QUADRATIC EQUATIONS EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE


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1 MODULE  1 Quadratic Equations 6 QUADRATIC EQUATIONS In this lesson, you will study aout quadratic equations. You will learn to identify quadratic equations from a collection of given equations and write them in standard form. You will also learn to solve quadratic equations and translate and solve word prolems using quadratic equations. OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson, you will e ale to identify a quadratic equation from a given collection of equations; write quadratic equations in standard form; solve quadratic equations y (i) factorization and (ii) using the quadratic formula; solve word prolems using quadratic equations. EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE Polynomials Zeroes of a polynomial Linear equations and their solutions Factorisation of a polynomial 6.1 QUADRATIC EQUATIONS You are already familiar with a polynomial of degree two. A polynomial of degree two is called a quadratic polynomial. When a quadratic polynomial is equated to zero, it is called a quadratic equation. In this lesson, you will learn aout quadratic equations in one variale only. Let us consider some examples to identify a quadratic equation from a collection of equations 170 Mathematics Secondary Course
2 Quadratic Equations Example 6.1: Which of the following equations are quadratic equations? (i) x 5 (ii) x + x + 0 (iii) x + 1 x (iv) (x + 1) (x + ) x (v) x x (v) x + x Solution: MODULE  1 (i) It is a quadratic equation since x 5 can e written as x 5 0 and x 5 is a quadratic polynomial. (ii) x + x + 0 is a quadratic equation as x + x +, is a polynomial of degree. (iii) x + 1 x can e written as x x LHS is not a quadratic polynomial since highest exponent of x is. So, the equation is not a quadratic equation. (iv) (x + 1) (x + ) x + 1 is a quadratic equation, since (x + 1) (x + ) x + 1 can e written as x + 4x + x + 1 or x + x + 0 Now, LHS is a polynomial of degree, hence (x + 1) (x + ) x + 1 is a quadratic equation. (v) 1 5 x + is not a quadratic equation. x However, it can e reduced to quadratic equation as shown elow: 1 5 x + x x or, x 0 x or (x + 1) 5x, x 0 or x 5x + 0, x 0 (vi) x + x is not a quadratic equation as x + x + 1 is not a quadratic polynomial (Why?) Mathematics Secondary Course 171
3 MODULE  1 Quadratic Equations CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Which of the following equations are quadratic equations? (i) x + 5 x + x (ii) x + 5x + 0 (iii) (5y + 1) (y 1) y + 1 (v) x + x 5x 4 (iv) x + 1 x STANDARD FORM OF A QUADRATIC EQUATION A quadratic equation of the form ax + x + c 0, a > 0 where a,, c, are constants and x is a variale is called a quadratic equation in the standard form. Every quadratic equation can always e written in the standard form. Example 6.: Which of the following quadratic equations are in standard form? Those which are not in standard form, express them in standard form. (i) + x + 5x 0 (ii) x 5x + 0 (iii) 7y 5y y + (iv) (z + 1) (z + ) z + 1 Solution: (i) It is not in the standard form. Its standard form is 5x + x + 0 (ii) It is in standard form (iii) It is not in the standard form. It can e written as 7y 5y y + or 7y 5y y 0 or 7y 7y 0 which is now in the standard form. (iv) It is not standard form. It can e rewritten as (z + 1) (z + ) z + 1 or z + z + z + 1 or z + z z or z or z + 0z which is now in the standard form. 17 Mathematics Secondary Course
4 Quadratic Equations MODULE  1 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Which of the following quadratic equations are in standard form? Those, which are not in standard form, rewrite them in standard form: (i) y y + 1 (ii) 5 x x 0 (iii) (t 1) (t + 1) 0 (iv) 5 x x 6. SOLUTION OF A QUADRATIC EQUATION You have learnt aout the zeroes of a polynomial. A zero of a polynomial is that real numer, which when sustituted for the variale makes the value of the polynomial zero. In case of a quadratic equation, the value of the variale for which LHS and RHS of the equation ecome equal is called a root or solution of the quadratic equation. You have also learnt that if α is a zero of a polynomial p(x), then (x α) is a factor fo p(x) and conversely, if (x α) is a factor of a polynomial, then α is a zero of the polynomial. You will use these results in finding the solution of a quadratic equation. There are two algeraic methods for finding the solution of a quadratic equation. These are (i) Factor Method and (ii) Using the Quadratic Formula. Factor Method Let us now learn to find the solutions of a quadratic equation y factorizing it into linear factors. The method is illustrated through examples. Example 6.: Solve the equation (x 4)(x + ) 0 Solution: Since, (x 4)(x + ) 0, therefore, either x 4 0, or x + 0 or x 4 or x Therefore, x 4 and x are solutions of the equation. Example 6.4: Solve the equation 6x + 7x 0 y factorisation. Solution: Given 6x + 7x 0 By reaking middle term, we get 6x + 9x x 0 [since, 6 ( ) 18 and 18 9 ( ) and 9 7] or x(x + ) 1(x + ) 0 or (x + ) (x 1) 0 This gives x + 0 or x or x or x Mathematics Secondary Course 17
5 MODULE Therefore, x and x are solutions of the given equation. Example 6.5: Solve x + x Solution: We have x + x or (x + 1) 0 or x which gives x 1 Therefore, x 1 is the only solution. Quadratic Equations Note: In Examples 6. and 6.4, you saw that equations had two distinct solutions. However, in Example 6.5, you got only one solution. We say that it has two solutions and these are coincident. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Solve the following equations using factor method. (i) (x + ) (x + ) 0 (ii) x + x 18 0 (iii) x 4x 7 0 (iv) x 5x 6 0 (v) 5x 10x (vi) 4x 8x + 0 Quadratic Formula Now you will learn to find a formula to find the solution of a quadratic equation. For this, we will rewrite the general quadratic equation ax + x + c 0 y completing the square. We have ax + x + c 0 Multiplying oth sides y '4a' to make the coefficient of x a perfect square, of an even numer, we get 4a x + 4ax + 4ac 0 or (ax) + (ax) + () + 4ac [adding to oth sides] or (ax) + (ax) + () 4ac or ( ) { } ax + ± 4ac or ax + ± 4ac 174 Mathematics Secondary Course
6 Quadratic Equations MODULE  1 or ± x a 4ac This gives two solutions of the quadratic equation ax + x + c 0. The solutions (roots) are: + a 4ac and a 4ac Here, the expression ( 4ac), denoted y D, is called Discriminant, ecause it determines the numer of solutions or nature of roots of a quadratic equation. For a quadratic equation ax + x + c 0, a 0, if (i) D 4ac > 0, the equation has two real distinct roots, which are + a 4ac and a 4ac. (ii) D 4ac 0, then equation has two real equal roots, each equal to a (iii) D 4ac < 0, the equation will not have any real root, since square root of a negative real numer is not a real numer. Thus, a quadratic equation will have at the most two roots. Example 6.6: Without determining the roots, comment on the nature (numer of solutions) of roots of the following equations: (i) x 5x 0 (ii) x + x (iii) x + x Solution: (i) The given equation is x 5x 0. Comparing it with ax + x + c 0, we get a, 5 and c. Now D 4ac ( 5) 4 ( ) Since, D > 0, the equation has two real distinct roots. (ii) Comparing the equation x + x with ax + x + c 0, we get a, 1, c 1 Mathematics Secondary Course 175
7 MODULE  1 Quadratic Equations Now D 4ac (1) Since, D 4ac < 0, the equation does not have any real root. (iii) Comparing the equation x + x with ax + x + c 0, we get a 1,, c 1 Now D 4ac () Since, D 0, the equation has two equal roots. Example 6.7: Using quadratic formula, find the roots of the equation 6x 19x Solution: Comparing the given equation with ax + x + c 0 We get, a 6, 19, c 15 Now D 4ac ( 19) Therefore, roots are given y x ± a 4ac 19 ± ± 1 1 So, roots are and Thus, the two roots are 5 and. Example 6.8: Find the value of m sothat the equation x + mx 5 0 has equal roots. Solution: Comparing the given equation with ax + x + c 0 We have, a, m, c 5 For equal roots D 4ac 0 or m 4 ( 5) 0 or m 60 This gives m ± 15 Hence, for m ± 15, the equation will have equal roots. 176 Mathematics Secondary Course
8 Quadratic Equations MODULE  1 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Without determining the roots, comment on nature of roots of following equations: (i) x 7x + 0 (ii) 4x 1x (iii) 5x + 0x (iv) x x + 1. Solve the following equations using quadratic formula: (i) y 14y 1 0 (ii) x 5x 0 (iii) x 15x Find the value of m so that the following equations have equal roots: (i) x mx (ii) mx + x 5 0 (iii) x 6x + m 0 (iv) x + mx WORD PROBLEMS We will now solve some prolems which involve the use of quadratic equations. Example 6.9: The sum of squares of two consecutive odd natural numers is 74. Find the numers. Solution: Let two consecutive odd natural numers e x and x +. Since, sum of their squares is 74. we have x + (x + ) 74 or x + x + 4x or x + 4x 70 0 or x + x 5 0 or x + 7x 5x 5 0 or x (x + 7) 5(x + 7) 0 or (x + 7) (x 5) 0 Therefore x or x 5 0 or x 7 or x 5 Now, x can not e negative as it is a natural numer. Hence x 5 So, the numers are 5 and 7. Example 6.10: The sum of the areas of two square fields is 468 m. If the difference of their perimeter is 4 m, find the sides of the two squares. Solution: Let the sides of the igger square e x and that of the smaller square e y. Mathematics Secondary Course 177
9 MODULE  1 Quadratic Equations Hence, perimeter of igger square 4x and perimeter of smaller square 4y Therefore, 4x 4y 4 or x y 6 or x y (1) Also, since sum of areas of two squares is 468 m Therefore, x + y () Sustituting value of x from (1) into (), we get (y + 6) + y 468 or y + 1y y 468 or y + 1y 4 0 or y + 6y 16 0 Therefore y 6 ± ± 900 or y Therefore, y 6 ± or y 1 or 18 or 6 0 Since, side of square can not e negative, so y 1 Therefore, x y Hence, sides of squares are 18 m and 1 m. Example 6.11: The product of digits of a two digit numer is 1. When 9 is added to the numer, the digits interchange their places. Determine the numer. Solution: Let the digit at ten's place e x and digit at unit's place e y Therefore, numer 10 x + y When digits are interchanged, the numer ecomes 10y + x Therefore 10x + y y + x 178 Mathematics Secondary Course
10 Quadratic Equations or 10x x + y 10y 9 or 9x 9y 9 or x y 1 or x y 1...(1) Also, product of digits is 1 Hence, xy 1...() Sustituting value of x from (1) into (), we get (y 1)y 1 or y y 1 0 or (y 4) (y + ) 0 Hence, y 4 or y Since, digit can not e negative, y 4 Hence x y Therefore, the numer is 4. MODULE Example 6.1: The sum of two natural numers is 1. If sum of their reciprocals is, 9 find the numers. Solution: Let one numer e x Therefore, other numer 1 x Since, sum of their reciprocals is 9 4, we get x 1 x 4, 9 x 0, 1 x 0 1 x + x 4 or x( 1 x) 9 or 1 1x x 4 9 or 1 9 1x x 4 or 7 1x x Mathematics Secondary Course 179
11 MODULE  1 Quadratic Equations or x 1x or (x ) (x 9) 0 It gives x or x 9 When first numer x is, other numer is 1 9 and when first numer x is 9, other numer is 1 9. Therefore, the required numers are and 9. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS The sum of the squares of two consecutive even natural numers is 164. Find the numers.. The length of a rectangular garden is 7 m more than its readth. If area of the garden is 144 m, find the length and readth of the garden.. The sum of digits of a two digit numer is 1. If sum of their squares is 89, find the numer. 4. The digit at ten's place of a two digit numer is more than twice the digit at unit's place. If product of digits is 4, find the two digit numer. 5. The sum of two numers is 15. If sum of their reciprocals is 10, find the two numers. LET US SUM UP An equation of the form ax + x + c 0, a 0 and a,, c are real numers is called a quadratic equation in standard form. The value(s) of the variale which satisfy a quadratic equation are called it roots or solutions. The zeros of a quadratic polynomial are the roots or solutions of the corresponding quadratic equation. If you can factorise ax + x + c 0, a 0, into product of linear factors, then the roots of the quadratic equation ax + x + c 0, can e otained y equating each factor to zero. Roots of the quadratic equation ax + x + c 0, a 0 are given y ± a 4ac 180 Mathematics Secondary Course
12 Quadratic Equations 4ac is called discriminant of the quadratic equation. ax + x + c 0, a 0 It is usually denoted y D. (i) If D > 0, then the quadratic equation has two real unequal (distinct) roots. (ii) If D 0, then the quadratic equation has two equal (coincident) roots. (iii) If D < 0, then the quadratic equation has no real root. MODULE  1 TERMINAL EXERCISE 1. Which of the following are quadratic equations? (i) y ( 5y ) 0 (ii) 5x x (iii) x 5 x (iv) x(x + 5) x + 5x + 7. Solve the following equations y factorisation method: (i) (x 8) (x + 4) 1 (ii) y 7y 0 (iii) x + x 18 0 (iv) 6x + x Find the value of m for which 5x x + m 0 has equal roots. 4. Find the value of m for which x mx 1 0 has equal roots. 5. Solve the following quadratic equations using quadratic formula: (i) 6x 19x (ii) x + x 1 0 (iii) 1 + x x (iv) x x The sides of a right angled triangle are x 1, x and x + 1. Find the value of x and hence the sides of the triangle. 7. the sum of squares of two consecutive odd integers is 90. Find the integers. 8. The hypotenuse of a right angled triangle is 1 cm. If the difference of remaining two sides is 7 cm, find the remaining two sides. 9. The sum of the areas of two squares is 41 cm. If the sum of their perimeters is 6 cm, find the sides of the two squares. 10. A right angled isosceles triangle is inscried in a circle of radius 5 cm. Find the sides of the triangle. Mathematics Secondary Course 181
13 MODULE  1 Quadratic Equations ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS (ii), (iii), (v) (i) No, y y 0 (ii) No, x + x 5 0 (iii) No, 6t + t 1 0 (iv) No, x + x (i), (ii), 6 (iii) 7, (iv), (v) 1, 5 1. (i) Two real distinct roots (ii) Two real equal roots (iii) Two real equal roots (iv) No real roots 1 5 (vi), 1. (i) 7 ± 7 (ii) 0, 5 (iii) 5, (i) ± (ii) 0 (iii) (iv) For no value of m , m, 9m. 85, (v) 5, (i), (iv) ANSWERS TO TERMINAL EXERCISE. (i) 8, 4 (ii) 0, 7 (iii), 6 5 (iv), 18 Mathematics Secondary Course
14 Quadratic Equations MODULE For no value of m 5. (i), 5 (ii) 1± 5 (iii) 7, (iv), 6., 4, , 1 or 1, cm, 1 cm 9. 5 cm, 4 cm cm, 5 cm, 10 cm Mathematics Secondary Course 18
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