Procédure : annuler une tâche et ses enfants

Ces exemples montrent comment effectuer les tâches suivantes :

  1. Créer et lancer une tâche annulable

  2. Passer un jeton d’annulation à votre délégué d’utilisateur et éventuellement à l’instance de tâche

  3. Notifier et répondre à la demande d’annulation dans votre délégué d’utilisateur

  4. Éventuellement notifier sur le thread appelant que la tâche a été annulée

Le thread appelant ne force pas l’arrêt de la tâche. Il signale seulement que son annulation a été demandée. Si la tâche est déjà en cours d’exécution, il incombe au délégué d’utilisateur de notifier la demande et d’y répondre de façon appropriée. Si l’annulation a été demandée avant l’exécution de la tâche, le délégué d’utilisateur n’est jamais exécuté et l’objet de tâche passe à l’état Canceled.

 Exemple

Cet exemple montre comment arrêter une Task et ses enfants en réponse à une demande d’annulation. Il montre également que quand un délégué d’utilisateur se termine en levant une TaskCanceledException, le thread appelant peut éventuellement utiliser la méthode Wait ou WaitAllpour attendre la fin des tâches. Dans ce cas, vous devez utiliser un bloc try/catch pour gérer les exceptions sur le thread appelant.

using System;
using System.Collections.Concurrent;
using System.Threading;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class Example
{
    public static async Task Main()
    {
        var tokenSource = new CancellationTokenSource();
        var token = tokenSource.Token;

        // Store references to the tasks so that we can wait on them and
        // observe their status after cancellation.
        Task t;
        var tasks = new ConcurrentBag<Task>();

        Console.WriteLine("Press any key to begin tasks...");
        Console.ReadKey(true);
        Console.WriteLine("To terminate the example, press 'c' to cancel and exit...");
        Console.WriteLine();

        // Request cancellation of a single task when the token source is canceled.
        // Pass the token to the user delegate, and also to the task so it can
        // handle the exception correctly.
        t = Task.Run(() => DoSomeWork(1, token), token);
        Console.WriteLine("Task {0} executing", t.Id);
        tasks.Add(t);

        // Request cancellation of a task and its children. Note the token is passed
        // to (1) the user delegate and (2) as the second argument to Task.Run, so
        // that the task instance can correctly handle the OperationCanceledException.
        t = Task.Run(() =>
        {
            // Create some cancelable child tasks.
            Task tc;
            for (int i = 3; i <= 10; i++)
            {
                // For each child task, pass the same token
                // to each user delegate and to Task.Run.
                tc = Task.Run(() => DoSomeWork(i, token), token);
                Console.WriteLine("Task {0} executing", tc.Id);
                tasks.Add(tc);
                // Pass the same token again to do work on the parent task.
                // All will be signaled by the call to tokenSource.Cancel below.
                DoSomeWork(2, token);
            }
        }, token);

        Console.WriteLine("Task {0} executing", t.Id);
        tasks.Add(t);

        // Request cancellation from the UI thread.
        char ch = Console.ReadKey().KeyChar;
        if (ch == 'c' || ch == 'C')
        {
            tokenSource.Cancel();
            Console.WriteLine("\nTask cancellation requested.");

            // Optional: Observe the change in the Status property on the task.
            // It is not necessary to wait on tasks that have canceled. However,
            // if you do wait, you must enclose the call in a try-catch block to
            // catch the TaskCanceledExceptions that are thrown. If you do
            // not wait, no exception is thrown if the token that was passed to the
            // Task.Run method is the same token that requested the cancellation.
        }

        try
        {
            await Task.WhenAll(tasks.ToArray());
        }
        catch (OperationCanceledException)
        {
            Console.WriteLine($"\n{nameof(OperationCanceledException)} thrown\n");
        }
        finally
        {
            tokenSource.Dispose();
        }

        // Display status of all tasks.
        foreach (var task in tasks)
            Console.WriteLine("Task {0} status is now {1}", task.Id, task.Status);
    }

    static void DoSomeWork(int taskNum, CancellationToken ct)
    {
        // Was cancellation already requested?
        if (ct.IsCancellationRequested)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Task {0} was cancelled before it got started.",
                              taskNum);
            ct.ThrowIfCancellationRequested();
        }

        int maxIterations = 100;

        // NOTE!!! A "TaskCanceledException was unhandled
        // by user code" error will be raised here if "Just My Code"
        // is enabled on your computer. On Express editions JMC is
        // enabled and cannot be disabled. The exception is benign.
        // Just press F5 to continue executing your code.
        for (int i = 0; i <= maxIterations; i++)
        {
            // Do a bit of work. Not too much.
            var sw = new SpinWait();
            for (int j = 0; j <= 100; j++)
                sw.SpinOnce();

            if (ct.IsCancellationRequested)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("Task {0} cancelled", taskNum);
                ct.ThrowIfCancellationRequested();
            }
        }
    }
}
// The example displays output like the following:
//       Press any key to begin tasks...
//    To terminate the example, press 'c' to cancel and exit...
//
//    Task 1 executing
//    Task 2 executing
//    Task 3 executing
//    Task 4 executing
//    Task 5 executing
//    Task 6 executing
//    Task 7 executing
//    Task 8 executing
//    c
//    Task cancellation requested.
//    Task 2 cancelled
//    Task 7 cancelled
//
//    OperationCanceledException thrown
//
//    Task 2 status is now Canceled
//    Task 1 status is now RanToCompletion
//    Task 8 status is now Canceled
//    Task 7 status is now Canceled
//    Task 6 status is now RanToCompletion
//    Task 5 status is now RanToCompletion
//    Task 4 status is now RanToCompletion
//    Task 3 status is now RanToCompletion
Imports System.Collections.Concurrent
Imports System.Threading
Imports System.Threading.Tasks

Module Example
    Sub Main()
        Dim tokenSource As New CancellationTokenSource()
        Dim token As CancellationToken = tokenSource.Token

        ' Store references to the tasks so that we can wait on them and  
        ' observe their status after cancellation. 
        Dim t As Task
        Dim tasks As New ConcurrentBag(Of Task)()

        Console.WriteLine("Press any key to begin tasks...")
        Console.ReadKey(True)
        Console.WriteLine("To terminate the example, press 'c' to cancel and exit...")
        Console.WriteLine()

        ' Request cancellation of a single task when the token source is canceled. 
        ' Pass the token to the user delegate, and also to the task so it can  
        ' handle the exception correctly.
        t = Task.Factory.StartNew(Sub() DoSomeWork(1, token), token)
        Console.WriteLine("Task {0} executing", t.Id)
        tasks.Add(t)

        ' Request cancellation of a task and its children. Note the token is passed 
        ' to (1) the user delegate and (2) as the second argument to StartNew, so  
        ' that the task instance can correctly handle the OperationCanceledException.
        t = Task.Factory.StartNew(Sub()
                                      ' Create some cancelable child tasks.  
                                      Dim tc As Task
                                      For i As Integer = 3 To 10
                                          ' For each child task, pass the same token 
                                          ' to each user delegate and to StartNew.
                                          tc = Task.Factory.StartNew(Sub(iteration) DoSomeWork(iteration, token), i, token)
                                          Console.WriteLine("Task {0} executing", tc.Id)
                                          tasks.Add(tc)
                                          ' Pass the same token again to do work on the parent task.  
                                          ' All will be signaled by the call to tokenSource.Cancel below.
                                          DoSomeWork(2, token)
                                      Next
                                  End Sub,
                                  token)

        Console.WriteLine("Task {0} executing", t.Id)
        tasks.Add(t)

        ' Request cancellation from the UI thread. 
        Dim ch As Char = Console.ReadKey().KeyChar
        If ch = "c"c Or ch = "C"c Then
            tokenSource.Cancel()
            Console.WriteLine(vbCrLf + "Task cancellation requested.")

            ' Optional: Observe the change in the Status property on the task. 
            ' It is not necessary to wait on tasks that have canceled. However, 
            ' if you do wait, you must enclose the call in a try-catch block to 
            ' catch the TaskCanceledExceptions that are thrown. If you do  
            ' not wait, no exception is thrown if the token that was passed to the  
            ' StartNew method is the same token that requested the cancellation. 
        End If

        Try
            Task.WaitAll(tasks.ToArray())
        Catch e As AggregateException
            Console.WriteLine()
            Console.WriteLine("AggregateException thrown with the following inner exceptions:")
            ' Display information about each exception. 
            For Each v In e.InnerExceptions
                If TypeOf v Is TaskCanceledException
                    Console.WriteLine("   TaskCanceledException: Task {0}",
                                      DirectCast(v, TaskCanceledException).Task.Id)
                Else
                    Console.WriteLine("   Exception: {0}", v.GetType().Name)
                End If
            Next
            Console.WriteLine()
        Finally
            tokenSource.Dispose()
        End Try

        ' Display status of all tasks. 
        For Each t In tasks
            Console.WriteLine("Task {0} status is now {1}", t.Id, t.Status)
        Next
    End Sub

    Sub DoSomeWork(ByVal taskNum As Integer, ByVal ct As CancellationToken)
        ' Was cancellation already requested? 
        If ct.IsCancellationRequested = True Then
            Console.WriteLine("Task {0} was cancelled before it got started.",
                              taskNum)
            ct.ThrowIfCancellationRequested()
        End If

        Dim maxIterations As Integer = 100

        ' NOTE!!! A "TaskCanceledException was unhandled 
        ' by user code" error will be raised here if "Just My Code" 
        ' is enabled on your computer. On Express editions JMC is 
        ' enabled and cannot be disabled. The exception is benign. 
        ' Just press F5 to continue executing your code. 
        For i As Integer = 0 To maxIterations
            ' Do a bit of work. Not too much. 
            Dim sw As New SpinWait()
            For j As Integer = 0 To 100
                sw.SpinOnce()
            Next
            If ct.IsCancellationRequested Then
                Console.WriteLine("Task {0} cancelled", taskNum)
                ct.ThrowIfCancellationRequested()
            End If
        Next
    End Sub
End Module
' The example displays output like the following:
'    Press any key to begin tasks...
'    To terminate the example, press 'c' to cancel and exit...
'    
'    Task 1 executing
'    Task 2 executing
'    Task 3 executing
'    Task 4 executing
'    Task 5 executing
'    Task 6 executing
'    Task 7 executing
'    Task 8 executing
'    c
'    Task cancellation requested.
'    Task 2 cancelled
'    Task 7 cancelled
'    
'    AggregateException thrown with the following inner exceptions:
'       TaskCanceledException: Task 2
'       TaskCanceledException: Task 8
'       TaskCanceledException: Task 7
'    
'    Task 2 status is now Canceled
'    Task 1 status is now RanToCompletion
'    Task 8 status is now Canceled
'    Task 7 status is now Canceled
'    Task 6 status is now RanToCompletion
'    Task 5 status is now RanToCompletion
'    Task 4 status is now RanToCompletion
'    Task 3 status is now RanToCompletion

La classe System.Threading.Tasks.Task est entièrement intégrée au modèle d’annulation qui est basé sur les types System.Threading.CancellationTokenSource et System.Threading.CancellationToken. Pour plus d’informations, consultez Annulation dans les threads managés et Annulation de tâches.

Voir aussi