About CommonParameters

SHORT DESCRIPTION

Describes the parameters that can be used with any cmdlet.

LONG DESCRIPTION

The common parameters are a set of cmdlet parameters that you can use with any cmdlet. They're implemented by PowerShell, not by the cmdlet developer, and they're automatically available to any cmdlet.

You can use the common parameters with any cmdlet, but they might not have an effect on all cmdlets. For example, if a cmdlet doesn't generate any verbose output, using the Verbose common parameter has no effect.

The common parameters are also available on advanced functions that use the CmdletBinding attribute or the Parameter attribute.

Several common parameters override system defaults or preferences that you set by using the PowerShell preference variables. Unlike the preference variables, the common parameters affect only the commands in which they're used.

In addition to the common parameters, many cmdlets offer the WhatIf and Confirm risk mitigation parameters. Cmdlets that involve risk to the system or to user data usually offer these parameters.

The following list displays the common parameters. Their aliases are listed in parentheses.

  • Debug (db)
  • ErrorAction (ea)
  • ErrorVariable (ev)
  • InformationAction (infa)
  • InformationVariable (iv)
  • OutVariable (ov)
  • OutBuffer (ob)
  • PipelineVariable (pv)
  • Verbose (vb)
  • WarningAction (wa)
  • WarningVariable (wv)

The risk mitigation parameters are:

  • WhatIf (wi)
  • Confirm (cf)

For more information about preference variables, type: help about_Preference_Variables

COMMON PARAMETER DESCRIPTIONS

Debug

The alias for Debug is db.

Displays programmer-level detail about the operation done by the command. This parameter works only when the command generates a debugging message. For example, this parameter works when a command contains the Write-Debug cmdlet.

The Debug parameter overrides the value of the $DebugPreference variable for the current command, setting the value of $DebugPreference to Continue. Because the default value of the $DebugPreference variable is SilentlyContinue, debugging messages aren't displayed by default.

-Debug:$true has the same effect as -Debug. Use -Debug:$false to suppress the display of debugging messages when $DebugPreference isn't SilentlyContinue, which is the default.

ErrorAction

The alias for ErrorAction is ea.

Determines how the cmdlet responds to a non-terminating error from the command. This parameter works only when the command generates a non-terminating error, such as those from the Write-Error cmdlet.

The ErrorAction parameter overrides the value of the $ErrorActionPreference variable for the current command. Because the default value of the $ErrorActionPreference variable is Continue, error messages are displayed and execution continues unless you use the ErrorAction parameter.

The ErrorAction parameter has no effect on terminating errors (such as missing data, parameters that aren't valid, or insufficient permissions) that prevent a command from completing successfully.

-ErrorAction:Continue display the error message and continues executing the command. Continue is the default.

-ErrorAction:Ignore suppresses the error message and continues executing the command. Unlike SilentlyContinue, Ignore doesn't add the error message to the $Error automatic variable. The Ignore value is introduced in PowerShell 3.0.

-ErrorAction:Inquire displays the error message and prompts you for confirmation before continuing execution. This value is rarely used.

-ErrorAction:SilentlyContinue suppresses the error message and continues executing the command.

-ErrorAction:Stop displays the error message and stops executing the command.

-ErrorAction:Suspend isn't supported on PowerShell Core as it is only available for workflows.

ErrorVariable

The alias for ErrorVariable is ev.

ErrorVariable stores error messages about the command in the specified variable and in the $Error automatic variable. For more information, type the following command:

get-help about_Automatic_Variables

By default, new error messages overwrite error messages that are already stored in the variable. To append the error message to the variable content, type a plus sign (+) before the variable name.

For example, the following command creates the $a variable and then stores any errors in it:

Get-Process -Id 6 -ErrorVariable a

The following command adds any error messages to the $a variable:

Get-Process -Id 2 -ErrorVariable +a

The following command displays the contents of $a:

$a

You can use this parameter to create a variable that contains only error messages from specific commands. The $Error automatic variable contains error messages from all the commands in the session. You can use array notation, such as $a[0] or $error[1,2] to refer to specific errors stored in the variables.

InformationAction

The alias for InformationAction is ia.

Introduced in PowerShell 5.0. Within the command or script in which it's used, the InformationAction common parameter overrides the value of the $InformationPreference preference variable, which by default is set to SilentlyContinue. When you use Write-Information in a script with InformationAction, Write-Information values are shown depending on the value of the InformationAction parameter. For more information about $InformationPreference, see about_Preference_Variables.

-InformationAction:Stop stops a command or script at an occurrence of the Write-Information command.

-InformationAction:Ignore suppresses the informational message and continues running the command. Unlike SilentlyContinue, Ignore completely forgets the informational message; it doesn't add the informational message to the information stream.

-InformationAction:Inquire displays the informational message that you specify in a Write-Information command, then asks whether you want to continue.

-InformationAction:Continue displays the informational message, and continues running.

-InformationAction:Suspend isn't supported on PowerShell Core as it is only available for workflows.

-InformationAction:SilentlyContinue no effect as the informational message aren't (Default) displayed, and the script continues without interruption.

InformationVariable

The alias for InformationVariable is iv.

Introduced in PowerShell 5.0. Within the command or script in which it's used, the InformationVariable common parameter stores in a variable a string that you specify by adding the Write-Information command. Write-Information values are shown depending on the value of the InformationAction common parameter; if you don't add the InformationAction common parameter, Write-Information strings are shown depending on the value of the $InformationPreference preference variable. For more information about $InformationPreference, see about_Preference_Variables.

OutBuffer

The alias for OutBuffer is ob and takes a System.Int32 value.

Determines the number of objects to accumulate in a buffer before any objects are sent through the pipeline. If you omit this parameter, objects are sent as they're generated.

This resource management parameter is designed for advanced users. When you use this parameter, PowerShell doesn't call the next cmdlet in the pipeline until the number of objects generated equals OutBuffer + 1. Thereafter, it sends all objects as they're generated.

OutVariable

The alias for OutVariable is ov.

Stores output objects from the command in the specified variable and displays it at the command line.

To add the output to the variable, instead of replacing any output that might already be stored there, type a plus sign (+) before the variable name.

For example, the following command creates the $out variable and stores the process object in it:

Get-Process PowerShell -OutVariable out

The following command adds the process object to the $out variable:

Get-Process iexplore -OutVariable +out

The following command displays the contents of the $out variable:

$out

PipelineVariable

The alias for PipelineVariable is pv and takes a string value.

PipelineVariable stores the value of the current pipeline element as a variable, for any named command as it flows through the pipeline.

Valid values are strings, the same as for any variable names.

The following is an example of how PipelineVariable works. In this example, the PipelineVariable parameter is added to a Foreach-Object command to store the results of the command in variables. A range of numbers, 1 to 10, are piped into the first Foreach-Object command, the results of which are stored in a variable named Left.

The results of the first Foreach-Object command are piped into a second Foreach-Object command, which filters the objects returned by the first Foreach-Object command. The results of the second command are stored in a variable named Right.

In the third Foreach-Object command, the results of the first two Foreach-Object piped commands, represented by the variables Left and Right, are processed by using a multiplication operator. The command instructs objects stored in the Left and Right variables to be multiplied, and specifies that the results should be displayed as "Left range member * Right range member = product".

1..10 | Foreach-Object -PipelineVariable Left -Process { $_ } |
  Foreach-Object -PV Right -Process { 1..10 } |
  Foreach-Object -Process { "$Left * $Right = " + ($Left*$Right) }
1 * 1 = 1
1 * 2 = 2
1 * 3 = 3
1 * 4 = 4
1 * 5 = 5
...

Verbose

The alias for Verbose is vb.

Displays detailed information about the operation done by the command. This information resembles the information in a trace or in a transaction log. This parameter works only when the command generates a verbose message. For example, this parameter works when a command contains the Write-Verbose cmdlet.

The Verbose parameter overrides the value of the $VerbosePreference variable for the current command. Because the default value of the $VerbosePreference variable is SilentlyContinue, verbose messages aren't displayed by default.

-Verbose:$true has the same effect as -Verbose

-Verbose:$false suppresses the display of verbose messages. Use this parameter when the value of $VerbosePreference isn't SilentlyContinue (the default).

WarningAction

The alias for WarningAction is wa.

Determines how the cmdlet responds to a warning from the command. Continue is the default value. This parameter works only when the command generates a warning message. For example, this parameter works when a command contains the Write-Warning cmdlet.

The WarningAction parameter overrides the value of the $WarningPreference variable for the current command. Because the default value of the $WarningPreference variable is Continue, warnings are displayed and execution continues unless you use the WarningAction parameter.

-WarningAction:Continue displays the warning messages and continues executing the command. Continue is the default.

-WarningAction:Inquire displays the warning message and prompts you for confirmation before continuing execution. This value is rarely used.

-WarningAction:SilentlyContinue suppresses the warning message and continues executing the command.

-WarningAction:Stop displays the warning message and stops executing the command.

Note

The -WarningAction parameter does not override the value of the $WarningAction preference variable when the parameter is used in a command to run a script or function.

WarningVariable

The alias for WarningVariable is wv.

Stores warnings about the command in the specified variable.

All generated warnings are saved in the variable even if the warnings aren't displayed to the user.

To append the warnings to the variable content, instead of replacing any warnings that might already be stored there, type a plus sign (+) before the variable name.

For example, the following command creates the $a variable and then stores any warnings in it:

Get-Process -Id 6 -WarningVariable a

The following command adds any warnings to the $a variable:

Get-Process -Id 2 -WarningVariable +a

The following command displays the contents of $a:

$a

You can use this parameter to create a variable that contains only warnings from specific commands. You can use array notation, such as $a[0] or $warning[1,2] to refer to specific warnings stored in the variable.

Note

The WarningVariable parameter does not capture warnings from nested calls in functions or scripts.

Risk Management Parameter Descriptions

WhatIf

The alias for WhatIf is wi.

Displays a message that describes the effect of the command, instead of executing the command.

The WhatIf parameter overrides the value of the $WhatIfPreference variable for the current command. Because the default value of the $WhatIfPreference variable is 0 (disabled), WhatIf behavior isn't done without the WhatIf parameter. For more information, type the following command:

Get-Help about_Preference_Variables

-WhatIf:$true has the same effect as -WhatIf.

-WhatIf:$false suppresses the automatic WhatIf behavior that results when the value of the $WhatIfPreference variable is 1.

For example, the following command uses the -WhatIf parameter in a Remove-Item command:

PS> Remove-Item Date.csv -WhatIf

Instead of removing the item, PowerShell lists the operations it would do and the items that would be affected. This command produces the following output:

What if: Performing operation "Remove File" on
Target "C:\ps-test\date.csv".

Confirm

The alias for Confirm is cf.

Prompts you for confirmation before executing the command.

The Confirm parameter overrides the value of the $ConfirmPreference variable for the current command. The default value is true. For more information, type the following command:

Get-Help about_Preference_Variables

-Confirm:$true has the same effect as -Confirm.

-Confirm:$false suppresses automatic confirmation, which occurs when the value of $ConfirmPreference is less than or equal to the estimated risk of the cmdlet.

For example, the following command uses the Confirm parameter with a Remove-Item command. Before removing the item, PowerShell lists the operations it would do and the items that would be affected, and asks for approval.

PS C:\ps-test> Remove-Item tmp*.txt -Confirm

This command produces the following output:

Confirm
Are you sure you want to perform this action?
Performing operation "Remove File" on Target " C:\ps-test\tmp1.txt
[Y] Yes  [A] Yes to All  [N] No  [L] No to All  [S] Suspend
[?] Help (default is "Y"):

The Confirm response options are as follows:

Response Result
Yes (Y) Perform the action.
Yes to All (A) Perform all actions and suppress subsequent Confirm queries
for this command.
No (N): Do not perform the action.
No to All (L): Do not perform any actions and suppress subsequent Confirm
queries for this command.
Suspend (S): Pause the command and create a temporary session.
Help (?) Display help for these options.

The Suspend option places the command on hold and creates a temporary nested session in which you can work until you're ready to choose a Confirm option. The command prompt for the nested session has two extra carets (>>) to indicate that it's a child operation of the original parent command. You can run commands and scripts in the nested session. To end the nested session and return to the Confirm options for the original command, type "exit".

In the following example, the Suspend option (S) is used to halt a command temporarily while the user checks the help for a command parameter. After obtaining the needed information, the user types "exit" to end the nested prompt and then selects the Yes (y) response to the Confirm query.

PS C:\ps-test> New-Item -ItemType File -Name Test.txt -Confirm
Confirm
Are you sure you want to perform this action?

Performing operation "Create File" on Target "Destination:
C:\ps-test\test.txt".
[Y] Yes [A] Yes to All [N] No [L] No to All [S] Suspend [?] Help (default
is "Y"): s

PS C:\ps-test> Get-Help New-Item -Parameter ItemType

-ItemType <string>
Specifies the provider-specified type of the new item.

Required?                    false
Position?                    named
Default value
Accept pipeline input?       true (ByPropertyName)
Accept wildcard characters?  false

PS C:\ps-test> exit

Confirm
Are you sure you want to perform this action?
Performing operation "Create File" on Target "Destination: C:\ps-test\test
.txt".
[Y] Yes  [A] Yes to All  [N] No  [L] No to All  [S] Suspend  [?] Help (defau
lt is "Y"): y

Directory: C:\ps-test

Mode                LastWriteTime     Length Name
----                -------------     ------ ----
-a---         8/27/2010   2:41 PM          0 test.txt

KEYWORDS

about_Common_Parameters

SEE ALSO

about_Preference_Variables

Write-Debug

Write-Warning

Write-Error

Write-Verbose