How the SharePoint Migration Tool works
The SharePoint Migration Tool authenticates to the destination tenant after which you are prompted for the source file location and destination SharePoint site collection where you want the files to be migrated. After you submit the migration jobs by selecting Migrate, the scanning, packaging, uploading, and importing steps are performed in parallel across all the files provided for migration.
Use a Site Collection administrator account on the target SharePoint site when prompted for credentials.
AUTHENTICATION: After opening the tool, the first thing you must do is authenticate to the destination -- the tenant where you will be migrating your files. Providing your username and password to the tenant associates the migration jobs you submit to this account. This allows you to resume your migration from another computer if needed by logging in with the same credentials. This account should be a site collection administrator of the destination you want to migrate. The following authentication methods are supported:
- Multi-factor authentication
- SAML based claims
- Client certificate authentication
If multiple authentication methods, including NTLM or Kerberos, are enabled in the on-premises SharePoint Web Application, NTLM and Kerberos authentication are not supported by the SharePoint Migration Tool. Please use a secondary form of authentication or convert the Web Application to use NTLM and/or Kerberos authentication only.
SCAN: After you select Migrate, a scan will always be performed on every file, even if you decide not to migrate your files (see Advanced Settings). The scan verifies that there is access to the data source and write access to the SharePoint destination. It also scans the files for known potential issues.
PACKAGING: In the packaging stage, a content package is created that contains a manifest.
UPLOAD: In the upload stage, the content package is uploaded to Azure with the manifest. Before a migration job can be accepted from a SharePoint-provided Azure container, the files and manifest are encrypted at rest using the AES-256-CBC standard.
IMPORT: During the import phase, the key is provided to SharePoint SAS. Only Azure and SharePoint are interacting to fetch and migrate the data to the destination. This process is a timer job-based but does not prevent other jobs from being queued up. During the import, a report is created in the working folder, and live updates are made. After the migration job is completed, the log is stored in the Azure container and a final report is created.
SESSION AND RESUME: While the migration is being performed, the tool saves information of the session in a hidden list on the user's OneDrive. This allows the migration tool to resume any previous migration sessions.
Encryption and security
During the upload and import phases, data is encrypted and Azure containers and keys are generated.
The SharePoint service and a select number of engineers can run maintenance commands against them, but they do not have direct access to the accounts. Datacenter technicians are not prepped with knowledge of how data is laid out on disk and do not have ready access to equipment to mount disks. All drives are physically destroyed before leaving the datacenter. Physical security is also in place across all of our datacenters.
Each container is dedicated to the customer and not reused. The data is stored in the Azure blob anywhere from 4 to 30 days after which it is deleted. When the data is deleted, the files are de-linked and later soft-deleted from disk. A file in an account and on-disk may be shared across many servers. The same process is used for replicas, including backup copies (geo-replicated data if applicable).
The random, single-use default container key is generated programmatically and is only valid for three days. This key is the only way to gain access to the container. SharePoint never stores the key.
The container itself lives longer than the key. The container is purged anywhere from 30 to 90 days from its creation date. The container is housed in a shared Microsoft storage outside the tenant but within the region and is protected using the container key. For multi-Geo customers, The containers are generated based on the destination URL to dictate in what Geo it will be stored.
If your key is lost or obtained by someone else, there are two defenses in place that protect you. First, the container only enables read/write operations. The container has no list, which means you would need to know the details of the files stored in the container in order to read or write to them. Secondly, the files are encrypted at rest with AES-256-CBC.
Only those who have the key have access to the container. Other users in the subscription or the tenant do not have access.
The SharePoint Migration Tool is not available for users of Office 365 operated by 21Vianet in China. It is also not available for users of Microsoft 365 with the German cloud using the data trustee, German Telekom. However, it is supported for users in Germany whose data location is not in the German data center.