Marshalling dei dati con platform invokeMarshaling Data with Platform Invoke

Per chiamare le funzioni esportate da una libreria non gestita, un'applicazione .NET Framework richiede un prototipo di funzione nel codice gestito che rappresenta la funzione non gestita.To call functions exported from an unmanaged library, a .NET Framework application requires a function prototype in managed code that represents the unmanaged function. Per creare un prototipo che abiliti PInvoke per effettuare il marshalling dei dati in modo corretto, è necessario eseguire le operazioni seguenti:To create a prototype that enables platform invoke to marshal data correctly, you must do the following:

  • Applicare l'attributo DllImportAttribute alla funzione o al metodo statico nel codice gestito.Apply the DllImportAttribute attribute to the static function or method in managed code.

  • Sostituire i tipi di dati non gestiti con tipi di dati gestiti.Substitute managed data types for unmanaged data types.

È possibile usare la documentazione fornita con una funzione non gestita per costruire un prototipo gestito equivalente, applicando l'attributo con i relativi campi facoltativi e sostituendo i tipi di dati non gestiti con quelli gestiti.You can use the documentation supplied with an unmanaged function to construct an equivalent managed prototype by applying the attribute with its optional fields and substituting managed data types for unmanaged types. Per istruzioni su come applicare l'attributo DllImportAttribute, vedere Utilizzo di funzioni DLL non gestite.For instructions about how to apply the DllImportAttribute, see Consuming Unmanaged DLL Functions.

Questa sezione fornisce esempi che dimostrano come creare prototipi di funzioni gestite per passare argomenti e ricevere valori restituiti da funzioni esportate mediante librerie non gestite.This section provides samples that demonstrate how to create managed function prototypes for passing arguments to and receiving return values from functions exported by unmanaged libraries. Gli esempi illustrano anche l'uso dell'attributo MarshalAsAttribute e della classe Marshal per effettuare il marshalling esplicito dei dati.The samples also demonstrate when to use the MarshalAsAttribute attribute and the Marshal class to explicitly marshal data.

Tipi di dati PInvokePlatform invoke data types

La tabella seguente include un elenco di tipi di dati usati nell'API Win32 (elencati in Wtypes.h) e nelle funzioni di tipo C.The following table lists data types used in the Win32 API (listed in Wtypes.h) and C-style functions. Molte librerie non gestite contengono funzioni che passano questi tipi di dati come parametri e valori restituiti.Many unmanaged libraries contain functions that pass these data types as parameters and return values. La terza colonna indica il tipo di valore o la classe incorporata corrispondente di .NET Framework che si usa nel codice gestito.The third column lists the corresponding .NET Framework built-in value type or class that you use in managed code. In alcuni casi, è possibile sostituire il tipo elencato nella tabella con un tipo delle stesse dimensioni.In some cases, you can substitute a type of the same size for the type listed in the table.

Tipo non gestito in Wtypes.hUnmanaged type in Wtypes.h Tipo non gestito del linguaggio CUnmanaged C language type Nome della classe gestitaManaged class name DescrizioneDescription
HANDLEHANDLE void\*void*** System.IntPtr 32 bit nei sistemi operativi Windows a 32 bit, 64 bit nei sistemi operativi Windows a 64 bit.32 bits on 32-bit Windows operating systems, 64 bits on 64-bit Windows operating systems.
BYTEBYTE unsigned charunsigned char System.Byte 8 bit8 bits
SHORTSHORT shortshort System.Int16 16 bit16 bits
WORDWORD unsigned shortunsigned short System.UInt16 16 bit16 bits
INTINT intint System.Int32 32 bit32 bits
UINTUINT unsigned intunsigned int System.UInt32 32 bit32 bits
LONGLONG longlong System.Int32 32 bit32 bits
BOOLBOOL longlong Byte 32 bit32 bits
DWORDDWORD unsigned longunsigned long System.UInt32 32 bit32 bits
ULONGULONG unsigned longunsigned long System.UInt32 32 bit32 bits
CHARCHAR charchar System.Char Decorare con ANSI.Decorate with ANSI.
WCHARWCHAR wchar_twchar_t System.Char Decorare con Unicode.Decorate with Unicode.
LPSTRLPSTR char\*char*** System.String o System.Text.StringBuilderSystem.String or System.Text.StringBuilder Decorare con ANSI.Decorate with ANSI.
LPCSTRLPCSTR Const char\*Const char*** System.String o System.Text.StringBuilderSystem.String or System.Text.StringBuilder Decorare con ANSI.Decorate with ANSI.
LPWSTRLPWSTR wchar_t\*wchar_t*** System.String o System.Text.StringBuilderSystem.String or System.Text.StringBuilder Decorare con Unicode.Decorate with Unicode.
LPCWSTRLPCWSTR Const wchar_t\*Const wchar_t*** System.String o System.Text.StringBuilderSystem.String or System.Text.StringBuilder Decorare con Unicode.Decorate with Unicode.
FLOATFLOAT FloatFloat System.Single 32 bit32 bits
DOUBLEDOUBLE DoubleDouble System.Double 64 bit64 bits

Per i tipi corrispondenti in Visual Basic 2005Visual Basic 2005, C# e C++, vedere Introduzione alla libreria di classi .NET Framework.For corresponding types in Visual Basic 2005Visual Basic 2005, C#, and C++, see the Introduction to the .NET Framework Class Library.

PinvokeLib.dllPinvokeLib.dll

Il codice seguente definisce le funzioni della libreria fornite da Pinvoke.dll.The following code defines the library functions provided by Pinvoke.dll. Molti esempi descritti in questa sezione chiamano questa libreria.Many samples described in this section call this library.

EsempioExample

// PInvokeLib.cpp : Defines the entry point for the DLL application.
//

#define PINVOKELIB_EXPORTS
#include "PInvokeLib.h"

#include <strsafe.h>
#include <objbase.h>
#include <stdio.h>

#pragma comment(lib,"ole32.lib")

BOOL APIENTRY DllMain( HANDLE hModule,
                       DWORD  ul_reason_for_call,
                       LPVOID lpReserved )
{
    switch (ul_reason_for_call)
    {
        case DLL_PROCESS_ATTACH:
        case DLL_THREAD_ATTACH:
        case DLL_THREAD_DETACH:
        case DLL_PROCESS_DETACH:
            break;
    }

    return TRUE;
}

//******************************************************************
// This is the constructor of a class that has been exported.
CTestClass::CTestClass()
{
    m_member = 1;
}

int CTestClass::DoSomething( int i )
{
    return i*i + m_member;
}

PINVOKELIB_API CTestClass* CreateTestClass()
{
    return new CTestClass();
}

PINVOKELIB_API void DeleteTestClass( CTestClass* instance )
{
    delete instance;
}

//******************************************************************
PINVOKELIB_API int TestArrayOfInts( int* pArray, int size )
{
    int result = 0;

    for ( int i = 0; i < size; i++ )
    {
        result += pArray[ i ];
        pArray[i] += 100;
    }
    return result;
}

//******************************************************************
PINVOKELIB_API int TestRefArrayOfInts( int** ppArray, int* pSize )
{
    int result = 0;

    // CoTaskMemAlloc must be used instead of the new operator
    // because code on the managed side will call Marshal.FreeCoTaskMem
    // to free this memory.

    int* newArray = (int*)CoTaskMemAlloc( sizeof(int) * 5 );

    for ( int i = 0; i < *pSize; i++ )
    {
        result += (*ppArray)[i];
    }

    for ( int j = 0; j < 5; j++ )
    {
        newArray[j] = (*ppArray)[j] + 100;
    }

    CoTaskMemFree( *ppArray );
    *ppArray = newArray;
    *pSize = 5;

    return result;
}

//******************************************************************
PINVOKELIB_API int TestMatrixOfInts( int pMatrix[][COL_DIM], int row )
{
    int result = 0;

    for ( int i = 0; i < row; i++ )
    {
        for ( int j = 0; j < COL_DIM; j++ )
        {
            result += pMatrix[i][j];
            pMatrix[i][j] += 100;
        }
    }
    return result;
}

//******************************************************************
PINVOKELIB_API int TestArrayOfStrings( char* ppStrArray[], int count )
{
    int result = 0;
    STRSAFE_LPSTR temp;
    size_t len;
    const size_t alloc_size = sizeof(char) * 10;

    for ( int i = 0; i < count; i++ )
    {
        len = 0;
        StringCchLengthA( ppStrArray[i], STRSAFE_MAX_CCH, &len );
        result += len;

        temp = (STRSAFE_LPSTR)CoTaskMemAlloc( alloc_size );
        StringCchCopyA( temp, alloc_size, (STRSAFE_LPCSTR)"123456789" );

       // CoTaskMemFree must be used instead of delete to free memory.

       CoTaskMemFree( ppStrArray[i] );
       ppStrArray[i] = (char *) temp;
   }

   return result;
}

//******************************************************************
PINVOKELIB_API int TestArrayOfStructs( MYPOINT* pPointArray, int size )
{
    int result = 0;
    MYPOINT* pCur = pPointArray;

    for ( int i = 0; i < size; i++ )
    {
        result += pCur->x + pCur->y;
        pCur->y = 0;
        pCur++;
    }

    return result;
}

//******************************************************************
PINVOKELIB_API int TestStructInStruct( MYPERSON2* pPerson2 )
{
    size_t len = 0;

    StringCchLengthA( pPerson2->person->last, STRSAFE_MAX_CCH, &len );
    len = sizeof(char) * ( len + 2 ) + 1;

    STRSAFE_LPSTR temp = (STRSAFE_LPSTR)CoTaskMemAlloc( len );
    StringCchCopyA( temp, len, (STRSAFE_LPSTR)"Mc" );
    StringCbCatA( temp, len, (STRSAFE_LPSTR)pPerson2->person->last );

    CoTaskMemFree( pPerson2->person->last );
    pPerson2->person->last = (char *)temp;

    return pPerson2->age;
}

//******************************************************************
PINVOKELIB_API int TestArrayOfStructs2( MYPERSON* pPersonArray, int size )
{
    int result = 0;
    MYPERSON* pCur = pPersonArray;
    STRSAFE_LPSTR temp;
    size_t len;

    for ( int i = 0; i < size; i++ )
    {
        len = 0;
        StringCchLengthA( pCur->first, STRSAFE_MAX_CCH, &len );
        len++;
        result += len;
        len = 0;
        StringCchLengthA( pCur->last, STRSAFE_MAX_CCH, &len );
        len++;
        result += len;

        len = sizeof(char) * ( len + 2 );
        temp = (STRSAFE_LPSTR)CoTaskMemAlloc( len );
        StringCchCopyA( temp, len, (STRSAFE_LPCSTR)"Mc" );
        StringCbCatA( temp, len, (STRSAFE_LPCSTR)pCur->last );
        result += 2;

        // CoTaskMemFree must be used instead of delete to free memory.
        CoTaskMemFree( pCur->last );
        pCur->last = (char *)temp;
        pCur++;
   }

   return result;
}

//******************************************************************
PINVOKELIB_API void TestStructInStruct3( MYPERSON3 person3 )
{
    printf( "\n\nperson passed by value:\n" );
    printf( "first = %s last = %s age = %i\n\n",
            person3.person.first,
            person3.person.last,
            person3.age );
}

//*********************************************************************
PINVOKELIB_API void TestUnion( MYUNION u, int type )
{
    if ( ( type != 1 ) && ( type != 2 ) )
    {
        return;
    }
    if ( type == 1 )
    {
        printf( "\n\ninteger passed: %i", u.i );
    }
    else if ( type == 2 )
    {
        printf( "\n\ndouble passed: %f", u.d );
    }
}

//******************************************************************
PINVOKELIB_API void TestUnion2( MYUNION2 u, int type )
{
    if ( ( type != 1 ) && ( type != 2 ) )
    {
        return;
    }
    if ( type == 1 )
    {
        printf( "\n\ninteger passed: %i", u.i );
    }
    else if ( type == 2 )
    {
        printf( "\n\nstring passed: %s", u.str );
    }
}

//******************************************************************
PINVOKELIB_API void TestCallBack( FPTR pf, int value )
{
    printf( "\nReceived value: %i", value );
    printf( "\nPassing to callback..." );
    bool res = (*pf)(value);

    if ( res )
    {
        printf( "Callback returned true.\n" );
    }
    else
    {
        printf( "Callback returned false.\n" );
    }
}

//******************************************************************
PINVOKELIB_API void TestCallBack2( FPTR2 pf2, char* value )
{
    printf( "\nReceived value: %s", value );
    printf( "\nPassing to callback..." );
    bool res = (*pf2)(value);

    if ( res )
    {
        printf( "Callback2 returned true.\n" );
    }
    else
    {
        printf( "Callback2 returned false.\n" );
    }
}

//******************************************************************
PINVOKELIB_API void TestStringInStruct( MYSTRSTRUCT* pStruct )
{
    wprintf( L"\nUnicode buffer content: %s\n", pStruct->buffer );

    // Assuming that the buffer is big enough.
    StringCbCatW( pStruct->buffer, pStruct->size, (STRSAFE_LPWSTR)L"++" );
}

//******************************************************************
PINVOKELIB_API void TestStringInStructAnsi( MYSTRSTRUCT2* pStruct )
{
    printf( "\nAnsi buffer content: %s\n", pStruct->buffer );

    // Assuming that the buffer is big enough.
    StringCbCatA( (STRSAFE_LPSTR) pStruct->buffer, pStruct->size, (STRSAFE_LPSTR)"++" );
}

//******************************************************************
PINVOKELIB_API void TestOutArrayOfStructs( int* pSize, MYSTRSTRUCT2** ppStruct )
{
    const int cArraySize = 5;
    *pSize = 0;
    *ppStruct = (MYSTRSTRUCT2*)CoTaskMemAlloc( cArraySize * sizeof( MYSTRSTRUCT2 ));

    if ( ppStruct != NULL )
    {
        MYSTRSTRUCT2* pCurStruct = *ppStruct;
        LPSTR buffer;
        *pSize = cArraySize;

        STRSAFE_LPCSTR teststr = "***";
        size_t len = 0;
        StringCchLengthA(teststr, STRSAFE_MAX_CCH, &len);
        len++;

        for ( int i = 0; i < cArraySize; i++, pCurStruct++ )
        {
            pCurStruct->size = len;
            buffer = (LPSTR)CoTaskMemAlloc( len );
            StringCchCopyA( buffer, len, teststr );
            pCurStruct->buffer = (char *)buffer;
        }
    }
}

//************************************************************************
PINVOKELIB_API char * TestStringAsResult()
{

    const size_t alloc_size = 64;
    STRSAFE_LPSTR result = (STRSAFE_LPSTR)CoTaskMemAlloc( alloc_size );
    STRSAFE_LPCSTR teststr = "This is return value";
    StringCchCopyA( result, alloc_size, teststr );

    return (char *) result;
}

//************************************************************************
PINVOKELIB_API void SetData( DataType typ, void* object )
{
    switch ( typ )
    {
        case DT_I2: printf( "Short %i\n", *((short*)object) ); break;
        case DT_I4: printf( "Long %i\n", *((long*)object) ); break;
        case DT_R4: printf( "Float %f\n", *((float*)object) ); break;
        case DT_R8: printf( "Double %f\n", *((double*)object) ); break;
        case DT_STR: printf( "String %s\n", (char*)object ); break;
        default: printf( "Unknown type" ); break;
    }
}

//************************************************************************
PINVOKELIB_API void TestArrayInStruct( MYARRAYSTRUCT* pStruct )
{
    pStruct->flag = true;
    pStruct->vals[0] += 100;
    pStruct->vals[1] += 100;
    pStruct->vals[2] += 100;
}
// PInvokeLib.h : The header file for the DLL application.
//

#pragma once

#define WIN32_LEAN_AND_MEAN
#include <windows.h>

// The following ifdef block is the standard way of creating macros which make exporting
// from a DLL simpler. All files within this DLL are compiled with the PINVOKELIB_EXPORTS
// symbol defined on the command line. this symbol should not be defined on any project
// that uses this DLL. This way any other project whose source files include this file see
// PINVOKELIB_API functions as being imported from a DLL, wheras this DLL sees symbols
// defined with this macro as being exported.
#ifdef PINVOKELIB_EXPORTS
#define PINVOKELIB_API __declspec(dllexport)
#else
#define PINVOKELIB_API __declspec(dllimport)
#endif

// Define the test structures

typedef struct _MYPOINT
{
    int x;
    int y;
} MYPOINT;

typedef struct _MYPERSON
{
    char* first;
    char* last;
} MYPERSON;

typedef struct _MYPERSON2
{
    MYPERSON* person;
    int age;
} MYPERSON2;

typedef struct _MYPERSON3
{
    MYPERSON person;
    int age;
} MYPERSON3;

union MYUNION
{
    int i;
    double d;
};

union MYUNION2
{
    int i;
    char str[128];
};

typedef struct _MYSTRSTRUCT
{
    wchar_t* buffer;
    UINT size;
} MYSTRSTRUCT;

typedef struct _MYSTRSTRUCT2
{
    char* buffer;
    UINT size;
} MYSTRSTRUCT2;

typedef struct _MYARRAYSTRUCT
{
    bool flag;
    int vals[3];
} MYARRAYSTRUCT;

// constants and pointer definitions

const int COL_DIM = 5;

typedef bool (CALLBACK *FPTR)( int i );

typedef bool (CALLBACK *FPTR2)( char* str );

// Data type codes
enum DataType
{
    DT_I2 = 1,
    DT_I4,
    DT_R4,
    DT_R8,
    DT_STR
};

// This is an exported class.
class PINVOKELIB_API CTestClass
{
public:
    CTestClass( void );
    int DoSomething( int i );

private:
    int m_member;
};

// Exports for PInvokeLib.dll

#ifdef __cplusplus
extern "C"
{
#endif

PINVOKELIB_API CTestClass* CreateTestClass();

PINVOKELIB_API void DeleteTestClass( CTestClass* instance );

PINVOKELIB_API int TestArrayOfInts( int* pArray, int size );

PINVOKELIB_API int TestRefArrayOfInts( int** ppArray, int* pSize );

PINVOKELIB_API int TestMatrixOfInts( int pMatrix[][COL_DIM], int row );

PINVOKELIB_API int TestArrayOfStrings( char* ppStrArray[], int size );

PINVOKELIB_API int TestArrayOfStructs( MYPOINT* pPointArray, int size );

PINVOKELIB_API int TestArrayOfStructs2( MYPERSON* pPersonArray, int size );

PINVOKELIB_API int TestStructInStruct( MYPERSON2* pPerson2 );

PINVOKELIB_API void TestStructInStruct3( MYPERSON3 person3 );

PINVOKELIB_API void TestUnion( MYUNION u, int type );

PINVOKELIB_API void TestUnion2( MYUNION2 u, int type );

PINVOKELIB_API void TestCallBack( FPTR pf, int value );

PINVOKELIB_API void TestCallBack2( FPTR2 pf2, char* value );

// buffer is an in/out param
PINVOKELIB_API void TestStringInStruct( MYSTRSTRUCT* pStruct );

// buffer is in/out param
PINVOKELIB_API void TestStringInStructAnsi( MYSTRSTRUCT2* pStruct );

PINVOKELIB_API void TestOutArrayOfStructs( int* pSize, MYSTRSTRUCT2** ppStruct );

PINVOKELIB_API char* TestStringAsResult();

PINVOKELIB_API void SetData( DataType typ, void* object );

PINVOKELIB_API void TestArrayInStruct( MYARRAYSTRUCT* pStruct );

#ifdef __cplusplus
}
#endif