Azure security baseline for Event Hubs

This security baseline applies guidance from the Azure Security Benchmark version 2.0 to Event Hubs. The Azure Security Benchmark provides recommendations on how you can secure your cloud solutions on Azure.The content is grouped by the security controls defined by the Azure Security Benchmark and the related guidance applicable to Event Hubs.

Note

Controls not applicable to Event Hubs, and those for which the global guidance is recommended verbatim, have been excluded. To see how Event Hubs completely maps to the Azure Security Benchmark, see the full Event Hubs security baseline mapping file.

Network Security

For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Network Security.

NS-1: Implement security for internal traffic

Guidance: Event Hubs does not support deploying directly into a virtual network, because of this you cannot leverage certain networking features with the offering's resources such as network security groups, route tables, or other network-dependent appliances such as an Azure Firewall.

Use Azure Sentinel to discover the use of legacy insecure protocols such as SSL/TLSv1, SMBv1, LM/NTLMv1, wDigest, Unsigned LDAP Binds, and weak ciphers in Kerberos.

/azure/event-hubs/event-hubs-faq#what-ports-do-i-need-to-open-on-the-firewall

Responsibility: Microsoft

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

NS-3: Establish private network access to Azure services

Guidance: Use Azure Private Link to enable private access to Event Hubs from your virtual networks without crossing the internet.

Private access is an additional defense in depth measure to the authentication and traffic security offered by Azure services.

Use Azure Virtual Network service endpoints to provide secure access to Event Hubs via an optimized route over the Azure backbone network without crossing the internet.

Private access is an additional defense in depth measure to the authentication and traffic security offered by Azure services.

How to use virtual

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How to configure IP

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

NS-5: Deploy intrusion detection/intrusion prevention systems (IDS/IPS)

Guidance: Use Azure Firewall threat intelligence-based filtering to alert on and/or block traffic to and from known malicious IP addresses and domains. The IP addresses and domains are sourced from the Microsoft Threat Intelligence feed. When payload inspection is required, you can deploy a third-party intrusion detection/intrusion prevention system (IDS/IPS) from Azure Marketplace with payload inspection capabilities. Alternately, you can use host-based IDS/IPS or a host-based endpoint detection and response (EDR) solution in conjunction with or instead of network-based IDS/IPS.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

NS-6: Simplify network security rules

Guidance: Use Azure Virtual Network Service Tags to define network access controls on network security groups or Azure Firewall configured for your Event Hubs resources. You can use service tags in place of specific IP addresses when creating security rules. By specifying the service tag name in the appropriate source or destination field of a rule, you can allow or deny the traffic for the corresponding service. Microsoft manages the address prefixes encompassed by the service tag and automatically updates the service tag as addresses change.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

NS-7: Secure Domain Name Service (DNS)

Guidance: Follow the best practices for DNS security to mitigate against common attacks like dangling DNS, DNS amplifications attacks, DNS poisoning and spoofing, etc.

When Azure DNS is used as your authoritative DNS service, ensure DNS zones and records are protected from accidental or malicious modification using Azure RBAC and resource locks.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

Identity Management

For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Identity Management.

IM-1: Standardize Azure Active Directory as the central identity and authentication system

Guidance: Event Hubs uses Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) as the default identity and access management service. You should standardize Azure AD to govern your organization's identity and access management in:

  • Microsoft Cloud resources, such as the Azure portal, Azure Storage, Azure Virtual Machine (Linux and Windows), Azure Key Vault, PaaS, and SaaS applications.
  • Your organization's resources, such as applications on Azure or your corporate network resources.

Securing Azure AD should be a high priority in your organization's cloud security practice. Azure AD provides an identity secure score to help you assess identity security posture relative to Microsoft's best practice recommendations. Use the score to gauge how closely your configuration matches best practice recommendations, and to make improvements in your security posture.

Note: Azure AD supports external identities that allows users without a Microsoft account to sign in to their applications and resources with their external identity.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

IM-2: Manage application identities securely and automatically

Guidance: Event Hubs supports managed identities for its Azure resources. Use managed identities with Event Hubs instead of creating service principals to access other resources. Event Hubs can natively authenticate to the Azure services/resources that supports Azure AD authentication through a pre-defined access grant rule without using credentials hard coded in source code or configuration files.

Event Hubs recommends using Azure AD to create a service principal with restricted permissions at the resource level to configure service principals with certificate credentials and fall back to client secrets. In both cases, Azure Key Vault can be used to in conjunction with Azure-managed identities so that the runtime environment (such as an Azure function) can retrieve the credential from the key vault.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

IM-3: Use Azure AD single sign-on (SSO) for application access

Guidance: Event Hubs uses Azure Active Directory to provide identity and access management to Azure resources, cloud applications, and on-premises applications. This includes enterprise identities, such as employees, as well as external identities like partners, vendors, and suppliers. This enables single sign-on (SSO) to manage and secure access to your organization's data and resources on-premises and in the cloud. Connect all your users, applications, and devices to the Azure AD for seamless, secure access and greater visibility and control.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

IM-4: Use strong authentication controls for all Azure Active Directory based access

Guidance: Event Hubs uses Azure Active Directory (Azure AD), which supports strong authentication controls through multi-factor authentication (MFA) and strong passwordless methods.

  • Multi-factor authentication - Enable Azure AD MFA, and then follow Azure Security Center Identity and Access Management recommendations for best practices in your MFA setup. MFA can be enforced on all, select users, or at the per-user level based on sign-in conditions and risk factors.
  • Passwordless authentication - Three passwordless authentication options are available: Windows Hello for Business, Microsoft Authenticator app, and on-premises authentication methods such as smart cards.

For administrators and privileged users, ensure the highest level of the strong authentication method is used, followed by rolling out the appropriate strong authentication policy to other users.

Event Hubs supports legacy password-based authentication such as Cloud-only accounts (user accounts created directly in the Azure) that have a baseline password policy, or Hybrid accounts (user accounts that come from on-premises Active Directory) that will follow the on-premises password policies. When using password-based authentication, Azure AD provides a password protection capability that prevents users from setting passwords that are easy to guess. Microsoft provides a global list of banned passwords that is updated based on telemetry, and customers can augment the list based on their needs (such as branding or cultural references). This password protection can be used for cloud-only and hybrid accounts.

Note: Authentication based on password credentials alone are susceptible to popular attack methods. For higher security, use strong authentication such as MFA and a strong password policy. For third-party applications and marketplace services that might have default passwords, you should change them upon the service initial setup.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

IM-5: Monitor and alert on account anomalies

Guidance: Event Hubs is integrated with Azure Active Directory, which provides the following data sources:

  • Sign-ins - The sign-ins report provides information about the usage of managed applications and user sign-in activities.
  • Audit logs - Provides traceability through logs for all changes done by various features within Azure AD. Examples of audit logs include changes made to any resource within Azure AD, like adding or removing users, apps, groups, roles, and policies.
  • Risky sign-ins - A risky sign-in is an indicator for a sign-in attempt that might have been performed by someone who is not the legitimate owner of a user account.
  • Users flagged for risk - A risky user is an indicator for a user account that might have been compromised.

These data sources can be integrated with Azure Monitor, Azure Sentinel, or third-party SIEM systems.

Azure Security Center can also alert you about certain suspicious activities, such as an excessive number of failed authentication attempts or deprecated accounts in the subscription.

Azure Advanced Threat Protection (ATP) is a security solution that can use Active Directory signals to identify, detect, and investigate advanced threats, compromised identities, and malicious insider actions.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

IM-6: Restrict Azure resource access based on conditions

Guidance: Event Hubs supports Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) conditional access for a more granular access control based on user-defined conditions, such as user logins from certain IP ranges will need to use multifactor authentication for login. Granular authentication session management policy can also be used for different use cases. These conditional access policies will only apply to user accounts that are authenticating to Azure AD to access and manage the Event Hubs service, but they will not apply to service principals, keys, or tokens used to connect to your Event Hubs resource.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

Privileged Access

For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Privileged Access.

PA-2: Restrict administrative access to business-critical systems

Guidance: Event Hubs uses Azure role-based access control (Azure RBAC) to isolate access to business-critical systems by restricting which accounts are granted privileged access to the subscriptions and management groups they are in.

Ensure that you also restrict access to the management, identity, and security systems that have administrative access to your business-critical access controls, such as Active Directory Domain Controllers (DCs), security tools, and system management tools with agents installed on business-critical systems. Attackers who compromise these management and security systems can immediately weaponize them to compromise business-critical assets.

All types of access controls should be aligned to your enterprise segmentation strategy to ensure consistent access control.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

PA-3: Review and reconcile user access regularly

Guidance: Event Hubs uses Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) accounts to manage its resources, review user accounts, and access assignments regularly to ensure the accounts and their access are valid. You can use Azure AD and access reviews to review group memberships, access to enterprise applications, and role assignments. Azure AD reporting can provide logs to help discover stale accounts. You can also use Azure AD Privileged Identity Management (PIM) to create access review report workflows to facilitate the review process.

In addition, Azure AD PIM can also be configured to alert you when an excessive number of administrator accounts are created, and to identify administrator accounts that are stale or improperly configured.

Note: Some Azure services support local users and roles which are not managed through Azure AD. You will need to manage these users separately.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

PA-4: Set up emergency access in Azure AD

Guidance: Event Hubs uses Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) to manage its resources. To prevent being accidentally locked out of your Azure AD organization, set up an emergency access account for access when normal administrative accounts cannot be used. Emergency access accounts are usually highly privileged, and they should not be assigned to specific individuals. Emergency access accounts are limited to emergency or 'break glass' scenarios where normal administrative accounts can't be used.

You should ensure that the credentials (such as password, certificate, or smart card) for emergency access accounts are kept secure and known only to individuals who are authorized to use them only in an emergency.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

PA-5: Automate entitlement management

Guidance: Event Hubs is integrated with Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) to manage its resources. Use Azure AD entitlement management features to automate access request workflows, including access assignments, reviews, and expiration. Dual or multi-stage approval is also supported.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

PA-6: Use privileged access workstations

Guidance: Secured, isolated workstations are critically important for the security of sensitive roles like administrator, developer, and critical service operator. Use highly secured user workstations and/or Azure Bastion for administrative tasks. Use Azure Active Directory (Azure AD), Microsoft Defender Advanced Threat Protection (ATP), and/or Microsoft Intune to deploy a secure and managed user workstation for administrative tasks. The secured workstations can be centrally managed to enforce secured configuration including strong authentication, software and hardware baselines, and restricted logical and network access.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

PA-7: Follow just enough administration (least privilege principle)

Guidance: Event Hubs is integrated with Azure role-based access control (Azure RBAC) to manage its resources. Azure RBAC allows you to manage Azure resource access through role assignments. You can assign these roles to users, groups service principals, and managed identities. There are pre-defined built-in roles for certain resources, and these roles can be inventoried or queried through tools such as Azure CLI, Azure PowerShell, or the Azure portal. The privileges you assign to resources through the Azure RBAC should be always limited to what is required by the roles. This complements the just-in-time (JIT) approach of Azure AD Privileged Identity Management (PIM) and should be reviewed periodically.

Use built-in roles to allocate permissions and only create custom roles when required.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

Data Protection

For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Data Protection.

DP-3: Monitor for unauthorized transfer of sensitive data

Guidance: Monitor for unauthorized transfer of data to locations outside of enterprise visibility and control. This typically involves monitoring for anomalous activities (large or unusual transfers) that could indicate unauthorized data exfiltration.

Azure Defender for Storage and Azure Defender for SQL can alert on an anomalous transfer of information that might indicate unauthorized transfers of sensitive information.

Azure Information Protection (AIP) provides monitoring capabilities for information that has been classified and labeled.

If required for compliance of data loss prevention (DLP), you can use a host-based DLP solution to enforce detective and/or preventative controls to prevent data exfiltration.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

DP-4: Encrypt sensitive information in transit

Guidance: We still have customers who use TLS 1.0 and 1.1 applications.

It is recommended to use TLS 1.1. Although Event Hubs still supports TLS 1.0 for customers who still running business with weaker protocols for backward compatibility, It is highly recommended to avoid using it.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

DP-5: Encrypt sensitive data at rest

Guidance: To complement access controls, Event Hubs encrypts data at rest to protect against 'out of band' attacks (such as accessing underlying storage) using encryption. This helps ensure that attackers cannot easily read or modify the data.

Azure provides encryption for data at rest by default. For highly sensitive data, you have options to implement additional encryption at rest on all Azure resources where available. Azure manages your encryption keys by default, but Azure also provides options to manage your own keys (customer-managed keys) for certain Azure services to meet regulatory requirements.

Azure Event Hubs supports the option of encrypting data at rest with either Microsoft-managed keys or customer-managed keys. This feature enables you to create, rotate, disable, and revoke access to the customer-managed keys that are used for encrypting Azure Event Hubs data at rest.

How

Responsibility: Shared

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

Asset Management

For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Asset Management.

AM-1: Ensure security team has visibility into risks for assets

Guidance: Ensure security teams are granted Security Reader permissions in your Azure tenant and subscriptions so they can monitor for security risks using Azure Security Center.

Depending on how security team responsibilities are structured, monitoring for security risks could be the responsibility of a central security team or a local team. That said, security insights and risks must always be aggregated centrally within an organization.

Security Reader permissions can be applied broadly to an entire tenant (Root Management Group) or scoped to management groups or specific subscriptions.

Note: Additional permissions might be required to get visibility into workloads and services.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

AM-2: Ensure security team has access to asset inventory and metadata

Guidance: Ensure that security teams have access to a continuously updated inventory of assets on Azure, like Event Hubs. Security teams often need this inventory to evaluate their organization's potential exposure to emerging risks, and as an input to continuous security improvements. Create an Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) group to contain your organization's authorized security team and assign them read access to all Event Hubs resources, which can be simplified by a single high-level role assignment within your subscription.

Apply tags to your Azure resources, resource groups, and subscriptions to logically organize them into a taxonomy. Each tag consists of a name and a value pair. For example, you can apply the name "Environment" and the value "Production" to all the resources in production.

Use Azure Virtual Machine Inventory to automate the collection of information about software on Virtual Machines. Software Name, Version, Publisher, and Refresh Time are available from the Azure portal. To get access to install dates and other information, enable guest-level diagnostics and bring the Windows Event Logs into a Log Analytics Workspace.

Event Hubs does not allow running an application or the installation of software on its resources. Describe any other features in your offering which allows or supports this functionality, as applicable.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

AM-3: Use only approved Azure services

Guidance: Use Azure Policy to audit and restrict which services users can provision in your environment. Use Azure Resource Graph to query for and discover resources within their subscriptions. You can also use Azure Monitor to create rules to trigger alerts when a non-approved service is detected.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

AM-4: Ensure security of asset lifecycle management

Guidance: Establish or update security policies that address asset lifecycle management processes for potentially high impact modifications. These modifications include but are not limited to: identity providers and access, data sensitivity, network configuration, and administrative privilege assignment. Outline any high-impact configurations that the customer should be aware of.

Remove Azure resources when they are no longer needed.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

AM-5: Limit users' ability to interact with Azure Resource Manager

Guidance: Use Azure Conditional Access to limit users' ability to interact with Azure Resources Manager by configuring "Block access" for the "Microsoft Azure Management" App.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

Logging and Threat Detection

For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Logging and Threat Detection.

LT-1: Enable threat detection for Azure resources

Guidance: Use the Azure Security Center built-in threat detection capability and enable Azure Defender (formerly Azure Advanced Threat Protection) for your Event Hubs resources. Azure Defender for Event Hubs provides an additional layer of security intelligence that detects unusual and potentially harmful attempts to access or exploit your Event Hubs resources.

Forward any logs from Event Hubs to your SIEM, which can be used to set up custom threat detections. Ensure that you are monitoring different types of Azure assets for potential threats and anomalies. Focus on getting high-quality alerts to reduce false positives for analysts to sort through. Alerts can be sourced from log data, agents, or other data.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

LT-2: Enable threat detection for Azure identity and access management

Guidance: Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) provides the following user logs, which can be viewed in Azure AD reporting or integrated with Azure Monitor, Azure Sentinel, or other SIEM/monitoring tools for more sophisticated monitoring and analytics use cases:

  • Sign-ins - The sign-ins report provides information about the usage of managed applications and user sign-in activities.
  • Audit logs - Provides traceability through logs for all changes done by various features within Azure AD. Examples of audit logs include changes made to any resources within Azure AD, like adding or removing users, apps, groups, roles, and policies.
  • Risky sign-ins - A risky sign-in is an indicator for a sign-in attempt that might have been performed by someone who is not the legitimate owner of a user account.
  • Users flagged for risk - A risky user is an indicator for a user account that might have been compromised.

Azure Security Center can also trigger alerts on certain suspicious activities, such as excessive number of failed authentication attempts or deprecated accounts in the subscription. In addition to the basic security hygiene monitoring, Azure Security Center's Threat Protection module can also collect more in-depth security alerts from individual Azure compute resources (virtual machines, containers, app service), data resources (SQL DB and storage), and Azure service layers. This capability allows you to have visibility on account anomalies inside individual resources.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

LT-3: Enable logging for Azure network activities

Guidance: Event Hubs is not intended to deploy into virtual networks. Because of this, you can't enable network security group flow logging, route traffic through a firewall, or perform packet captures.

Enable and collect network security group (NSG) resource logs, NSG flow logs, Azure Firewall logs, and Web Application Firewall (WAF) logs for security analysis to support incident investigations, threat hunting, and security alert generation. You can send the flow logs to an Azure Monitor Log Analytics workspace and then use Traffic Analytics to provide insights.

Event Hubs logs all network traffic that it processes for customer access. Enable the network flow capability within your deployed offering resources

Event Hubs does not produce or process DNS query logs

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

LT-4: Enable logging for Azure resources

Guidance: Activity logs, which are automatically available, contain all write operations (PUT, POST, DELETE) for your Event Hubs resources except read operations (GET). Activity logs can be used to find an error when troubleshooting or to monitor how a user in your organization modified a resource.

Enable Azure resource logs for Event Hubs. You can use Azure Security Center and Azure Policy to enable resource logs and log data collecting. These logs can be critical for investigating security incidents and performing forensic exercises.

Event Hubs also produces security audit logs for the local administer accounts. Enable these local admin audit logs

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: The Azure Security Benchmark is the default policy initiative for Security Center and is the foundation for Security Center's recommendations. The Azure Policy definitions related to this control are enabled automatically by Security Center. Alerts related to this control may require an Azure Defender plan for the related services.

Azure Policy built-in definitions - Microsoft.EventHub:

Name
(Azure portal)
Description Effect(s) Version
(GitHub)
Resource logs in Event Hub should be enabled Audit enabling of resource logs. This enables you to recreate activity trails to use for investigation purposes; when a security incident occurs or when your network is compromised AuditIfNotExists, Disabled 5.0.0

LT-5: Centralize security log management and analysis

Guidance: Centralize logging storage and analysis to enable correlation. For each log source, ensure that you have assigned a data owner, access guidance, storage location, what tools are used to process and access the data, and data retention requirements.

Ensure that you are integrating Azure activity logs into your central logging. Ingest logs via Azure Monitor to aggregate security data generated by endpoint devices, network resources, and other security systems. In Azure Monitor, use Log Analytics workspaces to query and perform analytics, and use Azure Storage accounts for long term and archival storage.

In addition, enable and onboard data to Azure Sentinel or a third-party SIEM.

Many organizations choose to use Azure Sentinel for 'hot' data that is used frequently and Azure Storage for 'cold' data that is used less frequently.

For applications that may run on Event Hubs, forward all security-related logs to your SIEM for centralized management.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

LT-6: Configure log storage retention

Guidance: Ensure that any storage accounts or Log Analytics workspaces used for storing Event Hubs logs have the log retention period set according to your organization's compliance regulations.

How

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

LT-7: Use approved time synchronization sources

Guidance: Not applicable; Event Hubs does not support configuring your own time synchronization sources.

Event Hubs service relies on Microsoft time synchronization sources, and is not exposed to customers for configuration.

Responsibility: Microsoft

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

Incident Response

For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Incident Response.

IR-1: Preparation – update incident response process for Azure

Guidance: Ensure your organization has processes to respond to security incidents, has updated these processes for Azure, and is regularly exercising them to ensure readiness.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

IR-2: Preparation – setup incident notification

Guidance: Set up security incident contact information in Azure Security Center. This contact information is used by Microsoft to contact you if the Microsoft Security Response Center (MSRC) discovers that your data has been accessed by an unlawful or unauthorized party. You also have options to customize incident alert and notification in different Azure services based on your incident response needs.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

IR-3: Detection and analysis – create incidents based on high quality alerts

Guidance: Ensure you have a process to create high-quality alerts and measure the quality of alerts. This allows you to learn lessons from past incidents and prioritize alerts for analysts, so they don't waste time on false positives.

High-quality alerts can be built based on experience from past incidents, validated community sources, and tools designed to generate and clean up alerts by fusing and correlating diverse signal sources.

Azure Security Center provides high-quality alerts across many Azure assets. You can use the ASC data connector to stream the alerts to Azure Sentinel. Azure Sentinel lets you create advanced alert rules to generate incidents automatically for an investigation.

Export your Azure Security Center alerts and recommendations using the export feature to help identify risks to Azure resources. Export alerts and recommendations either manually or in an ongoing, continuous fashion.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

IR-4: Detection and analysis – investigate an incident

Guidance: Ensure analysts can query and use diverse data sources as they investigate potential incidents, to build a full view of what happened. Diverse logs should be collected to track the activities of a potential attacker across the kill chain to avoid blind spots. You should also ensure insights and learnings are captured for other analysts and for future historical reference.

The data sources for investigation include the centralized logging sources that are already being collected from the in-scope services and running systems, but can also include:

  • Network data - use network security groups' flow logs, Azure Network Watcher, and Azure Monitor to capture network flow logs and other analytics information.

  • Snapshots of running systems:

    • Use Azure virtual machine's snapshot capability to create a snapshot of the running system's disk.

    • Use the operating system's native memory dump capability to create a snapshot of the running system's memory.

    • Use the snapshot feature of the Azure services or your software's own capability to create snapshots of the running systems.

Azure Sentinel provides extensive data analytics across virtually any log source and a case management portal to manage the full lifecycle of incidents. Intelligence information during an investigation can be associated with an incident for tracking and reporting purposes.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

IR-5: Detection and analysis – prioritize incidents

Guidance: Provide context to analysts on which incidents to focus on first based on alert severity and asset sensitivity.

Azure Security Center assigns a severity to each alert to help you prioritize which alerts should be investigated first. The severity is based on how confident Security Center is in the finding or the analytics used to issue the alert, as well as the confidence level that there was malicious intent behind the activity that led to the alert.

Additionally, mark resources using tags and create a naming system to identify and categorize Azure resources, especially those processing sensitive data. It is your responsibility to prioritize the remediation of alerts based on the criticality of the Azure resources and environment where the incident occurred.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

IR-6: Containment, eradication and recovery – automate the incident handling

Guidance: Automate manual repetitive tasks to speed up response time and reduce the burden on analysts. Manual tasks take longer to execute, slowing each incident and reducing how many incidents an analyst can handle. Manual tasks also increase analyst fatigue, which increases the risk of human error that causes delays, and degrades the ability of analysts to focus effectively on complex tasks.

Use workflow automation features in Azure Security Center and Azure Sentinel to automatically trigger actions or run a playbook to respond to incoming security alerts. The playbook takes actions, such as sending notifications, disabling accounts, and isolating problematic networks.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

Posture and Vulnerability Management

For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Posture and Vulnerability Management.

PV-1: Establish secure configurations for Azure services

Guidance: You can use Azure Blueprints to automate deployment and configuration of services and application environments including Azure Resources Manager templates, Azure RBAC controls, and policies, in a single blueprint definition.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

PV-2: Sustain secure configurations for Azure services

Guidance: Use Azure Security Center to monitor your configuration baseline and enforce using Azure Policy [deny] and [deploy if not exist] to enforce secure configuration across Azure compute resources including VMs, containers, and others.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

PV-4: Sustain secure configurations for compute resources

Guidance: Not applicable; This recommendation is intended for compute resources.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

PV-5: Securely store custom operating system and container images

Guidance: Not applicable; This recommendation is intended for compute resources.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

PV-6: Perform software vulnerability assessments

Guidance: Not applicable; Microsoft performs vulnerability management on the underlying systems that support Event Hubs.

Responsibility: Microsoft

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

PV-8: Conduct regular attack simulation

Guidance: As required, conduct penetration testing or red team activities on your Azure resources and ensure remediation of all critical security findings.

Follow the Microsoft Cloud Penetration Testing Rules of Engagement to ensure your penetration tests are not in violation of Microsoft policies. Use Microsoft's strategy and execution of Red Teaming and live site penetration testing against Microsoft-managed cloud infrastructure, services, and applications.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

Endpoint Security

For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Endpoint Security.

ES-2: Use centrally managed modern anti-malware software

Guidance: Protect your Event Hubs or its resources with a centrally managed modern anti-malware software.

  • Use a centrally managed endpoint anti-malware solution capable of real-time and periodic scanning.

  • Azure Security Center can automatically identify the use of several popular anti-malware solutions for your virtual machines (VMs), report the endpoint protection running status, and then make recommendations.

  • Microsoft Antimalware for Azure Cloud Services is the default anti-malware for Windows VMs. For Linux VMs, use a third-party anti-malware solution. You can use Azure Security Center's Threat detection for data services to detect malware uploaded to Azure Storage accounts.

  • How to configure Microsoft Antimalware for Cloud Services and Virtual Machines

  • Supported endpoint protection solutions

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

ES-3: Ensure anti-malware software and signatures are updated

Guidance: Ensure anti-malware signatures are updated rapidly and consistently.

Follow the recommendations in Azure Security Center: Compute & Apps" to ensure all endpoints are up to date with the latest signatures. Microsoft Antimalware will automatically install the latest signatures and engine updates by default. For Linux

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

Backup and Recovery

For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Backup and Recovery.

BR-1: Ensure regular automated backups

Guidance: Azure Event Hubs supports data backup via Availability Zones(Zone redundancy) and user configured multi-region replication (Geo redundancy).

Responsibility: Shared

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

BR-2: Encrypt backup data

Guidance: Azure Event Hubs provides encryption of data at rest with Azure Storage Service Encryption (Azure SSE). Event Hubs relies on Azure Storage to store the data and by default, all the data that is stored with Azure Storage is encrypted using Microsoft-managed keys. If you use Azure Key Vault for storing customer-managed keys, ensure regular automated backups of your Keys.

Ensure regular automated backups of your Key Vault Secrets with the following PowerShell command: Backup-AzKeyVaultSecret

Responsibility: Shared

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

BR-3: Validate all backups including customer-managed keys

Guidance: Periodically ensure that you can restore backed-up customer-managed keys.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

BR-4: Mitigate risk of lost keys

Guidance: Ensure that you have measures in place to prevent and recover from the loss of keys. Enable soft delete and purge protection in Azure Key Vault to protect keys against accidental or malicious deletion.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

Governance and Strategy

For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Governance and Strategy.

GS-1: Define asset management and data protection strategy

Guidance: Ensure you document and communicate a clear strategy for continuous monitoring and protection of systems and data. Prioritize discovery, assessment, protection, and monitoring of business-critical data and systems.

This strategy should include documented guidance, policy, and standards for the following elements:

  • Data classification standard in accordance with the business risks
  • Security organization visibility into risks and asset inventory
  • Security organization approval of Azure services for use
  • Security of assets through their lifecycle
  • Required access control strategy in accordance with organizational data classification
  • Use of Azure native and third-party data protection capabilities
  • Data encryption requirements for in-transit and at-rest use cases
  • Appropriate cryptographic standards

For more information, see the following references:

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

GS-2: Define enterprise segmentation strategy

Guidance: Establish an enterprise-wide strategy to segmenting access to assets using a combination of identity, network, application, subscription, management group, and other controls.

Carefully balance the need for security separation with the need to enable daily operation of the systems that need to communicate with each other and access data.

Ensure that the segmentation strategy is implemented consistently across control types including network security, identity and access models, and application permission/access models, and human process controls.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

GS-3: Define security posture management strategy

Guidance: Continuously measure and mitigate risks to your individual assets and the environment they are hosted in. Prioritize high value assets and highly-exposed attack surfaces, such as published applications, network ingress and egress points, user and administrator endpoints, etc.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

GS-4: Align organization roles, responsibilities, and accountabilities

Guidance: Ensure that you document and communicate a clear strategy for roles and responsibilities in your security organization. Prioritize providing clear accountability for security decisions, educating everyone on the shared responsibility model, and educate technical teams on technology to secure the cloud.

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

GS-5: Define network security strategy

Guidance: Establish an Azure network security approach as part of your organization's overall security access control strategy.

This strategy should include documented guidance, policy, and standards for the following elements:

  • Centralized network management and security responsibility
  • Virtual network segmentation model aligned with the enterprise segmentation strategy
  • Remediation strategy in different threat and attack scenarios
  • Internet edge and ingress and egress strategy
  • Hybrid cloud and on-premises interconnectivity strategy
  • Up-to-date network security artifacts (such as network diagrams, reference network architecture)

For more information, see the following references:

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

GS-6: Define identity and privileged access strategy

Guidance: Establish an Azure identity and privileged access approaches as part of your organization's overall security access control strategy.

This strategy should include documented guidance, policy, and standards for the following elements:

  • A centralized identity and authentication system and its interconnectivity with other internal and external identity systems
  • Strong authentication methods in different use cases and conditions
  • Protection of highly privileged users
  • Anomaly user activities monitoring and handling
  • User identity and access review and reconciliation process

For more information, see the following references:

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

GS-7: Define logging and threat response strategy

Guidance: Establish a logging and threat response strategy to rapidly detect and remediate threats while meeting compliance requirements. Prioritize providing analysts with high-quality alerts and seamless experiences so that they can focus on threats rather than integration and manual steps.

This strategy should include documented guidance, policy, and standards for the following elements:

  • The security operations (SecOps) organization's role and responsibilities
  • A well-defined incident response process aligning with NIST or another industry framework
  • Log capture and retention to support threat detection, incident response, and compliance needs
  • Centralized visibility of and correlation information about threats, using SIEM, native Azure capabilities, and other sources
  • Communication and notification plan with your customers, suppliers, and public parties of interest
  • Use of Azure native and third-party platforms for incident handling, such as logging and threat detection, forensics, and attack remediation and eradication
  • Processes for handling incidents and post-incident activities, such as lessons learned and evidence retention

For more information, see the following references:

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

GS-8: Define backup and recovery strategy

Guidance: Establish an Azure backup and recovery strategy for your organization.

This strategy should include documented guidance, policy, and standards for the following elements:

  • Recovery time objective (RTO) and recovery point objective (RPO) definitions in accordance with your business resiliency objectives
  • Redundancy design in your applications and infrastructure setup
  • Protection of backup using access control and data encryption

For more information, see the following references:

Responsibility: Customer

Azure Security Center monitoring: None

Next steps