Complete code for a DirectX Windows Store app framework

[ This article is for Windows 8.x and Windows Phone 8.x developers writing Windows Runtime apps. If you’re developing for Windows 10, see the latest documentation ]

This topic provides the complete code sample used in the tutorial How to set up your DirectX Windows Store app to display a view.

This code assumes that you are using Microsoft Visual Studio 2013, and that you have created a Direct3D project.

This topic contains these sections:

  • Technologies
  • Requirements
  • View the code (C++)

Download location

This sample is not available for download.

Technologies

Programming languages C++
Programming models Windows Runtime

Requirements

Minimum supported client Windows 8.1
Minimum supported server Windows Server 2012 R2
Minimum required SDK Visual Studio 2013

View the code (C++)

App.h

#pragma once

#include "pch.h"
#include "DeviceResources.h"
#include "MyDirectXAppMain.h"

namespace MyDirectXApp
{
    // Main entry point for our app. Connects the app with the Windows shell and handles application lifecycle events.
    ref class App sealed : public Windows::ApplicationModel::Core::IFrameworkView
    {
    public:
        App();

        // IFrameworkView Methods.
        virtual void Initialize(Windows::ApplicationModel::Core::CoreApplicationView^ applicationView);
        virtual void SetWindow(Windows::UI::Core::CoreWindow^ window);
        virtual void Load(Platform::String^ entryPoint);
        virtual void Run();
        virtual void Uninitialize();

    protected:
        // Application lifecycle event handlers.
        void OnActivated(Windows::ApplicationModel::Core::CoreApplicationView^ applicationView, Windows::ApplicationModel::Activation::IActivatedEventArgs^ args);
        void OnSuspending(Platform::Object^ sender, Windows::ApplicationModel::SuspendingEventArgs^ args);
        void OnResuming(Platform::Object^ sender, Platform::Object^ args);

        // Window event handlers.
        void OnWindowSizeChanged(Windows::UI::Core::CoreWindow^ sender, Windows::UI::Core::WindowSizeChangedEventArgs^ args);
        void OnVisibilityChanged(Windows::UI::Core::CoreWindow^ sender, Windows::UI::Core::VisibilityChangedEventArgs^ args);
        void OnWindowClosed(Windows::UI::Core::CoreWindow^ sender, Windows::UI::Core::CoreWindowEventArgs^ args);

        // Display properties event handlers.
        void OnDpiChanged(Windows::Graphics::Display::DisplayInformation^ sender, Platform::Object^ args);
        void OnOrientationChanged(Windows::Graphics::Display::DisplayInformation^ sender, Platform::Object^ args);
        void OnDisplayContentsInvalidated(Windows::Graphics::Display::DisplayInformation^ sender, Platform::Object^ args);

    private:
        std::shared_ptr<DeviceResources> m_deviceResources;
        std::unique_ptr<MyDirectXAppMain> m_main;
        bool m_windowClosed;
        bool m_windowVisible;
    };
}

ref class Direct3DApplicationSource sealed : Windows::ApplicationModel::Core::IFrameworkViewSource
{
public:
    virtual Windows::ApplicationModel::Core::IFrameworkView^ CreateView();
};

App.cpp

#include "pch.h"
#include "App.h"

#include <ppltasks.h> // For create_task

using namespace MyDirectXApp;

using namespace concurrency;
using namespace Windows::ApplicationModel;
using namespace Windows::ApplicationModel::Core;
using namespace Windows::ApplicationModel::Activation;
using namespace Windows::UI::Core;
using namespace Windows::UI::Input;
using namespace Windows::System;
using namespace Windows::Foundation;
using namespace Windows::Graphics::Display;

// The main function is only used to initialize our IFrameworkView class.
[Platform::MTAThread]
int main(Platform::Array<Platform::String^>^)
{
    auto direct3DApplicationSource = ref new Direct3DApplicationSource();
    CoreApplication::Run(direct3DApplicationSource);
    return 0;
}

IFrameworkView^ Direct3DApplicationSource::CreateView()
{
    return ref new App();
}

App::App() :
    m_windowClosed(false),
    m_windowVisible(true)
{}

// The first method called when the IFrameworkView is being created.
void App::Initialize(CoreApplicationView^ applicationView)
{
    // Register event handlers for app lifecycle. This example includes Activated, so that we
    // can make the CoreWindow active and start rendering on the window.
    applicationView->Activated +=
        ref new TypedEventHandler<CoreApplicationView^, IActivatedEventArgs^>(this, &App::OnActivated);

    CoreApplication::Suspending +=
        ref new EventHandler<SuspendingEventArgs^>(this, &App::OnSuspending);

    CoreApplication::Resuming +=
        ref new EventHandler<Platform::Object^>(this, &App::OnResuming);

    // At this point we have access to the device. 
    // We can create the device-dependent resources.
    m_deviceResources = std::make_shared<DeviceResources>();
}

// Called when the CoreWindow object is created (or re-created).
void App::SetWindow(CoreWindow^ window)
{
    window->SizeChanged += 
        ref new TypedEventHandler<CoreWindow^, WindowSizeChangedEventArgs^>(this, &App::OnWindowSizeChanged);

    window->VisibilityChanged +=
        ref new TypedEventHandler<CoreWindow^, VisibilityChangedEventArgs^>(this, &App::OnVisibilityChanged);

    window->Closed += 
        ref new TypedEventHandler<CoreWindow^, CoreWindowEventArgs^>(this, &App::OnWindowClosed);

    DisplayInformation^ currentDisplayInformation = DisplayInformation::GetForCurrentView();

    currentDisplayInformation->DpiChanged +=
        ref new TypedEventHandler<DisplayInformation^, Object^>(this, &App::OnDpiChanged);

    currentDisplayInformation->OrientationChanged +=
        ref new TypedEventHandler<DisplayInformation^, Object^>(this, &App::OnOrientationChanged);

    DisplayInformation::DisplayContentsInvalidated +=
        ref new TypedEventHandler<DisplayInformation^, Object^>(this, &App::OnDisplayContentsInvalidated);

    // Disable all pointer visual feedback for better performance when touching.
    auto pointerVisualizationSettings = PointerVisualizationSettings::GetForCurrentView();
    pointerVisualizationSettings->IsContactFeedbackEnabled = false; 
    pointerVisualizationSettings->IsBarrelButtonFeedbackEnabled = false;

    m_deviceResources->SetWindow(window);
}

// Initializes scene resources, or loads a previously saved app state.
void App::Load(Platform::String^ entryPoint)
{
        m_main = std::unique_ptr<MyDirectXAppMain>(new MyDirectXAppMain(m_deviceResources));
}

// This method is called after the window becomes active.
void App::Run()
{
    while (!m_windowClosed)
    {
        if (m_windowVisible)
        {
            CoreWindow::GetForCurrentThread()->Dispatcher->ProcessEvents(CoreProcessEventsOption::ProcessAllIfPresent);

            m_main->Update();

            if (m_main->Render())
            {
                m_deviceResources->Present();
            }
        }
        else
        {
            CoreWindow::GetForCurrentThread()->Dispatcher->ProcessEvents(CoreProcessEventsOption::ProcessOneAndAllPending);
        }
    }
}

// Required for IFrameworkView.
// Terminate events do not cause Uninitialize to be called. It will be called if your IFrameworkView
// class is torn down while the app is in the foreground.
void App::Uninitialize()
{
}

// Application lifecycle event handlers.

void App::OnActivated(CoreApplicationView^ applicationView, IActivatedEventArgs^ args)
{
    // Run() won't start until the CoreWindow is activated.
    CoreWindow::GetForCurrentThread()->Activate();
}

void App::OnSuspending(Platform::Object^ sender, SuspendingEventArgs^ args)
{
    // Save app state asynchronously after requesting a deferral. Holding a deferral
    // indicates that the application is busy performing suspending operations. Be
    // aware that a deferral may not be held indefinitely. After about five seconds,
    // the app will be forced to exit.
    SuspendingDeferral^ deferral = args->SuspendingOperation->GetDeferral();

    create_task([this, deferral]()
    {
        m_deviceResources->Trim();

        // Insert your code here.

        deferral->Complete();
    });
}

void App::OnResuming(Platform::Object^ sender, Platform::Object^ args)
{
    // Restore any data or state that was unloaded on suspend. By default, data
    // and state are persisted when resuming from suspend. Note that this event
    // does not occur if the app was previously terminated.

    // Insert your code here.
}

// Window event handlers.

void App::OnWindowSizeChanged(CoreWindow^ sender, WindowSizeChangedEventArgs^ args)
{
    m_deviceResources->UpdateForWindowSizeChange();
    m_main->CreateWindowSizeDependentResources();
}

void App::OnVisibilityChanged(CoreWindow^ sender, VisibilityChangedEventArgs^ args)
{
    m_windowVisible = args->Visible;
}

void App::OnWindowClosed(CoreWindow^ sender, CoreWindowEventArgs^ args)
{
    m_windowClosed = true;
}

// Display properties event handlers.

void App::OnDpiChanged(DisplayInformation^ sender, Object^ args)
{
    m_deviceResources->SetDpi(sender->LogicalDpi);
}

void App::OnOrientationChanged(DisplayInformation^ sender, Object^ args)
{
    m_deviceResources->UpdateForWindowSizeChange();
    m_main->CreateWindowSizeDependentResources();
}

void App::OnDisplayContentsInvalidated(DisplayInformation^ sender, Object^ args)
{
    m_deviceResources->ValidateDevice();
}

DeviceResources.h

#pragma once

namespace MyDirectXApp 
{
    // Provides an interface for an application that owns DeviceResources to be notified of the Device being lost or created
    interface IDeviceNotify
    {
        virtual void OnDeviceLost() = 0;
        virtual void OnDeviceRecreated() = 0;
    };

    // Controls all the DirectX device resources.
    class DeviceResources
    {
    public:
        DeviceResources();
        void CreateDeviceIndependentResources();
        void CreateDeviceResources();
        void CreateWindowSizeDependentResources();
        void SetWindow(Windows::UI::Core::CoreWindow^ window);
        void SetWindow(Windows::UI::Core::CoreWindow^ window, Windows::UI::Xaml::Controls::SwapChainPanel^ panel);
        void SetDpi(float dpi);
        void UpdateForWindowSizeChange();
        void ValidateDevice();
        void HandleDeviceLost();
        void RegisterDeviceNotify(IDeviceNotify* deviceNotify);
        void Trim();
        void Present();

        // Device Accessors.
        Windows::Foundation::Size GetOutputBounds() const               { return m_outputSize; }

        // D3D Accessors.                                             
        ID3D11Device2*          GetD3DDevice() const                    { return m_d3dDevice.Get(); }
        ID3D11DeviceContext2*   GetD3DDeviceContext() const             { return m_d3dContext.Get(); }
        IDXGISwapChain1*        GetSwapChain() const                    { return m_swapChain.Get(); }
        D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL       GetDeviceFeatureLevel() const           { return m_d3dFeatureLevel; }
        ID3D11RenderTargetView* GetBackBufferRenderTargetView() const   { return m_d3dRenderTargetView.Get(); }
        ID3D11DepthStencilView* GetDepthStencilView() const             { return m_d3dDepthStencilView.Get(); }
        D3D11_VIEWPORT          GetScreenViewport() const               { return m_screenViewport; }
        DirectX::XMFLOAT4X4     GetOrientationTransform3D() const       { return m_orientationTransform3D; }

        // D2D Accessors.                                             
        ID2D1Factory2*          GetD2DFactory() const                   { return m_d2dFactory.Get(); }
        ID2D1Device1*           GetD2DDevice() const                    { return m_d2dDevice.Get(); }
        ID2D1DeviceContext1*    GetD2DDeviceContext() const             { return m_d2dContext.Get(); }
        ID2D1Bitmap1*           GetD2DTargetBitmap() const              { return m_d2dTargetBitmap.Get(); }
        IDWriteFactory2*        GetDWriteFactory() const                { return m_dwriteFactory.Get();  }
        IWICImagingFactory2*    GetWicImagingFactory() const            { return m_wicFactory.Get(); }
        D2D1::Matrix3x2F        GetOrientationTransform2D() const       { return m_orientationTransform2D; }

    private:
        DXGI_MODE_ROTATION ComputeDisplayRotation();

        // Direct3D objects.
        Microsoft::WRL::ComPtr<ID3D11Device2>         m_d3dDevice;
        Microsoft::WRL::ComPtr<ID3D11DeviceContext2>  m_d3dContext;
        Microsoft::WRL::ComPtr<IDXGISwapChain1>           m_swapChain;

        // Direct3D rendering objects. Required for 3D.
        Microsoft::WRL::ComPtr<ID3D11RenderTargetView>    m_d3dRenderTargetView;
        Microsoft::WRL::ComPtr<ID3D11DepthStencilView>    m_d3dDepthStencilView;
        D3D11_VIEWPORT                                  m_screenViewport;

        // Direct2D drawing components.
        Microsoft::WRL::ComPtr<ID2D1Factory2>     m_d2dFactory;
        Microsoft::WRL::ComPtr<ID2D1Device1>      m_d2dDevice;
        Microsoft::WRL::ComPtr<ID2D1DeviceContext1>   m_d2dContext;
        Microsoft::WRL::ComPtr<ID2D1Bitmap1>      m_d2dTargetBitmap;

        // DirectWrite drawing components.
        Microsoft::WRL::ComPtr<IDWriteFactory2>       m_dwriteFactory;
        Microsoft::WRL::ComPtr<IWICImagingFactory2>   m_wicFactory;

        // Cached reference to the Window.
        Platform::Agile<Windows::UI::Core::CoreWindow> m_window;

        // Cached reference to the XAML panel (optional).
        Windows::UI::Xaml::Controls::SwapChainPanel^           m_swapChainPanel;


        // Cached device properties.
        D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL                               m_d3dFeatureLevel;
        Windows::Foundation::Size                       m_d3dRenderTargetSize;
        Windows::Foundation::Size                       m_outputSize;
        Windows::Graphics::Display::DisplayOrientations m_orientation;
        float                                           m_dpi;

        // Transforms used for display orientation.
        D2D1::Matrix3x2F    m_orientationTransform2D;
        DirectX::XMFLOAT4X4 m_orientationTransform3D;

        // The IDeviceNotify can be held directly as it owns the DeviceResources
        IDeviceNotify* m_deviceNotify;
    };
}

DeviceResources.cpp

#include "pch.h"
#include "DeviceResources.h"

#include "Common\DirectXHelper.h"               // For ThrowIfFailed
#include <windows.ui.xaml.media.dxinterop.h>  // For SwapChainBackgroundPanel native methods

using namespace MyDirectXApp;

using namespace D2D1;
using namespace DirectX;
using namespace Microsoft::WRL;
using namespace Windows::Graphics::Display;
using namespace Windows::UI::Core;
using namespace Windows::UI::Xaml::Controls;

// Constants used to calculate screen rotations
namespace ScreenRotation
{
    // 0-degree Z-rotation
    static const XMFLOAT4X4 Rotation0( 
        1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f,
        0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f,
        0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f,
        0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f
        );

    // 90-degree Z-rotation
    static const XMFLOAT4X4 Rotation90(
        0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f,
        -1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f,
        0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f,
        0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f
        );

    // 180-degree Z-rotation
    static const XMFLOAT4X4 Rotation180(
        -1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f,
        0.0f, -1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f,
        0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f,
        0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f
        );

    // 270-degree Z-rotation
    static const XMFLOAT4X4 Rotation270( 
        0.0f, -1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f,
        1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f,
        0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f,
        0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f
        );
};

// Constructor for DeviceResources.
DeviceResources::DeviceResources() : 
    m_screenViewport(),
    m_d3dFeatureLevel(D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL_9_1),
    m_d3dRenderTargetSize(),
    m_outputSize(),
    m_orientation(DisplayOrientations::None),
    m_dpi(-1.0f),
    m_deviceNotify(nullptr)
{
    CreateDeviceIndependentResources();
    CreateDeviceResources();
}

// Configures resources that don't depend on the Direct3D device.
void DeviceResources::CreateDeviceIndependentResources()
{
    // Initialize Direct2D resources
    D2D1_FACTORY_OPTIONS options;
    ZeroMemory(&options, sizeof(D2D1_FACTORY_OPTIONS));

#if defined(_DEBUG)
    // If the project is in a debug build, enable Direct2D debugging via SDK Layers.
    options.debugLevel = D2D1_DEBUG_LEVEL_INFORMATION;
#endif

    // Initialize the Direct2D Factory
    DX::ThrowIfFailed(
        D2D1CreateFactory(
            D2D1_FACTORY_TYPE_SINGLE_THREADED,
            __uuidof(ID2D1Factory2),
            &options,
            &m_d2dFactory
            )
        );

    // Initialize the DirectWrite Factory
    DX::ThrowIfFailed(
        DWriteCreateFactory(
            DWRITE_FACTORY_TYPE_SHARED,
            __uuidof(IDWriteFactory2),
            &m_dwriteFactory
            )
        );

    // Initialize the Windows Imaging Component (WIC) Factory
    DX::ThrowIfFailed(
        CoCreateInstance(
            CLSID_WICImagingFactory2,
            nullptr,
            CLSCTX_INPROC_SERVER,
            IID_PPV_ARGS(&m_wicFactory)
            )
        );
}

// Configures the Direct3D device, and stores handles to it and the device context.
void DeviceResources::CreateDeviceResources() 
{
    // This flag adds support for surfaces with a different color channel ordering
    // than the API default. It is required for compatibility with Direct2D.
    UINT creationFlags = D3D11_CREATE_DEVICE_BGRA_SUPPORT;

#if defined(_DEBUG)
    if (DX::SdkLayersAvailable())
    {
        // If the project is in a debug build, enable debugging via SDK Layers with this flag.
        creationFlags |= D3D11_CREATE_DEVICE_DEBUG;
    }
#endif

    // This array defines the set of DirectX hardware feature levels this app will support.
    // Note the ordering should be preserved.
    // Don't forget to declare your application's minimum required feature level in its
    // description.  All applications are assumed to support 9.1 unless otherwise stated.
    D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL featureLevels[] = 
    {
        D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL_11_1,
        D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL_11_0,
        D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL_10_1,
        D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL_10_0,
        D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL_9_3,
        D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL_9_2,
        D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL_9_1
    };

    // Create the Direct3D 11 API device object and a corresponding context.
    ComPtr<ID3D11Device> device;
    ComPtr<ID3D11DeviceContext> context;

    HRESULT hr = D3D11CreateDevice(
        nullptr,                    // Specify nullptr to use the default adapter.
        D3D_DRIVER_TYPE_HARDWARE,   // Create a device using the hardware graphics driver.
        0,                          // Should be 0 unless the driver is D3D_DRIVER_TYPE_SOFTWARE.
        creationFlags,              // Set debug and Direct2D compatibility flags.
        featureLevels,              // List of feature levels this app can support.
        ARRAYSIZE(featureLevels),   // Size of the list above.
        D3D11_SDK_VERSION,          // Always set this to D3D11_SDK_VERSION for Windows Store apps.
        &device,                    // Returns the Direct3D device created.
        &m_d3dFeatureLevel,         // Returns feature level of device created.
        &context                    // Returns the device immediate context.
        );

    if (FAILED(hr))
    {
        // If the initialization fails, fall back to the WARP device.
        // For more information on WARP, see: 
        // http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/p/?LinkID=286690
        DX::ThrowIfFailed(
            D3D11CreateDevice(
                nullptr,
                D3D_DRIVER_TYPE_WARP, // Create a WARP device instead of a hardware device.
                0,
                creationFlags,
                featureLevels,
                ARRAYSIZE(featureLevels),
                D3D11_SDK_VERSION,
                &device,
                &m_d3dFeatureLevel,
                &context
                )
            );
    }

    // Store pointers to the Direct3D 11.1 API device and immediate context.
    DX::ThrowIfFailed(
        device.As(&m_d3dDevice)
        );

    DX::ThrowIfFailed(
        context.As(&m_d3dContext)
        );

    // Create the Direct2D device object and a corresponding context.
    ComPtr<IDXGIDevice3> dxgiDevice;
    DX::ThrowIfFailed(
        m_d3dDevice.As(&dxgiDevice)
        );

    DX::ThrowIfFailed(
        m_d2dFactory->CreateDevice(dxgiDevice.Get(), &m_d2dDevice)
        );

    DX::ThrowIfFailed(
        m_d2dDevice->CreateDeviceContext(
            D2D1_DEVICE_CONTEXT_OPTIONS_NONE,
            &m_d2dContext
            )
        );
}

// These resources need to be recreated every time the window size is changed.
void DeviceResources::CreateWindowSizeDependentResources() 
{
    // Clear our previous window size specific context
    ID3D11RenderTargetView* nullViews[] = {nullptr};
    m_d3dContext->OMSetRenderTargets(ARRAYSIZE(nullViews), nullViews, nullptr);
    m_d3dRenderTargetView = nullptr;
    m_d2dContext->SetTarget(nullptr);
    m_d2dTargetBitmap = nullptr;
    m_d3dDepthStencilView = nullptr;
    m_d3dContext->Flush();

    // Store the output bounds so the next time we get a SizeChanged event we can
    // avoid rebuilding everything if the size is identical.
    DisplayInformation^ currentDisplayInformation = DisplayInformation::GetForCurrentView();
    m_outputSize.Width = m_swapChainPanel == nullptr ? m_window->Bounds.Width : static_cast<float>(m_swapChainPanel->ActualWidth);
    m_outputSize.Height = m_swapChainPanel == nullptr ? m_window->Bounds.Height : static_cast<float>(m_swapChainPanel->ActualHeight);

    // Prevent zero size DirectX content from being created
    m_outputSize.Width = m_outputSize.Width > 0 ? m_outputSize.Width : 1;
    m_outputSize.Height = m_outputSize.Height > 0 ? m_outputSize.Height : 1;

    // Calculate the necessary swap chain and render target size in pixels.
    float outputWidthInPixels;
    float outputHeightInPixels;

    if (m_swapChainPanel != nullptr)
    {
        outputWidthInPixels = m_outputSize.Width * m_swapChainPanel->CompositionScaleX;
        outputHeightInPixels = m_outputSize.Height * m_swapChainPanel->CompositionScaleY;
    }
    else
    {
        outputWidthInPixels = DX::ConvertDipsToPixels(m_outputSize.Width, currentDisplayInformation->LogicalDpi);
        outputHeightInPixels = DX::ConvertDipsToPixels(m_outputSize.Height, currentDisplayInformation->LogicalDpi);
    }


    // The width and height of the swap chain must be based on the window's
    // natively-oriented width and height. If the window is not in the native
    // orientation, the dimensions must be reversed.
    m_orientation = currentDisplayInformation->CurrentOrientation;

    DXGI_MODE_ROTATION displayRotation = ComputeDisplayRotation();

    bool swapDimensions = displayRotation == DXGI_MODE_ROTATION_ROTATE90 || displayRotation == DXGI_MODE_ROTATION_ROTATE270;
    m_d3dRenderTargetSize.Width = swapDimensions ? outputHeightInPixels : outputWidthInPixels;
    m_d3dRenderTargetSize.Height = swapDimensions ? outputWidthInPixels : outputHeightInPixels;

    if (m_swapChain)
    {
        // If the swap chain already exists, resize it.
        HRESULT hr = m_swapChain->ResizeBuffers(
            2, // Double-buffered swap chain.
            static_cast<UINT>(m_d3dRenderTargetSize.Width),
            static_cast<UINT>(m_d3dRenderTargetSize.Height),
            DXGI_FORMAT_B8G8R8A8_UNORM,
            0
            );

        if (hr == DXGI_ERROR_DEVICE_REMOVED || hr == DXGI_ERROR_DEVICE_RESET)
        {
            // If the device was removed for any reason, a new device and swap chain will need to be created.
            HandleDeviceLost();

            // Everything is set up now. Do not continue execution of this method. 
            return;
        }
        else
        {
            DX::ThrowIfFailed(hr);
        }
    }
    else
    {
        // Otherwise, create a new one using the same adapter as the existing Direct3D device.
        DXGI_SWAP_CHAIN_DESC1 swapChainDesc = {0};

        swapChainDesc.Width = static_cast<UINT>(m_d3dRenderTargetSize.Width); // Match the size of the window.
        swapChainDesc.Height = static_cast<UINT>(m_d3dRenderTargetSize.Height);
        swapChainDesc.Format = DXGI_FORMAT_B8G8R8A8_UNORM; // This is the most common swap chain format.
        swapChainDesc.Stereo = false;
        swapChainDesc.SampleDesc.Count = 1; // Don't use multi-sampling.
        swapChainDesc.SampleDesc.Quality = 0;
        swapChainDesc.BufferUsage = DXGI_USAGE_RENDER_TARGET_OUTPUT;
        swapChainDesc.BufferCount = 2; // Use double-buffering to minimize latency.
        swapChainDesc.SwapEffect = DXGI_SWAP_EFFECT_FLIP_SEQUENTIAL; // All Windows Store apps must use this SwapEffect.
        swapChainDesc.Flags = 0;

        // When using XAML interop, change the Scaling to DXGI_SCALING_STRETCH
        if (m_swapChainPanel == nullptr)
        {
            swapChainDesc.Scaling = DXGI_SCALING_NONE;
        }
        else
        {
            swapChainDesc.Scaling = DXGI_SCALING_STRETCH;
        }

        swapChainDesc.AlphaMode = DXGI_ALPHA_MODE_IGNORE;

        // This sequence obtains the DXGI factory that was used to create the Direct3D device above.
        ComPtr<IDXGIDevice3> dxgiDevice;
        DX::ThrowIfFailed(
            m_d3dDevice.As(&dxgiDevice)
            );

        ComPtr<IDXGIAdapter> dxgiAdapter;
        DX::ThrowIfFailed(
            dxgiDevice->GetAdapter(&dxgiAdapter)
            );

        ComPtr<IDXGIFactory2> dxgiFactory;
        DX::ThrowIfFailed(
            dxgiAdapter->GetParent(
                __uuidof(IDXGIFactory2), 
                &dxgiFactory
                )
            );

        // When using XAML interop, the SwapChain must be created for composition
        if (m_swapChainPanel == nullptr)
        {
            DX::ThrowIfFailed(
                dxgiFactory->CreateSwapChainForCoreWindow(
                    m_d3dDevice.Get(),
                    reinterpret_cast<IUnknown*>(m_window.Get()),
                    &swapChainDesc,
                    nullptr,
                    &m_swapChain
                    )
                );
        }
        else
        {
            DX::ThrowIfFailed(
                dxgiFactory->CreateSwapChainForComposition(
                    m_d3dDevice.Get(),
                    &swapChainDesc,
                    nullptr,
                    &m_swapChain
                    )
                );

            // Get backing native interface for SwapChainPanel
            ComPtr<ISwapChainPanelNative> panelNative;
            DX::ThrowIfFailed(
                reinterpret_cast<IUnknown*>(m_swapChainPanel)->QueryInterface(IID_PPV_ARGS(&panelNative))
                );

            // Associate swap chain with SwapChainPanel
            DX::ThrowIfFailed(
                panelNative->SetSwapChain(m_swapChain.Get())
                );      
        }

        // Ensure that DXGI does not queue more than one frame at a time. This both reduces latency and
        // ensures that the application will only render after each VSync, minimizing power consumption.
        DX::ThrowIfFailed(
            dxgiDevice->SetMaximumFrameLatency(1)
            );
    }

    // Set the proper orientation for the swap chain, and generate 2D and
    // 3D matrix transformations for rendering to the rotated swap chain.
    // Note the rotation angle for the 2D and 3D transforms are different.
    // This is due to the difference in coordinate spaces.  Additionally,
    // the 3D matrix is specified explicitly to avoid rounding errors.

    switch (displayRotation)
    {
    case DXGI_MODE_ROTATION_IDENTITY:
        m_orientationTransform2D = Matrix3x2F::Identity();
        m_orientationTransform3D = ScreenRotation::Rotation0;
        break;

    case DXGI_MODE_ROTATION_ROTATE90:
        m_orientationTransform2D = 
            Matrix3x2F::Rotation(90.0f) *
            Matrix3x2F::Translation(m_outputSize.Height, 0.0f);
        m_orientationTransform3D = ScreenRotation::Rotation270;
        break;

    case DXGI_MODE_ROTATION_ROTATE180:
        m_orientationTransform2D = 
            Matrix3x2F::Rotation(180.0f) *
            Matrix3x2F::Translation(m_outputSize.Width, m_outputSize.Height);
        m_orientationTransform3D = ScreenRotation::Rotation180;
        break;

    case DXGI_MODE_ROTATION_ROTATE270:
        m_orientationTransform2D = 
            Matrix3x2F::Rotation(270.0f) *
            Matrix3x2F::Translation(0.0f, m_outputSize.Width);
        m_orientationTransform3D = ScreenRotation::Rotation90;
        break;

    default:
        throw ref new Platform::FailureException();
    }

    DX::ThrowIfFailed(
        m_swapChain->SetRotation(displayRotation)
        );

    // Setup inverse scale on the swapchain
    if (m_swapChainPanel != nullptr)
    {
        DXGI_MATRIX_3X2_F inverseScale = { 0 };
        inverseScale._11 = 1.0f / m_swapChainPanel->CompositionScaleX;
        inverseScale._22 = 1.0f / m_swapChainPanel->CompositionScaleY;
        ComPtr<IDXGISwapChain2> spSwapChain2;
        m_swapChain.As<IDXGISwapChain2>(&spSwapChain2);
        spSwapChain2->SetMatrixTransform(&inverseScale);
    }


    // Create a render target view of the swap chain back buffer.
    ComPtr<ID3D11Texture2D> backBuffer;
    DX::ThrowIfFailed(
        m_swapChain->GetBuffer(0, IID_PPV_ARGS(&backBuffer))
        );

    DX::ThrowIfFailed(
        m_d3dDevice->CreateRenderTargetView(
            backBuffer.Get(),
            nullptr,
            &m_d3dRenderTargetView
            )
        );

    // Create a depth stencil view for use with 3D rendering if needed.
    CD3D11_TEXTURE2D_DESC depthStencilDesc(
        DXGI_FORMAT_D24_UNORM_S8_UINT, 
        static_cast<UINT>(m_d3dRenderTargetSize.Width),
        static_cast<UINT>(m_d3dRenderTargetSize.Height),
        1, // This depth stencil view has only one texture.
        1, // Use a single mipmap level.
        D3D11_BIND_DEPTH_STENCIL
        );

    ComPtr<ID3D11Texture2D> depthStencil;
    DX::ThrowIfFailed(
        m_d3dDevice->CreateTexture2D(
            &depthStencilDesc,
            nullptr,
            &depthStencil
            )
        );

    CD3D11_DEPTH_STENCIL_VIEW_DESC depthStencilViewDesc(D3D11_DSV_DIMENSION_TEXTURE2D);
    DX::ThrowIfFailed(
        m_d3dDevice->CreateDepthStencilView(
            depthStencil.Get(),
            &depthStencilViewDesc,
            &m_d3dDepthStencilView
            )
        );

    // Set the 3D rendering viewport to target the entire window.
    m_screenViewport = CD3D11_VIEWPORT(
        0.0f,
        0.0f,
        m_d3dRenderTargetSize.Width,
        m_d3dRenderTargetSize.Height
        );

    m_d3dContext->RSSetViewports(1, &m_screenViewport);

    // Create a Direct2D target bitmap associated with the
    // swap chain back buffer and set it as the current target.
    D2D1_BITMAP_PROPERTIES1 bitmapProperties = 
        D2D1::BitmapProperties1(
            D2D1_BITMAP_OPTIONS_TARGET | D2D1_BITMAP_OPTIONS_CANNOT_DRAW,
            D2D1::PixelFormat(DXGI_FORMAT_B8G8R8A8_UNORM, D2D1_ALPHA_MODE_PREMULTIPLIED),
            m_dpi,
            m_dpi
            );

    ComPtr<IDXGISurface2> dxgiBackBuffer;
    DX::ThrowIfFailed(
        m_swapChain->GetBuffer(0, IID_PPV_ARGS(&dxgiBackBuffer))
        );

    DX::ThrowIfFailed(
        m_d2dContext->CreateBitmapFromDxgiSurface(
            dxgiBackBuffer.Get(),
            &bitmapProperties,
            &m_d2dTargetBitmap
            )
        );

    m_d2dContext->SetTarget(m_d2dTargetBitmap.Get());

    // Grayscale text anti-aliasing is recommended for all Windows Store apps.
    m_d2dContext->SetTextAntialiasMode(D2D1_TEXT_ANTIALIAS_MODE_GRAYSCALE);
}

// This method is called when the CoreWindow is created (or re-created)
void DeviceResources::SetWindow(CoreWindow^ window)
{
    m_window = window;

    // SetDpi() will call CreateWindowSizeDependentResources()
    // if those resources have not been created yet.
    SetDpi(DisplayInformation::GetForCurrentView()->LogicalDpi);

    UpdateForWindowSizeChange();
}

// This method is called when the XAML control is created (or re-created)
void DeviceResources::SetWindow(CoreWindow^ window, SwapChainPanel^ panel)
{
    m_swapChainPanel = panel;

    SetWindow(window);
}

// This method is called in the event handler for the LogicalDpiChanged event.
void DeviceResources::SetDpi(float dpi)
{
    if (dpi != m_dpi)
    {
        // Save the updated DPI value.
        m_dpi = dpi;

        // Update Direct2D's stored DPI.
        m_d2dContext->SetDpi(m_dpi, m_dpi);

        // Often a DPI change implies a window size change. In some cases Windows will issue
        // both a size changed event and a DPI changed event. In this case, the resulting bounds 
        // will not change, and the window resize code will only be executed once.

        UpdateForWindowSizeChange();
    }
}

// This method is called in the event handler for the SizeChanged event.
void DeviceResources::UpdateForWindowSizeChange()
{
    DisplayInformation^ currentDisplayInformation = DisplayInformation::GetForCurrentView();

    if (m_swapChainPanel == nullptr && (
            m_window->Bounds.Width  != m_outputSize.Width ||
            m_window->Bounds.Height != m_outputSize.Height
        ) || m_swapChainPanel != nullptr && (
            m_swapChainPanel->ActualWidth != m_outputSize.Width ||
            m_swapChainPanel->ActualHeight != m_outputSize.Height
        ) || m_orientation != currentDisplayInformation->CurrentOrientation)

    {
        CreateWindowSizeDependentResources();
    }
}

// This method is called in the event handler for the DisplayContentsInvalidated event.
void DeviceResources::ValidateDevice()
{
    // The D3D Device is no longer valid if the default adapter changes or if 
    // the device has been removed. 

    // First, get the information for the adapter related to the current device. 

    ComPtr<IDXGIDevice3> dxgiDevice;
    DX::ThrowIfFailed(m_d3dDevice.As(&dxgiDevice));

    ComPtr<IDXGIAdapter> deviceAdapter;
    DX::ThrowIfFailed(dxgiDevice->GetAdapter(&deviceAdapter));

    DXGI_ADAPTER_DESC adapterDesc;
    DX::ThrowIfFailed(deviceAdapter->GetDesc(&adapterDesc));

    // Next, get the information for the default adapter. 

    ComPtr<IDXGIFactory2> dxgiFactory;
    DX::ThrowIfFailed(CreateDXGIFactory1(IID_PPV_ARGS(&dxgiFactory)));

    ComPtr<IDXGIAdapter1> currentAdapter;
    DX::ThrowIfFailed(dxgiFactory->EnumAdapters1(0, &currentAdapter));

    DXGI_ADAPTER_DESC currentDesc;
    DX::ThrowIfFailed(currentAdapter->GetDesc(&currentDesc));

    // If the adapter LUIDs don't match, or if the device reports that it has been removed, 
    // a new D3D device must be created. 

    if (adapterDesc.AdapterLuid.LowPart != currentDesc.AdapterLuid.LowPart ||
        adapterDesc.AdapterLuid.HighPart != currentDesc.AdapterLuid.HighPart ||
        FAILED(m_d3dDevice->GetDeviceRemovedReason()))
    {
        // Release references to resources related to the old device. 
        dxgiDevice = nullptr;
        deviceAdapter = nullptr;

        // Create a new device and swap chain. 
        HandleDeviceLost();
    }
}

// Recreate all device resources and set them back to the current state.
void DeviceResources::HandleDeviceLost()
{
        // Reset these member variables to ensure that SetDpi recreates all resources.
    float dpi = m_dpi;
    m_dpi = -1.0f;
    m_outputSize.Width = 0;
    m_outputSize.Height = 0;
    m_swapChain = nullptr;

    if (m_deviceNotify != nullptr)
    {
        m_deviceNotify->OnDeviceLost();
    }

    CreateDeviceResources();
    SetDpi(dpi);

    if (m_deviceNotify != nullptr)
    {
        m_deviceNotify->OnDeviceRecreated();
    }
}

// Register our DeviceNotify to be informed on device lost and creation
void DeviceResources::RegisterDeviceNotify(IDeviceNotify* deviceNotify)
{
    m_deviceNotify = deviceNotify;
}

// Call this method when the app suspends to hint to the driver that the app is entering an idle state
// and that temporary buffers can be reclaimed for use by other apps.
void DeviceResources::Trim()
{
    ComPtr<IDXGIDevice3> dxgiDevice;
    m_d3dDevice.As(&dxgiDevice);

    dxgiDevice->Trim();
}

// Present the contents of the swap chain to the screen.
void DeviceResources::Present() 
{
    // The first argument instructs DXGI to block until VSync, putting the application
    // to sleep until the next VSync. This ensures we don't waste any cycles rendering
    // frames that will never be displayed to the screen.
    HRESULT hr = m_swapChain->Present(1, 0);

    // Discard the contents of the render target.
    // This is a valid operation only when the existing contents will be entirely
    // overwritten. If dirty or scroll rects are used, this call should be removed.
    m_d3dContext->DiscardView(m_d3dRenderTargetView.Get());

    // Discard the contents of the depth stencil.
    m_d3dContext->DiscardView(m_d3dDepthStencilView.Get());

    // If the device was removed either by a disconnect or a driver upgrade, we 
    // must recreate all device resources.
    if (hr == DXGI_ERROR_DEVICE_REMOVED || hr == DXGI_ERROR_DEVICE_RESET)
    {
        HandleDeviceLost();
    }
    else
    {
        DX::ThrowIfFailed(hr);
    }
}

// This method determines the rotation between the display device's native Orientation and the
// current display orientation.
DXGI_MODE_ROTATION DeviceResources::ComputeDisplayRotation()
{
    DXGI_MODE_ROTATION rotation = DXGI_MODE_ROTATION_UNSPECIFIED;

    // Note: NativeOrientation can only be Landscape or Portrait even though
    // the DisplayOrientations enum has other values.
    auto displayInformation = DisplayInformation::GetForCurrentView();

    switch (displayInformation->NativeOrientation)
    {
    case DisplayOrientations::Landscape:
        switch (displayInformation->CurrentOrientation)
        {
        case DisplayOrientations::Landscape:
            rotation = DXGI_MODE_ROTATION_IDENTITY;
            break;

        case DisplayOrientations::Portrait:
            rotation = DXGI_MODE_ROTATION_ROTATE90;
            break;

        case DisplayOrientations::LandscapeFlipped:
            rotation = DXGI_MODE_ROTATION_ROTATE180;
            break;

        case DisplayOrientations::PortraitFlipped:
            rotation = DXGI_MODE_ROTATION_ROTATE270;
            break;
        }
        break;

    case DisplayOrientations::Portrait:
        switch (displayInformation->CurrentOrientation)
        {
        case DisplayOrientations::Landscape:
            rotation = DXGI_MODE_ROTATION_ROTATE270;
            break;

        case DisplayOrientations::Portrait:
            rotation = DXGI_MODE_ROTATION_IDENTITY;
            break;

        case DisplayOrientations::LandscapeFlipped:
            rotation = DXGI_MODE_ROTATION_ROTATE90;
            break;

        case DisplayOrientations::PortraitFlipped:
            rotation = DXGI_MODE_ROTATION_ROTATE180;
            break;
        }
        break;
    }
    return rotation;
}