatStringArgs() As Type = { GetType(String), GetType(Object), _
                                 GetType(Object), GetType(Object) }
      Dim formatString As MethodInfo = GetType(String). _
          GetMethod("Format", formatStringArgs)

      ' Get an ILGenerator and emit a body for the dynamic method,
      ' using a stream size larger than the IL that will be
      ' emitted.
      Dim il As ILGenerator = hello.GetILGenerator(256)
      ' Push the format string for String.Format on the stack.
      il.Emit(OpCodes.Ldstr, "Hello, {0}, {1} squared is {2}!")
      ' Load the first argument, which is a string, onto the stack,
      ' as the second argument of String.Format.
      il.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_0)
      ' Load the second argument, and box it. This is the third argument
      ' of String.Format, and because it is a value type it must be boxed
      ' in order to pass it as an object.
      il.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_1)
      il.Emit(OpCodes.Box, GetType(Integer))
      ' Load the second argument twice more, as the arguments of the 
      ' multiply operation that will square it. 
      il.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_1)
      il.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_1)
      ' Multiply the last two arguments on the stack, leaving the 
      ' result on the stack. The result must be boxed, so it can be passed
      ' as the fourth argument of String.Format.
      il.Emit(OpCodes.Mul)
      il.Emit(OpCodes.Box, GetType(Integer))
      ' Call the overload of String.Format that prints a string, formatting
      ' it to include the next three objects on the stack.
      il.Emit(OpCodes.Call, formatString)
      ' The Hello method returns the formatted string, which is already
      ' on the stack after the call to String.Format.
      il.Emit(OpCodes.Ret)

      ' Add parameter information to the dynamic method. (This is not
      ' necessary, but can be useful for debugging.) For each parameter,
      ' identified by position, supply the parameter attributes and a 
      ' parameter name.
      hello.DefineParameter(1, ParameterAttributes.In, "message")
      hello.DefineParameter(2, ParameterAttributes.In, "valueToReturn")

      ' Create a delegate that represents the dynamic method. This
      ' action completes the method. Any further attempts to
      ' change the method are ignored.
      Dim hi As HelloDelegate = _
                 CType(hello.CreateDelegate(GetType(HelloDelegate)), HelloDelegate)

      ' Use the delegate to execute the dynamic method.
      outputBlock.Text &= vbLf & "Use the delegate to execute the dynamic method:" & vbLf
      outputBlock.Text &= "hi(""Dad"", 42) returned: '" _
                       & hi("Dad", 42) & "'" & vbLf
      ' Execute it again, with different arguments.
      outputBlock.Text &= "hi(""Mom"", 5280) returned:  '" _
                       & hi("Mom", 5280) & "'" & vbLf

      outputBlock.Text &= vbLf & "Use the Invoke method to execute the dynamic method:" & vbLf
      ' Create an array of arguments to use with the Invoke method.
      Dim invokeArgs() As Object = { "Mom", 42 }
      ' Invoke the dynamic method using the arguments. This is much
      ' slower than using the delegate, because you must create an
      ' array to contain the arguments, and value-type arguments
      ' must be boxed.
      Dim objRet As Object = hello.Invoke(Nothing, _
          BindingFlags.ExactBinding, Nothing, invokeArgs, _
          New CultureInfo("en-us"))
      outputBlock.Text &= "hello.Invoke(...) returned:  '" & objRet & "'" & vbLf

      outputBlock.Text &= vbCrLf & _
          " ----- Display information about the dynamic method -----" & vbLf
      ' Display MethodAttributes for the dynamic method, set when 
      ' the dynamic method was created.
      outputBlock.Text &= String.Format("Method Attributes: {0}", _
          hello.Attributes) & vbLf

      ' Display the calling convention of the dynamic method, set when the 
      ' dynamic method was created.
      outputBlock.Text &= String.Format("Calling convention: {0}", _
          hello.CallingConvention) & vbLf

      ' Display the declaring type, which is always Nothing for dynamic
      ' methods.
      If hello.DeclaringType Is Nothing Then
         outputBlock.Text &= "DeclaringType is always Nothing for dynamic methods." & vbLf
      Else
         outputBlock.Text += String.Format("DeclaringType: {0}", hello.DeclaringType) & vbLf
      End If

      ' Display the default value for InitLocals.
      If hello.InitLocals Then
         outputBlock.Text &= "This method contains verifiable code."
      Else
         outputBlock.Text &= "This method contains unverifiable code."
      End If
      outputBlock.Text += String.Format(" (InitLocals = {0})", hello.InitLocals) & vbLf

      ' Display the module specified when the dynamic method was created.
      outputBlock.Text += String.Format("Module: {0}", hello.Module) & vbLf

      ' Display the name specified when the dynamic method was created.
      ' Note that the name can be blank.
      outputBlock.Text += String.Format("Name: {0}", hello.Name) & vbLf

      ' For dynamic methods, the reflected type is always Nothing.
      If hello.ReflectedType Is Nothing Then
         outputBlock.Text &= "ReflectedType is Nothing." & vbLf
      Else
         outputBlock.Text &= String.Format("ReflectedType: {0}", _
             hello.ReflectedType) &vbLf
      End If

      If hello.ReturnParameter Is Nothing Then
         outputBlock.Text &= "Method has no return parameter." & vbLf
      Else
         outputBlock.Text &= String.Format("Return parameter: {0}", _
             hello.ReturnParameter) & vbLf
      End If

      ' If the method has no return type, ReturnType is System.Void.
      outputBlock.Text += String.Format("Return type: {0}", hello.ReturnType) & vbCrLf

      ' ReturnTypeCustomAttributes returns an ICustomeAttributeProvider
      ' that can be used to enumerate the custom attributes of the
      ' return value. At present, there is no way to set such custom
      ' attributes, so the list is empty.
      If hello.ReturnType Is GetType(System.Void) Then
         outputBlock.Text &= "The method has no return type." & vbLf
      Else
         Dim caProvider As ICustomAttributeProvider = _
             hello.ReturnTypeCustomAttributes
         Dim returnAttributes() As Object = _
             caProvider.GetCustomAttributes(True)
         If returnAttributes.Length = 0 Then
            outputBlock.Text &= "The return type has no custom attributes." & vbLf
         Else
            outputBlock.Text &= "The return type has the following custom attributes:" & vbLf
            For Each attr As Object In returnAttributes
               outputBlock.Text &= "     " & attr.ToString() & vbLf
            Next attr
         End If
      End If

      outputBlock.Text &= "ToString: " & hello.ToString() & vbLf

      ' Display parameter information.
      Dim parameters() As ParameterInfo = hello.GetParameters()
      outputBlock.Text &= "Parameters: name, type, ParameterAttributes" & vbLf
      For Each p As ParameterInfo In parameters
         outputBlock.Text &= String.Format("     {0}, {1}, {2}", _
             p.Name, p.ParameterType, p.Attributes) & vbLf
      Next p
   End Sub
End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'Use the delegate to execute the dynamic method:
'hi("Dad", 42) returned:  'Hello, Dad, 42 squared is 1764!'
'hi("Mom", 5280) returned:  'Hello, Mom, 5280 squared is 27878400!'
'
'Use the Invoke method to execute the dynamic method:
'hello.Invoke returned:  'Hello, Mom, 42 squared is 1764!'
'
' ----- Display information about the dynamic method -----
'Method Attributes: PrivateScope, Public, Static
'Calling convention: Standard
'DeclaringType is always Nothing for dynamic methods.
'This method contains verifiable code. (InitLocals = True)
'Module: RefEmit_InMemoryManifestModule
'Name: Hello
'ReflectedType is Nothing.
'Method has no return parameter.
'Return type: System.Int32
'The return type has no custom attributes.
'ToString: Int32 Hello(System.String, Int32)
'Parameters: name, type, ParameterAttributes
'        message, System.String, In
'        valueToReturn, System.Int32, In
using System;
using System.Reflection;
using System.Reflection.Emit;
using System.Globalization;

public class Example
{
   // Declare a delegate type that can be used to execute the completed
   // dynamic method. 
   private delegate string HelloDelegate(string sendee, int square);

   public static void Demo(System.Windows.Controls.TextBlock outputBlock)
   {
      // Create an array that specifies the types of the parameters
      // of the dynamic method. This dynamic method has a String
      // parameter and an Integer parameter.
      Type[] helloArgs = { typeof(string), typeof(int) };

      // Create a dynamic method with the name "Hello", a return type
      // of String, and two parameters whose types are specified by
      // the array helloArgs. 
      DynamicMethod hello = new DynamicMethod("Hello",
          typeof(string),
          helloArgs);

      // Create an array that specifies the parameter types of the
      // overload of String.Format to be used in Hello.
      Type[] formatStringArgs = { typeof(string), typeof(object), typeof(object), 
                                 typeof(object) };
      // Get the overload of String.Format that has one String 
      // parameter for the format, and three object parameters.
      MethodInfo formatString = typeof(String).GetMethod("Format",
          formatStringArgs);

      // Get an ILGenerator and emit a body for the dynamic method,
      // using a stream size larger than the IL that will be
      // emitted.
      ILGenerator il = hello.GetILGenerator(256);
      // Push the format string for String.Format on the stack.
      il.Emit(OpCodes.Ldstr, "Hello, {0}, {1} squared is {2}!");
      // Load the first argument, which is a string, onto the stack,
      // as the second argument of String.Format.
      il.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_0);
      // Load the second argument, and box it. This is the third argument
      // of String.Format, and because it is a value type it must be boxed
      // in order to pass it as an object.
      il.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_1);
      il.Emit(OpCodes.Box, typeof(int));
      // Load the second argument twice more, as the arguments of the 
      // multiply operation that will square it. 
      il.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_1);
      il.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_1);
      // Multiply the last two arguments on the stack, leaving the 
      // result on the stack. The result must be boxed, so it can be passed
      // as the fourth argument of String.Format.
      il.Emit(OpCodes.Mul);
      il.Emit(OpCodes.Box, typeof(int));
      // Call the overload of String.Format that prints a string, formatting
      // it to include the next three objects on the stack.
      il.Emit(OpCodes.Call, formatString);
      // The Hello method returns the formatted string, which is already
      // on the stack after the call to String.Format.
      il.Emit(OpCodes.Ret);

      // Add parameter information to the dynamic method. (This is not
      // necessary, but can be useful for debugging.) For each parameter,
      // identified by position, supply the parameter attributes and a 
      // parameter name.
      hello.DefineParameter(1, ParameterAttributes.In, "message");
      hello.DefineParameter(2, ParameterAttributes.In, "valueToReturn");

      // Create a delegate that represents the dynamic method. This
      // action completes the method. Any further attempts to
      // change the method are ignored.
      HelloDelegate hi =
          (HelloDelegate)hello.CreateDelegate(typeof(HelloDelegate));

      // Use the delegate to execute the dynamic method.
      outputBlock.Text += "\r\nUse the delegate to execute the dynamic method:" + "\n";
      outputBlock.Text += "hi(\"Dad\", 42) returned: '" 
                       + hi("Dad", 42) + "'\n";
      // Execute it again, with different arguments.
      outputBlock.Text += "hi(\"Mom\", 5280) returned:  '" 
                       + hi("Mom", 5280) + "'\n";

      outputBlock.Text += "\r\nUse the Invoke method to execute the dynamic method:" + "\n";
      // Create an array of arguments to use with the Invoke method.
      object[] invokeArgs = { "Mom", 42 };
      // Invoke the dynamic method using the arguments. This is much
      // slower than using the delegate, because you must create an
      // array to contain the arguments, and value-type arguments
      // must be boxed.
      object objRet = hello.Invoke(null, BindingFlags.ExactBinding, null, invokeArgs, new CultureInfo("en-us"));
      outputBlock.Text += "hello.Invoke(...) returned:  '" + objRet + "'\n";

      outputBlock.Text += "\r\n ----- Display information about the dynamic method -----" + "\n";
      // Display MethodAttributes for the dynamic method, set when 
      // the dynamic method was created.
      outputBlock.Text += String.Format("Method Attributes: {0}", hello.Attributes) + "\n";

      // Display the calling convention of the dynamic method, set when the 
      // dynamic method was created.
      outputBlock.Text += String.Format("Calling convention: {0}", hello.CallingConvention) + "\n";

      // Display the declaring type, which is always null for dynamic
      // methods.
      if (hello.DeclaringType == null)
      {
         outputBlock.Text += "DeclaringType is always null for dynamic methods." + "\n";
      }
      else
      {
         outputBlock.Text += String.Format("DeclaringType: {0}", hello.DeclaringType) + "\n";
      }

      // Display the default value for InitLocals.
      if (hello.InitLocals)
      {
         outputBlock.Text += "This method contains verifiable code.";
      }
      else
      {
         outputBlock.Text += "This method contains unverifiable code.";
      }
      outputBlock.Text += String.Format(" (InitLocals = {0})", hello.InitLocals) + "\n";

      // Display the module specified when the dynamic method was created.
      outputBlock.Text += String.Format("Module: {0}", hello.Module) + "\n";

      // Display the name specified when the dynamic method was created.
      // Note that the name can be blank.
      outputBlock.Text += String.Format("Name: {0}", hello.Name) + "\n";

      // For dynamic methods, the reflected type is always null.
      if (hello.ReflectedType == null)
      {
         outputBlock.Text += "ReflectedType is null." + "\n";
      }
      else
      {
         outputBlock.Text += String.Format("ReflectedType: {0}", hello.ReflectedType) + "\n";
      }

      if (hello.ReturnParameter == null)
      {
         outputBlock.Text += "Method has no return parameter." + "\n";
      }
      else
      {
         outputBlock.Text += String.Format("Return parameter: {0}", hello.ReturnParameter) + "\n";
      }

      // If the method has no return type, ReturnType is System.Void.
      outputBlock.Text += String.Format("Return type: {0}", hello.ReturnType) + "\n";

      // ReturnTypeCustomAttributes returns an ICustomeAttributeProvider
      // that can be used to enumerate the custom attributes of the
      // return value. At present, there is no way to set such custom
      // attributes, so the list is empty.
      if (hello.ReturnType == typeof(void))
      {
         outputBlock.Text += "The method has no return type." + "\n";
      }
      else
      {
         ICustomAttributeProvider caProvider = hello.ReturnTypeCustomAttributes;
         object[] returnAttributes = caProvider.GetCustomAttributes(true);
         if (returnAttributes.Length == 0)
         {
            outputBlock.Text += "The return type has no custom attributes." + "\n";
         }
         else
         {
            outputBlock.Text += "The return type has the following custom attributes:" + "\n";
            foreach (object attr in returnAttributes)
            {
               outputBlock.Text += "     " + attr.ToString() + "\n";
            }
         }
      }

      outputBlock.Text += String.Format("ToString: {0}", hello.ToString()) + "\n";

      // Display parameter information.
      ParameterInfo[] parameters = hello.GetParameters();
      outputBlock.Text += String.Format("Parameters: name, type, ParameterAttributes") + "\n";
      foreach (ParameterInfo p in parameters)
      {
         outputBlock.Text += String.Format("     {0}, {1}, {2}",
             p.Name, p.ParameterType, p.Attributes) + "\n";
      }
   }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Use the delegate to execute the dynamic method:
hi("Dad", 42) returned:  'Hello, Dad, 42 squared is 1764!'
hi("Mom", 5280) returned:  'Hello, Mom, 5280 squared is 27878400!'

Use the Invoke method to execute the dynamic method:
hello.Invoke returned:  'Hello, Mom, 42 squared is 1764!'

 ----- Display information about the dynamic method -----
Method Attributes: PrivateScope, Public, Static
Calling convention: Standard
DeclaringType is always null for dynamic methods.
This method contains verifiable code. (InitLocals = True)
Module: RefEmit_InMemoryManifestModule
Name: Hello
ReflectedType is null.
Method has no return parameter.
Return type: System.Int32
The return type has no custom attributes.
ToString: Int32 Hello(System.String, Int32)
Parameters: name, type, ParameterAttributes
        sendee, System.String, In
        valueToSquare, System.Int32, In
 */

Version Information

Windows Phone OS

Supported in: 8.1, 8.0, 7.1

Platforms

Windows Phone

Thread Safety

Any public static (Shared in Visual Basic) members of this type are thread safe. Any instance members are not guaranteed to be thread safe.

See Also

Reference

System.Reflection.Emit Namespace