Changing the Schema of a System-Versioned Temporal Table

APPLIES TO: yesSQL Server yesAzure SQL Database noAzure SQL Data Warehouse noParallel Data Warehouse

Use the ALTER TABLE statement to add, alter or remove a column.


Here are some examples that change the schema of temporal table.

ALTER TABLE dbo.Department   
   ALTER COLUMN  DeptName varchar(100);   
ALTER TABLE dbo.Department   
   ADD WebAddress nvarchar(255) NOT NULL    
   CONSTRAINT DF_WebAddress DEFAULT '';   
ALTER TABLE dbo.Department   
   ADD TempColumn INT;   
ALTER TABLE dbo.Department   
   DROP COLUMN TempColumn;  
/* Setting IsHidden property for period columns.   
Use ALTER COLUMN <period_column> DROP HIDDEN to clear IsHidden flag */  
ALTER TABLE dbo.Department   
ALTER TABLE dbo.Department   

Important remarks

  • CONTROL permission on current and history tables is required to change schema of temporal table.

  • During an ALTER TABLE operation, the system holds a schema lock on both tables.

  • Specified schema change is propagated to history table appropriately (depending on type of change).

  • If you add a non-nullable column or alter existing column to become non-nullable, you must specify the default value for existing rows. The system will generate an additional default with the same value and apply it to the history table. Adding DEFAULT to a non-empty table is a size of data operation on all editions other than SQL Server Enterprise Edition (on which it is a metadata operation).

  • Adding varchar(max), nvarchar(max), varbinary(max) or XML columns with defaults will be an update data operation on all editions of SQL Server.

  • If row size after column addition exceeds the row size limit, new columns cannot be added online.

  • Once you extend a table with a new NOT NULL column, consider dropping default constraint on the history table as all columns in that table are automatically populated by the system.

  • Online option (WITH (ONLINE = ON) has no effect on ALTER TABLE ALTER COLUMN in case of system-versioned temporal table. ALTER column is not performed as online regardless of which value was specified for ONLINE option.

  • You can use ALTER COLUMN to change IsHidden property for period columns.

  • You cannot use direct ALTER for the following schema changes. For these types of changes, set SYSTEM_VERSIONING = OFF.

    • Adding a computed column

    • Adding an IDENTITY column

    • Adding a SPARSE column or changing existing column to be SPARSEwhen the history table is set to DATA_COMPRESSION = PAGE or DATA_COMPRESSION = ROW, which is the default for the history table.

    • Adding a COLUMN_SET

    • Adding a ROWGUIDCOL column or changing existing column to be ROWGUIDCOL

      The following example demonstrates changing the schema where setting SYSTEM_VERSIONING = OFF is still required (adding IDENTITY column).
      Notice that this example disables the data consistency check. This check is unnecessary when the schema change is made within a transaction as no concurrent data changes can occur.

      BEGIN TRAN   
      ALTER TABLE [dbo].[CompanyLocation] SET (SYSTEM_VERSIONING = OFF);   
      ALTER TABLE [CompanyLocation] ADD Cntr INT IDENTITY (1,1);   
      ALTER TABLE [dbo].[CompanyLocationHistory] ADD Cntr INT NOT NULL DEFAULT 0;   
      ALTER TABLE [dbo].[CompanyLocation]    
      SYSTEM_VERSIONING = ON (HISTORY_TABLE = [dbo].[CompanyLocationHistory])   
      COMMIT ;  

See Also

Temporal Tables
Getting Started with System-Versioned Temporal Tables
Manage Retention of Historical Data in System-Versioned Temporal Tables
System-Versioned Temporal Tables with Memory-Optimized Tables
Creating a System-Versioned Temporal Table
Modifying Data in a System-Versioned Temporal Table
Querying Data in a System-Versioned Temporal Table
Stopping System-Versioning on a System-Versioned Temporal Table