Querying data in a system-versioned temporal table

Applies to: yesSQL Server 2016 (13.x) and later YesAzure SQL Database YesAzure SQL Managed Instance

When you want to get latest (actual) state of data in a temporal table, you can query completely the same way as you query non-temporal table. If the PERIOD columns are not hidden, their values will appear in a SELECT * query. If you specified PERIOD columns as hidden, their values won't appear in a SELECT * query. When the PERIOD columns are hidden, reference the PERIOD columns specifically in the SELECT clause to return the values for these columns.

To perform any type of time-based analysis, use the new FOR SYSTEM_TIME clause with four temporal-specific sub-clauses to query data across the current and history tables. For more information on these clauses, see Temporal Tables and FROM (Transact-SQL)

  • AS OF <date_time>
  • FROM <start_date_time> TO <end_date_time>
  • BETWEEN <start_date_time> AND <end_date_time>
  • CONTAINED IN (<start_date_time> , <end_date_time>)
  • ALL

FOR SYSTEM_TIME can be specified independently for each table in a query. It can be used inside common table expressions, table-valued functions and stored procedures. When using a table alias with a temporal tables, the FOR SYSTEM_TIME clause must be included between the temporal table name and the alias (see "Query for a specific time using the AS OF sub-clause" second example, below).

Query for a specific time using the AS OF sub-clause

Use the AS OF sub-clause when you need to reconstruct state of data as it was at any specific time in the past. You can reconstruct the data with the precision of datetime2 type that was specified in PERIOD column definitions.

The AS OF sub-clause clause can be used with constant literals or with variables, which allows you to dynamically specify time condition. The values provided are interpreted as UTC time.

This first example returns the state of the dbo.Department table AS OF a specific date in the past.

/*State of entire table AS OF specific date in the past*/
SELECT [DeptID], [DeptName], [SysStartTime],[SysEndTime]
FROM [dbo].[Department]
FOR SYSTEM_TIME AS OF '2015-09-01 T10:00:00.7230011' ;

This second example compares the values between two points in time for a subset of rows.

DECLARE @ADayAgo datetime2
SET @ADayAgo = DATEADD (day, -1, sysutcdatetime())
/*Comparison between two points in time for subset of rows*/
SELECT D_1_Ago.[DeptID], D.[DeptID],
D_1_Ago.[DeptName], D.[DeptName],
D_1_Ago.[SysStartTime], D.[SysStartTime],
D_1_Ago.[SysEndTime], D.[SysEndTime]
FROM [dbo].[Department] FOR SYSTEM_TIME AS OF @ADayAgo AS D_1_Ago
JOIN [Department] AS D ON D_1_Ago.[DeptID] = [D].[DeptID]
AND D_1_Ago.[DeptID] BETWEEN 1 and 5 ;

Using views with AS-OF sub-clause in temporal queries

Using views is very useful in scenarios when complex point-in time analysis is required. A common example is generating a business report today with the values for previous month.

Usually, customers have a normalized database model which involves many tables with foreign key relationships. Answering the question how data from that normalized model looked like at a point in the past can very challenging, since all tables change independently, on their own cadence.

In this case, the best option is to create a view and apply the AS OF sub-clause to the entire view. Using this approach allows you to decouple modeling of the data access layer from point-in time analysis as SQL Server will apply AS OF clause transparently to all temporal tables that participate in view definition. Furthermore, you can combine temporal with non-temporal tables in the same view and AS OF will be applied only to temporal ones. If view does not reference at least one temporal table, applying temporal querying clauses to it will fail with an error.

/* Create view that joins three temporal tables: Department, CompanyLocation, LocationDepartments */
CREATE VIEW [dbo].[vw_GetOrgChart]
   , [CompanyLocation].LocName
   , [CompanyLocation].City
   , [Department].DeptID
   , [Department].DeptName
FROM [dbo].[CompanyLocation]
LEFT JOIN [dbo].[LocationDepartments]
   ON [CompanyLocation].LocID = LocationDepartments.LocID
LEFT JOIN [dbo].[Department]
   ON LocationDepartments.DeptID = [Department].DeptID ;
/* Querying view AS OF */
SELECT * FROM [vw_GetOrgChart]
FOR SYSTEM_TIME AS OF '2015-09-01 T10:00:00.7230011' ;

Query for changes to specific rows over time

The temporal sub-clauses FROM...TO, BETWEEN...AND and CONTAINED IN are useful when you want to perform a data audit, i.e. when you need to get all historical changes for a specific row in the current table.

The first two sub-clauses return row versions that overlap with a specified period (i.e. those that started before given period and ended after it), while CONTAINED IN returns only those that existed within specified period boundaries.


If you search for non-current row versions only, we recommend you query the history table directly as this will yield the best query performance. Use ALL when you need to query current and historical data without any restrictions.

/* Query using BETWEEN...AND sub-clause*/
   , [DeptName]
   , [SysStartTime]
   , [SysEndTime]
   , IIF (YEAR(SysEndTime) = 9999, 1, 0) AS IsActual
FROM [dbo].[Department]
FOR SYSTEM_TIME BETWEEN '2015-01-01' AND '2015-12-31'
WHERE DeptId = 1

/* Query using CONTAINED IN sub-clause */
SELECT [DeptID], [DeptName], [SysStartTime],[SysEndTime]
FROM [dbo].[Department]
FOR SYSTEM_TIME CONTAINED IN ('2015-04-01', '2015-09-25')
WHERE DeptId = 1
ORDER BY SysStartTime DESC ;

/* Query using ALL sub-clause */
   , [DeptName]
   , [SysStartTime]
   , [SysEndTime]
   , IIF (YEAR(SysEndTime) = 9999, 1, 0) AS IsActual
FROM [dbo].[Department] FOR SYSTEM_TIME ALL
ORDER BY [DeptID], [SysStartTime] Desc

Next steps