Execute Stored Procedure with ODBC CALL and Process Output

SQL Server stored procedures can have integer return codes and output parameters. The return codes and output parameters are sent in the last packet from the server and are therefore not available to the application until the rowset is completely released. If the command returns multiple results, output parameter data is available when IMultipleResults::GetResult returns DB_S_NORESULT or the IMultipleResults interface is completely released, whichever occurs first.

Important

When possible, use Windows Authentication. If Windows Authentication is not available, prompt users to enter their credentials at run time. Avoid storing credentials in a file. If you must persist credentials, you should encrypt them with the Win32 Crypto API.

To process return codes and output parameters

  1. Construct an SQL statement that uses the ODBC CALL escape sequence. The statement should use parameter markers for each input/output and output parameter, and for the procedure return value (if any). For input parameters, you can use the parameter markers, or hard code the values.

  2. Create a set of bindings (one for each parameter maker) by using an array of DBBINDING structure.

  3. Create an accessor for the defined parameters by using the IAccessor::CreateAccessor method. CreateAccessor creates an accessor from a set of bindings.

  4. Fill in the DBPARAMS structure.

  5. Call the Execute command (in this case, a call to a stored procedure).

  6. Process the rowset and release it by using the IRowset::Release method.

  7. Process the return code and output parameter values received from the stored procedure.

Example

The example shows processing a rowset, a return code, and an output parameter. Result sets are not processed. This sample is not supported on IA64.

This sample requires the AdventureWorks sample database, which you can download from the Microsoft SQL Server Samples and Community Projects home page.

Execute the first ( Transact-SQL) code listing to create the stored procedure used by the application.

Compile with ole32.lib oleaut32.lib and execute the second (C++) code listing. This application connects to your computer's default SQL Server instance. On some Windows operating systems, you will need to change (localhost) or (local) to the name of your SQL Server instance. To connect to a named instance, change the connection string from L"(local)" to L"(local)\\name" , where name is the named instance. By default, SQL Server Express installs to a named instance. Make sure your INCLUDE environment variable includes the directory that contains sqlncli.h.

Execute the third ( Transact-SQL) code listing to delete the stored procedure used by the application.

USE AdventureWorks  
if exists (SELECT * FROM sys.objects WHERE object_id = OBJECT_ID(N'[myProc]'))  
   DROP PROCEDURE myProc  
GO  

CREATE PROCEDURE myProc   
    @inparam nvarchar(5),,  
    @outparam int OUTPUT  

AS  
SELECT Color, ListPrice   
FROM Production.Product WHERE Size > @inparam  
SELECT @outparam = 100  

IF  (@outparam > 0)  
    RETURN 999  
ELSE  
    RETURN 888  
GO  
// compile with: ole32.lib oleaut32.lib  
void InitializeAndEstablishConnection();  

#define UNICODE  
#define DBINITCONSTANTS  
#define INITGUID  
#define OLEDBVER 0x0250   // to include correct interfaces  

#include <windows.h>  
#include <stdio.h>  
#include <stddef.h>  
#include <iostream>  
#include <oledb.h>  
#include <oledberr.h>  
#include <SQLNCLI.h>  

using namespace std;  

IDBInitialize* pIDBInitialize = NULL;  
IDBCreateSession* pIDBCreateSession = NULL;  
IDBCreateCommand* pIDBCreateCommand = NULL;  
ICommandText* pICommandText = NULL;  

IRowset* pIRowset = NULL;  
ICommandWithParameters* pICommandWithParams = NULL;  
IAccessor* pIAccessor = NULL;  
IDBProperties* pIDBProperties = NULL;  

WCHAR* pStringsBuffer;  
DBBINDING* pBindings;  
const ULONG nInitProps = 4;  
DBPROP InitProperties[nInitProps];  

const ULONG nPropSet = 1;  
DBPROPSET rgInitPropSet[nPropSet];  
HRESULT hr;  
HACCESSOR hAccessor;  

const ULONG nParams = 3;   // Number of parameters in the command  
DBPARAMBINDINFO ParamBindInfo[nParams];  
ULONG i;  
ULONG cbColOffset = 0;  

ULONG ParamOrdinals[nParams];  
DBROWCOUNT cNumRows = 0;  
DBPARAMS Params;  

// Declare an array of DBBINDING structures, one for each parameter in the command.  
DBBINDING acDBBinding[nParams];  
DBBINDSTATUS acDBBindStatus[nParams];  

// The following buffer is used to store parameter values.  
typedef struct tagSPROCPARAMS {  
   long lReturnValue;  
   long outParam;  
   long inParam;  
} SPROCPARAMS;  

int main() {  
   // The command to execute.  
   WCHAR* wCmdString = L"{? = call myProc(?,?)}";  

   SPROCPARAMS sprocparams = {0,0,14};  

   // All the initialization activities in a separate function.  
   InitializeAndEstablishConnection();  

   // Create a new activity from the data source object.  
   if ( FAILED(pIDBInitialize->QueryInterface( IID_IDBCreateSession,   
      (void**) &pIDBCreateSession))) {  
         cout << "Failed to access IDBCreateSession interface.\n";  
         goto EXIT;  
   }  
   if (FAILED(pIDBCreateSession->CreateSession( NULL, IID_IDBCreateCommand,   
      (IUnknown**) &pIDBCreateCommand))) {  
         cout << "pIDBCreateSession->CreateSession failed.\n";  
      goto EXIT;  
   }  

   // Create a Command object.  
   if (FAILED(pIDBCreateCommand->CreateCommand(NULL, IID_ICommandText,   
      (IUnknown**) &pICommandText))) {  
         cout << "Failed to access ICommand interface.\n";  
         goto EXIT;  
   }  

   // Set the command text.  
   if (FAILED(pICommandText->SetCommandText(DBGUID_DBSQL, wCmdString))) {  
      cout << "Failed to set command text.\n";  
      goto EXIT;  
   }  
   // No need to describe command parameters (parameter name, data type  
   // etc) in DBPARAMBINDINFO structure and then SetParameterInfo(). The  
   // provider obtains this information by calling appropriate helper  
   // function.  

   // Describe the consumer buffer by filling in the array of DBBINDING structures.    
   // Each binding associates a single parameter to the consumer's buffer.  
   for ( i = 0 ; i < nParams ; i++ ) {  
      acDBBinding[i].obLength = 0;  
      acDBBinding[i].obStatus = 0;  
      acDBBinding[i].pTypeInfo = NULL;  
      acDBBinding[i].pObject = NULL;  
      acDBBinding[i].pBindExt = NULL;  
      acDBBinding[i].dwPart = DBPART_VALUE;  
      acDBBinding[i].dwMemOwner = DBMEMOWNER_CLIENTOWNED;  
      acDBBinding[i].dwFlags = 0;  
      acDBBinding[i].bScale = 0;  
   }   // end for  

   acDBBinding[0].iOrdinal = 1;  
   acDBBinding[0].obValue = offsetof(SPROCPARAMS, lReturnValue);  
   acDBBinding[0].eParamIO = DBPARAMIO_OUTPUT;  
   acDBBinding[0].cbMaxLen = sizeof(long);  
   acDBBinding[0].wType = DBTYPE_I4;  
   acDBBinding[0].bPrecision = 11;  

   acDBBinding[1].iOrdinal = 2;  
   acDBBinding[1].obValue = offsetof(SPROCPARAMS, inParam);  
   acDBBinding[1].eParamIO = DBPARAMIO_INPUT;  
   acDBBinding[1].cbMaxLen = sizeof(long);  
   acDBBinding[1].wType = DBTYPE_I4;  
   acDBBinding[1].bPrecision = 11;  

   acDBBinding[2].iOrdinal = 3;  
   acDBBinding[2].obValue = offsetof(SPROCPARAMS, outParam);  
   acDBBinding[2].eParamIO = DBPARAMIO_OUTPUT;  
   acDBBinding[2].cbMaxLen = sizeof(long);  
   acDBBinding[2].wType = DBTYPE_I4;  
   acDBBinding[2].bPrecision = 11;  

   // Create an accessor from the above set of bindings.  
   hr = pICommandText->QueryInterface( IID_IAccessor, (void**)&pIAccessor);  
   if (FAILED(hr))  
      cout << "Failed to get IAccessor interface.\n";  

   hr = pIAccessor->CreateAccessor( DBACCESSOR_PARAMETERDATA,   
                                    nParams,         
                                    acDBBinding,   
                                    sizeof(SPROCPARAMS),   
                                    &hAccessor,  
                                    acDBBindStatus);  
   if (FAILED(hr))  
      cout << "Failed to create accessor for the defined parameters.\n";  

   // Fill in DBPARAMS structure for the command execution. This structure   
   // specifies the parameter values in the command and is then passed to Execute.  
   Params.pData = &sprocparams;  
   Params.cParamSets = 1;  
   Params.hAccessor = hAccessor;  

   // Execute the command.  
   if ( FAILED(hr = pICommandText->Execute( NULL,   
                                            IID_IRowset,   
                                            &Params,   
                                            &cNumRows,   
                                            (IUnknown **) &pIRowset))) {  
      cout << "Failed to execute command.\n";  
      goto EXIT;  
   }  

   printf("After command execution but before rowset processing.\n\n");  
   printf("  Return value = %d\n", sprocparams.lReturnValue);  
   printf("  Output parameter value = %d\n", sprocparams.outParam);  
   printf("  These are the same default values set in the application.\n\n\n");  

   // Result set is not important in this example; release it without processing.  
   pIRowset->Release();  

   printf("After processing the result set...\n");  
   printf("  Return value = %d\n", sprocparams.lReturnValue);  
   printf("  Output parameter value = %d\n\n", sprocparams.outParam);  

   // Release memory.  
   pIAccessor->ReleaseAccessor(hAccessor, NULL);  
   pIAccessor->Release();  
   pICommandText->Release();  
   pIDBCreateCommand->Release();  
   pIDBCreateSession->Release();      
   if (FAILED(pIDBInitialize->Uninitialize()))  
      // Uninitialize is not required, but it fails if an interface  
      // has not been released.  This can be used for debugging.  
      cout << "Problem uninitializing.\n";  

   pIDBInitialize->Release();  

   CoUninitialize();  
   return 0;  

EXIT:  
   if (pIAccessor != NULL)  
      pIAccessor->Release();  
   if (pICommandText != NULL)  
      pICommandText->Release();  
   if (pIDBCreateCommand != NULL)  
      pIDBCreateCommand->Release();  
   if (pIDBCreateSession != NULL)  
      pIDBCreateSession->Release();  
   if (pIDBInitialize != NULL)  
      if (FAILED(pIDBInitialize->Uninitialize()))  
         // Uninitialize is not required, but it fails if an  
         // interface has not been released.  This can be used for debugging.  
         cout << "Problem in uninitializing.\n";  
      pIDBInitialize->Release();  

   CoUninitialize();  
};  

void InitializeAndEstablishConnection() {      
   // Initialize the COM library.  
   CoInitialize(NULL);  

   // Obtain access to the SQL Server Native Client OLE DB provider.      
   hr = CoCreateInstance( CLSID_SQLNCLI11,   
                          NULL,   
                          CLSCTX_INPROC_SERVER,  
                          IID_IDBInitialize,   
                          (void **) &pIDBInitialize);  
   if (FAILED(hr))  
      cout << "Failed in CoCreateInstance().\n";  

   // Initialize the property values needed to establish the connection.  
   for ( i = 0 ; i < nInitProps ; i++ )  
      VariantInit(&InitProperties[i].vValue);  

   // Specify server name.  
   InitProperties[0].dwPropertyID = DBPROP_INIT_DATASOURCE;  
   InitProperties[0].vValue.vt = VT_BSTR;  

   // Replace "MySqlServer" with proper value.  
   InitProperties[0].vValue.bstrVal = SysAllocString(L"(local)");  
   InitProperties[0].dwOptions = DBPROPOPTIONS_REQUIRED;  
   InitProperties[0].colid = DB_NULLID;  

   // Specify database name.  
   InitProperties[1].dwPropertyID = DBPROP_INIT_CATALOG;  
   InitProperties[1].vValue.vt = VT_BSTR;  
   InitProperties[1].vValue.bstrVal = SysAllocString(L"AdventureWorks");  
   InitProperties[1].dwOptions = DBPROPOPTIONS_REQUIRED;  
   InitProperties[1].colid = DB_NULLID;  

   InitProperties[2].dwPropertyID = DBPROP_AUTH_INTEGRATED;  
   InitProperties[2].vValue.vt = VT_BSTR;  
   InitProperties[2].vValue.bstrVal = SysAllocString(L"SSPI");  
   InitProperties[2].dwOptions = DBPROPOPTIONS_REQUIRED;  
   InitProperties[2].colid = DB_NULLID;  

   // Now that properties are set, construct the DBPROPSET structure  
   // (rgInitPropSet).  The DBPROPSET structure is used to pass an array  
   // of DBPROP structures (InitProperties) to the SetProperties method.  
   rgInitPropSet[0].guidPropertySet = DBPROPSET_DBINIT;  
   rgInitPropSet[0].cProperties = 4;  
   rgInitPropSet[0].rgProperties = InitProperties;  

   // Set initialization properties.  
   hr = pIDBInitialize->QueryInterface(IID_IDBProperties, (void **)&pIDBProperties);  
   if (FAILED(hr))  
      cout << "Failed to obtain IDBProperties interface.\n";  

   hr = pIDBProperties->SetProperties(nPropSet, rgInitPropSet);  
   if (FAILED(hr))  
      cout << "Failed to set initialization properties.\n";  

   pIDBProperties->Release();  

   // Now establish a connection to the data source.  
   if (FAILED(pIDBInitialize->Initialize()))  
      cout << "Problem in initializing.\n";  
}  
USE AdventureWorks  
DROP PROCEDURE myProc  
GO  

See Also

Processing Results How-to Topics (OLE DB)