CREATE SYNONYM (Transact-SQL)

THIS TOPIC APPLIES TO:yesSQL Server (starting with 2008)yesAzure SQL DatabasenoAzure SQL Data Warehouse noParallel Data Warehouse

Creates a new synonym.

Topic link icon Transact-SQL Syntax Conventions

Syntax


      -- SQL Server Syntax  

CREATE SYNONYM [ schema_name_1. ] synonym_name FOR <object>  

<object> :: =  
{  
    [ server_name.[ database_name ] . [ schema_name_2 ]. object_name   
  |  database_name . [ schema_name_2 ].| schema_name_2. ] object_name  
}  

      -- Windows Azure SQL Database Syntax  

CREATE SYNONYM [ schema_name_1. ] synonym_name FOR < object >  

< object > :: =  
{  
    [database_name. [ schema_name_2 ].| schema_name_2. ] object_name  
}  

Arguments

schema_name_1
Specifies the schema in which the synonym is created. If schema is not specified, SQL Server uses the default schema of the current user.

synonym_name
Is the name of the new synonym.

server_name
||
|-|
|Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2016.|

Is the name of the server on which base object is located.

database_name
Is the name of the database in which the base object is located. If database_name is not specified, the name of the current database is used.

schema_name_2
Is the name of the schema of the base object. If schema_name is not specified the default schema of the current user is used.

object_name
Is the name of the base object that the synonym references.

Windows Azure SQL Database supports the three-part name format database_name.[schema_name].object_name when the database_name is the current database or the database_name is tempdb and the object_name starts with #.

Remarks

The base object need not exist at synonym create time. SQL Server checks for the existence of the base object at run time.

Synonyms can be created for the following types of objects:

Assembly (CLR) Stored Procedure Assembly (CLR) Table-valued Function
Assembly (CLR) Scalar Function Assembly Aggregate (CLR) Aggregate Functions
Replication-filter-procedure Extended Stored Procedure
SQL Scalar Function SQL Table-valued Function
SQL Inline-table-valued Function SQL Stored Procedure
View Table1 (User-defined)
1 Includes local and global temporary tables

Four-part names for function base objects are not supported.

Synonyms can be created, dropped and referenced in dynamic SQL.

Permissions

To create a synonym in a given schema, a user must have CREATE SYNONYM permission and either own the schema or have ALTER SCHEMA permission.

The CREATE SYNONYM permission is a grantable permission.

Note

You do not need permission on the base object to successfully compile the CREATE SYNONYM statement, because all permission checking on the base object is deferred until run time.

Examples

A. Creating a synonym for a local object

The following example first creates a synonym for the base object, Product in the AdventureWorks2012 database, and then queries the synonym.

USE tempdb;  
GO  
-- Create a synonym for the Product table in AdventureWorks2012.  
CREATE SYNONYM MyProduct  
FOR AdventureWorks2012.Production.Product;  
GO  

-- Query the Product table by using the synonym.  
USE tempdb;  
GO  
SELECT ProductID, Name   
FROM MyProduct  
WHERE ProductID < 5;  
GO  

Here is the result set.

-----------------------

ProductID Name

----------- --------------------------

1 Adjustable Race

2 Bearing Ball

3 BB Ball Bearing

4 Headset Ball Bearings

(4 row(s) affected)

B. Creating a synonym to remote object

In the following example, the base object, Contact, resides on a remote server named Server_Remote.

||
|-|
|Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2016.|

EXEC sp_addlinkedserver Server_Remote;  
GO  
USE tempdb;  
GO  
CREATE SYNONYM MyEmployee FOR Server_Remote.AdventureWorks2012.HumanResources.Employee;  
GO  

C. Creating a synonym for a user-defined function

The following example creates a function named dbo.OrderDozen that increases order amounts to an even dozen units. The example then creates the synonym dbo.CorrectOrder for the dbo.OrderDozen function.

-- Creating the dbo.OrderDozen function  
CREATE FUNCTION dbo.OrderDozen (@OrderAmt int)  
RETURNS int  
WITH EXECUTE AS CALLER  
AS  
BEGIN  
IF @OrderAmt % 12 <> 0  
BEGIN  
    SET @OrderAmt +=  12 - (@OrderAmt % 12)  
END  
RETURN(@OrderAmt);  
END;  
GO  

-- Using the dbo.OrderDozen function  
DECLARE @Amt int;  
SET @Amt = 15;  
SELECT @Amt AS OriginalOrder, dbo.OrderDozen(@Amt) AS ModifiedOrder;  

-- Create a synonym dbo.CorrectOrder for the dbo.OrderDozen function.  
CREATE SYNONYM dbo.CorrectOrder  
FOR dbo.OrderDozen;  
GO  

-- Using the dbo.CorrectOrder synonym.  
DECLARE @Amt int;  
SET @Amt = 15;  
SELECT @Amt AS OriginalOrder, dbo.CorrectOrder(@Amt) AS ModifiedOrder;  

See Also

DROP SYNONYM (Transact-SQL)
GRANT (Transact-SQL)
EVENTDATA (Transact-SQL)