IDisposable.Dispose IDisposable.Dispose IDisposable.Dispose IDisposable.Dispose Method

Definição

Realiza tarefas definidas pelo aplicativo associadas à liberação ou à redefinição de recursos não gerenciados.Performs application-defined tasks associated with freeing, releasing, or resetting unmanaged resources.

public:
 void Dispose();
public void Dispose ();
abstract member Dispose : unit -> unit
Public Sub Dispose ()

Exemplos

O exemplo a seguir mostra como você pode implementar o Dispose método.The following example shows how you can implement the Dispose method.

#using <System.dll>
#using <System.Windows.Forms.dll>

using namespace System;
using namespace System::ComponentModel;
using namespace System::Windows::Forms;

// The following example demonstrates how to create a class that 
// implements the IDisposable interface and the IDisposable.Dispose
// method with finalization to clean up unmanaged resources. 
//
public ref class MyResource: public IDisposable
{
private:

   // Pointer to an external unmanaged resource.
   IntPtr handle;

   // A managed resource this class uses.
   Component^ component;

   // Track whether Dispose has been called.
   bool disposed;

public:
   // The class constructor.
   MyResource( IntPtr handle, Component^ component )
   {
      this->handle = handle;
      this->component = component;
      disposed = false;
   }

   // This method is called if the user explicitly disposes of the
   // object (by calling the Dispose method in other managed languages, 
   // or the destructor in C++). The compiler emits as a call to 
   // GC::SuppressFinalize( this ) for you, so there is no need to 
   // call it here.
   ~MyResource() 
   {
      // Dispose of managed resources.
      component->~Component();

      // Call C++ finalizer to clean up unmanaged resources.
      this->!MyResource();

      // Mark the class as disposed. This flag allows you to throw an
      // exception if a disposed object is accessed.
      disposed = true;
   }

   // Use interop to call the method necessary to clean up the 
   // unmanaged resource.
   //
   [System::Runtime::InteropServices::DllImport("Kernel32")]
   static Boolean CloseHandle( IntPtr handle );

   // The C++ finalizer destructor ensures that unmanaged resources get
   // released if the user releases the object without explicitly 
   // disposing of it.
   //
   !MyResource()
   {      
      // Call the appropriate methods to clean up unmanaged 
      // resources here. If disposing is false when Dispose(bool,
      // disposing) is called, only the following code is executed.
      CloseHandle( handle );
      handle = IntPtr::Zero;
   }

};

void main()
{
   // Insert code here to create and use the MyResource object.
   MyResource^ mr = gcnew MyResource((IntPtr) 42, (Component^) gcnew Button());
   mr->~MyResource();
}
using System;
using System.ComponentModel;

// The following example demonstrates how to create
// a resource class that implements the IDisposable interface
// and the IDisposable.Dispose method.

public class DisposeExample
{
    // A base class that implements IDisposable.
    // By implementing IDisposable, you are announcing that
    // instances of this type allocate scarce resources.
    public class MyResource: IDisposable
    {
        // Pointer to an external unmanaged resource.
        private IntPtr handle;
        // Other managed resource this class uses.
        private Component component = new Component();
        // Track whether Dispose has been called.
        private bool disposed = false;

        // The class constructor.
        public MyResource(IntPtr handle)
        {
            this.handle = handle;
        }

        // Implement IDisposable.
        // Do not make this method virtual.
        // A derived class should not be able to override this method.
        public void Dispose()
        {
            Dispose(true);
            // This object will be cleaned up by the Dispose method.
            // Therefore, you should call GC.SupressFinalize to
            // take this object off the finalization queue
            // and prevent finalization code for this object
            // from executing a second time.
            GC.SuppressFinalize(this);
        }

        // Dispose(bool disposing) executes in two distinct scenarios.
        // If disposing equals true, the method has been called directly
        // or indirectly by a user's code. Managed and unmanaged resources
        // can be disposed.
        // If disposing equals false, the method has been called by the
        // runtime from inside the finalizer and you should not reference
        // other objects. Only unmanaged resources can be disposed.
        protected virtual void Dispose(bool disposing)
        {
            // Check to see if Dispose has already been called.
            if(!this.disposed)
            {
                // If disposing equals true, dispose all managed
                // and unmanaged resources.
                if(disposing)
                {
                    // Dispose managed resources.
                    component.Dispose();
                }

                // Call the appropriate methods to clean up
                // unmanaged resources here.
                // If disposing is false,
                // only the following code is executed.
                CloseHandle(handle);
                handle = IntPtr.Zero;

                // Note disposing has been done.
                disposed = true;

            }
        }

        // Use interop to call the method necessary
        // to clean up the unmanaged resource.
        [System.Runtime.InteropServices.DllImport("Kernel32")]
        private extern static Boolean CloseHandle(IntPtr handle);

        // Use C# destructor syntax for finalization code.
        // This destructor will run only if the Dispose method
        // does not get called.
        // It gives your base class the opportunity to finalize.
        // Do not provide destructors in types derived from this class.
        ~MyResource()
        {
            // Do not re-create Dispose clean-up code here.
            // Calling Dispose(false) is optimal in terms of
            // readability and maintainability.
            Dispose(false);
        }
    }
    public static void Main()
    {
        // Insert code here to create
        // and use the MyResource object.
    }
}
Imports System
Imports System.ComponentModel

' The following example demonstrates how to create
' a resource class that implements the IDisposable interface
' and the IDisposable.Dispose method.
Public Class DisposeExample

   ' A class that implements IDisposable.
   ' By implementing IDisposable, you are announcing that 
   ' instances of this type allocate scarce resources.
   Public Class MyResource
      Implements IDisposable
      ' Pointer to an external unmanaged resource.
      Private handle As IntPtr
      ' Other managed resource this class uses.
      Private component As component
      ' Track whether Dispose has been called.
      Private disposed As Boolean = False

      ' The class constructor.
      Public Sub New(ByVal handle As IntPtr)
         Me.handle = handle
      End Sub

      ' Implement IDisposable.
      ' Do not make this method virtual.
      ' A derived class should not be able to override this method.
      Public Overloads Sub Dispose() Implements IDisposable.Dispose
         Dispose(True)
         ' This object will be cleaned up by the Dispose method.
         ' Therefore, you should call GC.SupressFinalize to
         ' take this object off the finalization queue 
         ' and prevent finalization code for this object
         ' from executing a second time.
         GC.SuppressFinalize(Me)
      End Sub

      ' Dispose(bool disposing) executes in two distinct scenarios.
      ' If disposing equals true, the method has been called directly
      ' or indirectly by a user's code. Managed and unmanaged resources
      ' can be disposed.
      ' If disposing equals false, the method has been called by the 
      ' runtime from inside the finalizer and you should not reference 
      ' other objects. Only unmanaged resources can be disposed.
      Protected Overridable Overloads Sub Dispose(ByVal disposing As Boolean)
         ' Check to see if Dispose has already been called.
         If Not Me.disposed Then
            ' If disposing equals true, dispose all managed 
            ' and unmanaged resources.
            If disposing Then
               ' Dispose managed resources.
               component.Dispose()
            End If

            ' Call the appropriate methods to clean up 
            ' unmanaged resources here.
            ' If disposing is false, 
            ' only the following code is executed.
            CloseHandle(handle)
            handle = IntPtr.Zero

            ' Note disposing has been done.
            disposed = True

         End If
      End Sub

      ' Use interop to call the method necessary  
      ' to clean up the unmanaged resource.
      <System.Runtime.InteropServices.DllImport("Kernel32")> _
      Private Shared Function CloseHandle(ByVal handle As IntPtr) As [Boolean]
      End Function

      ' This finalizer will run only if the Dispose method 
      ' does not get called.
      ' It gives your base class the opportunity to finalize.
      ' Do not provide finalize methods in types derived from this class.
      Protected Overrides Sub Finalize()
         ' Do not re-create Dispose clean-up code here.
         ' Calling Dispose(false) is optimal in terms of
         ' readability and maintainability.
         Dispose(False)
         MyBase.Finalize()
      End Sub
   End Class

   Public Shared Sub Main()
      ' Insert code here to create
      ' and use the MyResource object.
   End Sub

End Class

Comentários

Use esse método para fechar ou liberar recursos não gerenciados, como arquivos, fluxos e identificadores mantidas por uma instância da classe que implementa essa interface.Use this method to close or release unmanaged resources such as files, streams, and handles held by an instance of the class that implements this interface. Por convenção, este método é usado para todas as tarefas associadas à liberação de recursos mantidos por um objeto, ou preparar um objeto para reutilização.By convention, this method is used for all tasks associated with freeing resources held by an object, or preparing an object for reuse.

Aviso

Se você estiver usando uma classe que implementa o IDisposable interface, você deve chamar seu Dispose quando tiver terminado de usar a classe de implementação.If you are using a class that implements the IDisposable interface, you should call its Dispose implementation when you are finished using the class. Para obter mais informações, consulte a seção "Usando um objeto que implementa IDisposable" o IDisposable tópico.For more information, see the "Using an object that implements IDisposable" section in the IDisposable topic.

Ao implementar esse método, certifique-se de que todos os mantido recursos serão liberados, propagando a chamada por meio da hierarquia de confinamento.When implementing this method, ensure that all held resources are freed by propagating the call through the containment hierarchy. Por exemplo, se um objeto aloca um objeto B, e o objeto B C, em seguida, A um objeto Dispose deve chamar a implementação Dispose no B, que por sua vez deve chamar Dispose em C.For example, if an object A allocates an object B, and object B allocates an object C, then A's Dispose implementation must call Dispose on B, which must in turn call Dispose on C.

Importante

O compilador C++ oferece suporte a descarte determinística de recursos e não permite a implementação direta do Dispose método.The C++ compiler supports deterministic disposal of resources and does not allow direct implementation of the Dispose method.

Um objeto também deve chamar o Dispose método de sua classe base se a classe base implementa IDisposable.An object must also call the Dispose method of its base class if the base class implements IDisposable. Para obter mais informações sobre como implementar IDisposable em uma classe base e suas subclasses, consulte a seção "IDisposable e a hierarquia de herança" o IDisposable tópico.For more information about implementing IDisposable on a base class and its subclasses, see the "IDisposable and the inheritance hierarchy" section in the IDisposable topic.

Se um objeto Dispose método é chamado mais de uma vez, o objeto deve ignorar todas as chamadas após o primeiro.If an object's Dispose method is called more than once, the object must ignore all calls after the first one. O objeto não deve lançar uma exceção se seu Dispose método é chamado várias vezes.The object must not throw an exception if its Dispose method is called multiple times. Métodos de instância diferente de Dispose pode gerar um ObjectDisposedException quando os recursos já são descartados.Instance methods other than Dispose can throw an ObjectDisposedException when resources are already disposed.

Os usuários podem esperar um tipo de recurso para usar uma convenção específica para indicar um estado alocado versus um estado liberado.Users might expect a resource type to use a particular convention to denote an allocated state versus a freed state. Um exemplo disso é a classes de fluxo, que tradicionalmente consideradas como aberta ou fechadas.An example of this is stream classes, which are traditionally thought of as open or closed. O implementador de uma classe que tem uma convenção tal pode optar por implementar um método público com um nome personalizado, tal como Close, que chama o Dispose método.The implementer of a class that has such a convention might choose to implement a public method with a customized name, such as Close, that calls the Dispose method.

Porque o Dispose método deve ser chamado explicitamente, sempre há um risco que os recursos não gerenciados não será lançado, pois o consumidor de um objeto não chamar seu Dispose método.Because the Dispose method must be called explicitly, there is always a danger that the unmanaged resources will not be released, because the consumer of an object fails to call its Dispose method. Há duas maneiras de evitar isso:There are two ways to avoid this:

Quando você usa um objeto que acessa os recursos não gerenciados, como um StreamWriter, uma prática recomendada é criar a instância com um using instrução.When you use an object that accesses unmanaged resources, such as a StreamWriter, a good practice is to create the instance with a using statement. O using instrução fecha automaticamente o fluxo e chama Dispose no objeto quando o código que está sendo usado foi concluída.The using statement automatically closes the stream and calls Dispose on the object when the code that is using it has completed. Por exemplo, consulte o StreamWriter classe.For an example, see the StreamWriter class.

Aplica-se a

Veja também