Best practices for publishing sites (SharePoint Server 2010)

 

Si applica a: SharePoint Server 2010

Ultima modifica dell'argomento: 2016-11-30

This article is one of a series of Best Practices articles for Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010. This article describes best practices for publishing sites that are based on SharePoint Server 2010.

Publishing sites differ from collaboration or intranet SharePoint sites that must support various authentication and authorization models. In publishing sites, most user operations are reads, so these sites typically allow anonymous authentication for most users. For additional information and resources about Web content management Best Practices for SharePoint Server 2010, see the Best Practices for SharePoint Server 2010 (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/p/?LinkID=220280) resource center.

1. Start with a well-configured infrastructure

Your server farm should be well-configured and should use the recommended hardware for SharePoint Server 2010. You should also verify that your SharePoint license supports the kind of deployment that you want to use. For information about licensing requirements and how to determine the number of server farms that you need, see Planning for server farms (SharePoint Server 2010). Be sure to follow the recommendations in the Requisiti hardware: server Web, server applicazioni e installazioni a server singolo section of Requisiti hardware e software (SharePoint Server 2010).

Because Internet-facing sites have stricter expectations around performance and availability than team collaboration sites, make sure that you plan for the availability and capacity expectations of your publishing sites. For more information, see Pianificare la disponibilità (SharePoint Server 2010) and Pianificazione della capacità per SharePoint Server 2010.

2. Make query-driven Web Parts efficient

Web Parts that query lists can be very resource-intensive. Understand the scope of each operation that a Web Part performs when it combines data from its queries.

When using query-driven Web Parts, such as the Content Query Web Part, do the following:

3. Organize content to optimize query performance

Follow the recommended limits for lists and databases to optimize query performance. Exceeding list and database limits directly affects the performance of SharePoint Server 2010 features and behavior. For information about specific limits, see Gestione della capacità di SharePoint Server 2010: Limiti software statici e configurabili and Pianificazione dell'archiviazione di contenuto aziendale (SharePoint Server 2010).

When planning your site, consider your user base and how they will interact with the site. Structure the site collection and sites in a way that separates authors based on which groups of people will create what content. Place the Content Organizer at the top level of the site collection, and use content types to sort and move the content to the appropriate sites. For more information about the Content Organizer, see Panoramica sull'archiviazione e sul routing basati su metadati (SharePoint Server 2010).

4. Use author-in-place on a single server farm

You can use a single server farm for both authoring and publishing. This is known as an author-in-place model, because you author on the same server that is used for publishing. This differs from a two-stage model in which you have separate servers on which you author and publish content. In general, the author-in-place model is the preferred model to use for publishing because it means that you have fewer servers to manage and content can go live more quickly. When you use the author-in-place model, authors access the server from the intranet, so you can specify what users and groups have permission to author and approve content. You also use the publishing workflow to determine when content is approved for publishing and to specify the dates and times the content goes live. To prevent unauthorized users from creating content on the site, you extend the Web application to a new zone that uses a separate URL, such as for an Internet or extranet site. Although the site at the new URL uses the same content database as the intranet site, you can restrict access to the public site so that anonymous users have read-only permission. For information about how to extend Web applications, see Estendere un'applicazione Web (SharePoint Server 2010).

If your security policies require that internal and external-facing sites must be on separate servers, you should use content deployment to push content from the authoring environment to the production environment. For more information, see Procedure consigliate per la distribuzione del contenuto (SharePoint Server 2010).

5. Plan ahead for variations

If you think there is a possibility that you might have to set up variations sites, you should plan for them beforehand. It is very difficult to integrate variations sites into a site collection after the site structure is implemented. The following factors can affect your ability to easily move to using variations sites later in the life of your site:

  • Custom code   Code that contains references to the location of the root variations site.

  • Site customizations   Site navigation, Master Pages, and other customizations.

  • Search   Search scopes must be created for each variation label, and the site properties of each variations site must be modified.

For more information about how to plan for variations, see Pianificare le varianti.

6. Use caching

Caching can provide big benefits to a publishing site. Be sure to use the different kinds of caching appropriately. When caching is used correctly, it can significantly improve throughput and user response time.

SharePoint Server 2010 provides the following kinds of caches:

In geographically distributed environments, consider using third-party cache devices with SharePoint Server 2010 to move content closer to users and avoid round trips. For more information, see WAN accelerators and other third-party tools in Ottimizzazione di Office SharePoint Server per ambienti WAN. (Although this content was written for Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007, the guidance it contains is still valid for SharePoint Server 2010.) You might also consider using a CDN for jQuery libraries with your Web application. For more information about jQuery and CDN, see Microsoft Ajax Content Delivery Network (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/p/?LinkId=218875).

For more information, see Pianificare la memorizzazione nella cache e le prestazioni (SharePoint Server 2010), Stimare i requisiti di prestazioni e capacità per la gestione del contenuto Web in SharePoint Server 2010, and SharePoint Server Caches Overview (SharePointServerCachesPerformance.docx) (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/p/?LinkID=191156).

7. Be careful of custom code that uses AllowUnsafeUpdates

When you set the AllowUnsafeUpdates property to true, your site becomes vulnerable to cross-site scripting attacks. This can be especially important with Internet-facing sites where anonymous users access the site. If you have custom code that uses AllowUnsafeUpdates with either the SPSite class or the SPWeb class, make sure that you use a try/catch block to handle any errors, and use a finally block to set AllowUnsafeUpdates back to false. For more information, see "Working with AllowUnsafeUpdates Property" in SharePoint Coding Practices - A Quick Overview (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/p/?LinkId=218876), and SharePoint Security Best Practices: Cross-Site Request Forgery(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/p/?LinkId=221924) in Security Best Practices for Developers in SharePoint 2010(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/p/?LinkId=221925).

8. Enable ViewFormPagesLockdown

By default, when a site collection uses the Publishing Portal template, anonymous users cannot access Forms pages on a site. This feature, which is known as ViewFormPagesLockdown, locks down a site from anonoymous users and prompts users for credentials before it allows them access to Forms pages on a site. If you activated the publishing features for a non-publishing site, you should make sure that you enable the ViewFormsPagesLockdown feature for the site. For more information, see Lockdown Mode in SharePoint 2010 (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/p/?LinkId=218877) and Anonymous Users, Forms Pages, and the Lockdown Feature (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/p/?LinkId=218878). (Although this content was written for Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007, the guidance it contains is still valid for SharePoint Server 2010.)

Acknowledgements

The SharePoint Server 2010 Content Publishing team thanks the following contributors to this article:

  • Aaron Saikovski, Microsoft Consulting Services

  • Bryan Porter, Microsoft Consulting Services

  • Ethan Gur-Esh, Microsoft Enterprise Content Management

  • Israel Vega, Jr., Microsoft Consulting Services

  • Josh Stickler, Microsoft Enterprise Content Management

  • Oleg Kofman, Microsoft Consulting Services

  • Steve Peschka, Microsoft Consulting Services

  • Steve Walker, Microsoft SharePoint Customer Advisory Team