Exchange Server 中的地址列表Address lists in Exchange Server

地址列表是 Active Directory 中已启用邮件的收件人对象的集合。An address list is a collection of mail-enabled recipient objects from Active Directory. 地址列表基于收件人筛选器,基本上与 Exchange 2010 保持不变。Address lists are based on recipient filters, and are basically unchanged from Exchange 2010. 您可以按收件人类型(例如,邮箱和邮件联系人)、收件人属性(例如,公司或省/市/自治区)或这两者进行筛选。You can filter by recipient type (for example, mailboxes and mail contacts), recipient properties (for example, Company or State or Province), or both. 地址列表不是静态的;它们是动态更新的。Address lists aren't static; they're updated dynamically. 当您在组织中创建或修改收件人时,它们会自动添加到相应的地址列表中。When you create or modify recipients in your organization, they're automatically added to the appropriate address lists. 以下是可用的不同类型的地址列表:These are the different types of address lists that are available:

  • 全局地址列表(gal): Exchange 自动创建的内置 GAL 包含 Active Directory 林中每个启用邮件的对象。Global address lists (GALs): The built-in GAL that's automatically created by Exchange includes every mail-enabled object in the Active Directory forest. 您可以创建其他 Gal 以按组织或位置分隔用户,但用户只能查看和使用一个 GAL。You can create additional GALs to separate users by organization or location, but a user can only see and use one GAL.

  • 地址列表:地址列表是在一个列表中组合在一起的收件人的子集,这使用户可以更轻松地查找它们。Address lists: Address lists are subsets of recipients that are grouped together in one list, which makes them easier to find by users. Exchange 附带有几个内置地址列表,您可以根据组织的需要创建更多的信息。Exchange comes with several built-in address lists, and you can create more based on you organization's needs.

  • 脱机通讯簿(oab): oab 包含地址列表和 gal。Offline address books (OABs): OABs contain address lists and GALs. Oab 由缓存 Exchange 模式中的 Outlook 客户端用于为收件人的搜索提供对地址列表和 Gal 的本地访问权限。OABs are used by Outlook clients in cached Exchange mode to provide local access to address lists and GALs for recipient look-ups. 有关详细信息,请参阅Exchange Server 中的脱机通讯簿For more information, see Offline address books in Exchange Server.

组织中的用户使用地址列表和 GAL 查找电子邮件的收件人。Users in your organization use address lists and the GAL to find recipients for email messages. 下面的示例展示了 Outlook 2016 中的地址列表的外观:Here's an example of what address lists look like in Outlook 2016:

全局地址列表 (GAL)

有关与地址列表相关的过程,请参阅Exchange Server 中的地址列表的过程For procedures related to address lists, see Procedures for address lists in Exchange Server.

地址列表的收件人筛选器Recipient filters for address lists

收件人筛选器标识包含在地址列表和 Gal 中的收件人。Recipient filters identify the recipients that are included in address lists and GALs. 有两个基本选项:固有收件人筛选器和自定义收件人筛选器There are two basic options: precanned recipient filters and custom recipient filters. 这些选项与动态通讯组和电子邮件地址策略使用的收件人筛选选项基本相同。These are basically the same recipient filtering options that are used by dynamic distribution groups and email address policies. 下表总结了这两种筛选方法之间的区别。The following table summarizes the differences between the two filtering methods.


收件人筛选方法Recipient filtering method 用户界面User interface 可筛选收件人属性Filterable recipient properties 筛选运算符Filter operators
固有收件人筛选器Precanned recipient filters 地址列表: exchange 管理中心(EAC)和 Exchange 命令行管理程序Address lists: Exchange admin center (EAC) and the Exchange Management Shell

Gal:仅限 Exchange 命令行管理程序GALs: Exchange Management Shell only
限制为:Limited to:
•收件人类型(所有收件人类型或用户邮箱、资源邮箱、邮件联系人、邮件用户和组的任意组合)• Recipient type (All recipient types or any combination of user mailboxes, resource mailboxes, mail contacts, mail users, and groups)
•公司• Company
•自定义属性1至15• Custom Attribute 1 to 15
•部门• Department
•省/市/自治区• State or Province
属性值需要完全匹配。Property values require an exact match. 不支持通配符和部分匹配。Wildcards and partial matches aren't supported. 例如,"Sales" 不符合值 "Sales and Marketing"。For example, "Sales" doesn't match the value "Sales and Marketing".

同一属性的多个值始终使用or运算符。Multiple values of the same property always use the or operator. 例如,"部门等于 Sales or 部门等于 Marketing"。For example, "Department equals Sales or Department equals Marketing".

多个属性始终使用and运算符。Multiple properties always use the and operator. 例如,“Department equals Sales and Company equals Contoso”。For example, "Department equals Sales and Company equals Contoso".
自定义收件人筛选器Custom recipient filters 仅 Exchange 命令行管理程序Exchange Management Shell only 几乎可以使用任何可用的收件人属性。You can use virtually any available recipient attributes. 有关详细信息,请参阅可筛选属性的-RecipientFilter 参数For more information, see Filterable Properties for the -RecipientFilter Parameter. 您可以使用 OPATH 筛选器语法来指定任何可用的 Windows PowerShell 筛选器运算符。You use OPATH filter syntax to specify any available Windows PowerShell filter operators. 支持通配符和部分匹配。Wildcards and partial matches are supported.

注意Notes:

  • 您不能同时使用固有筛选器和自定义筛选器。You can't used precanned filters and customized filters at the same time.

  • 收件人在 Active Directory (组织单位或容器)中的位置在固有和自定义收件人筛选器中都可用。The recipient's location in Active Directory (the organizational unit or container) is available in both precanned and custom recipient filters.

  • 如果地址列表使用自定义收件人筛选器而不是固有筛选器,则可以在 EAC 中看到地址列表,但不能使用 EAC 修改或删除它。If an address list uses custom recipient filters instead of precanned filters, you can see the address list in the EAC, but you can't modify or remove it by using the EAC.

  • 您可以隐藏所有地址列表和 Gal 中的收件人。You can hide recipients from all address lists and GALs. 有关详细信息,请参阅隐藏收件人地址列表For more information, see Hide recipients from address lists.

全局地址列表Global address lists

默认情况下,新安装的 Exchange Server 会创建一个名为 "默认全局地址列表" 的 GAL,该列表是 Exchange 组织中所有收件人的主要存储库。By default, a new installation of Exchange Server creates an GAL named Default Global Address List that's the primary repository of all recipients in the Exchange organization. 通常,大多数组织只有一个 GAL,因为用户只能在 Outlook 和 web 上的 Outlook 中查看和使用一个 GAL (以前称为 Outlook Web App)。Typically, most organizations have only one GAL, because users can only see and use one GAL in Outlook and Outlook on the web (formerly known as Outlook Web App). 如果要阻止收件人组相互之间相互查看,则可能需要创建多个 Gal (例如,一个 Exchange 组织包含两个单独的公司)。You might need to create multiple GALs if you want to prevent groups of recipients from seeing each other (for example, you single Exchange organization contains two separate companies). 如果您计划创建其他 Gal,请考虑以下问题:If you plan on creating additional GALs, consider the following issues:

  • 您只能使用 Exchange 命令行管理程序来创建、修改、删除和更新 Gal。You can only use the Exchange Management Shell to create, modify, remove, and update GALs.

  • 用户在 Outlook 和 web 上的 Outlook 中看到的 GAL 称为 "全局地址列表",即使默认 GAL 是名为 "默认全局地址列表",并且您创建的任何新 Gal 都需要一个唯一的名称(用户无法告诉他们正在使用哪个 GAL)。The GAL that users see in Outlook and Outlook on the web is named Global Address List, even though the default GAL is named Default Global Address List, and any new GALs that you create will require a unique name (users can't tell which GAL that they're using by name).

  • 用户只能看到他们所属的 GAL (GAL 的收件人筛选器包括它们)。Users can only see a GAL that they belong to (the recipient filter of the GAL includes them). 如果某个用户属于多个 Gal,则他们仍将根据以下条件仅看到一个 GAL:If a user belongs to multiple GALs, they'll still see only one GAL based on the following conditions:

默认地址列表Default address lists

默认情况下,Exchange 附带五个内置地址列表和一个 GAL。By default, Exchange comes with five built-in address lists and one GAL. 下表介绍了这些地址列表。These address lists are described in the following table. 请注意,默认情况下,与系统相关的邮箱(如仲裁邮箱和公用文件夹邮箱)在地址列表中是不可见的。Note that by default, system-related mailboxes like arbitration mailboxes and public folder mailboxes are hidden from address lists.

名称Name 类型Type 说明Description 使用的收件人筛选器Recipient filter used
所有联系人All Contacts 地址列表Address list 包含组织中的所有邮件联系人。Includes all mail contacts in the organization. 若要了解有关邮件联系人的详细信息,请参阅 收件人To learn more about mail contacts, see Recipients. "Alias -ne $null -and (ObjectCategory -like 'person' -and ObjectClass -eq 'contact')"
所有通讯组列表All Distribution Lists 地址列表Address list 包括组织中的所有通讯组和已启用邮件的安全组。Includes all distribution groups and mail-enabled security groups in the organization. 若要了解有关启用邮件的组的详细信息,请参阅 收件人To learn more about mail-enabled groups, see Recipients. "Alias -ne $null -and ObjectCategory -like 'group'"
所有会议室All Rooms 地址列表Address list 包括所有会议室邮箱。Includes all room mailboxes. 不包括设备邮箱。Equipment mailboxes aren't included. 若要了解有关会议室和设备(资源)邮箱的详细信息,请参阅收件人To learn more about room and equipment (resource) mailboxes, see Recipients. "Alias -ne $null -and (RecipientDisplayType -eq 'ConferenceRoomMailbox' -or RecipientDisplayType -eq 'SyncedConferenceRoomMailbox')"
所有用户All Users 地址列表Address list 包括组织中的所有用户邮箱、链接邮箱、远程邮箱(Microsoft 365 或 Office 365 邮箱)、共享邮箱、会议室邮箱、设备邮箱和邮件用户。Includes all user mailboxes, linked mailboxes, remote mailboxes (Microsoft 365 or Office 365 mailboxes), shared mailboxes, room mailboxes, equipment mailboxes, and mail users in the organization. 若要了解有关这些收件人类型的详细信息,请参阅收件人To learn more about these recipient types, see Recipients. "((Alias -ne $null) -and (((((((ObjectCategory -like 'person') -and (ObjectClass -eq 'user') -and (-not(Database -ne $null)) -and (-not(ServerLegacyDN -ne $null)))) -or (((ObjectCategory -like 'person') -and (ObjectClass -eq 'user') -and (((Database -ne $null) -or (ServerLegacyDN -ne $null))))))) -and (-not(RecipientTypeDetailsValue -eq 'GroupMailbox')))))"
默认全局地址列表Default Global Address List 全球GAL 包含组织中所有启用邮件的收件人对象(用户、联系人、组、动态通讯组和公用文件夹)。Includes all mail-enabled recipient objects in the organization (users, contacts, groups, dynamic distribution groups, and public folders. "((Alias -ne $null) -and (((ObjectClass -eq 'user') -or (ObjectClass -eq 'contact') -or (ObjectClass -eq 'msExchSystemMailbox') -or (ObjectClass -eq 'msExchDynamicDistributionList') -or (ObjectClass -eq 'group') -or (ObjectClass -eq 'publicFolder'))))"
公用文件夹Public Folders 地址列表Address list 包括组织中所有启用邮件的公用文件夹。Includes all mail-enabled public folders in your organization. 访问权限决定谁可以查看和使用公用文件夹。Access permissions determine who can view and use public folders. 有关公用文件夹的详细信息,请参阅公用文件夹For more information about public folders, see Public folders. "Alias -ne $null -and ObjectCategory -like 'publicFolder'"

Custom address listsCustom address lists

Exchange 组织可能包含数千个收件人,因此内置地址列表可能会变得非常大。An Exchange organization might contain thousands of recipients, so the built-in address lists could become quite large. 若要避免这种情况,可以创建自定义地址列表,以帮助用户找到所需的内容。To prevent this, you can create custom address lists to help users find what they're looking for.

例如,考虑一个在一个 Exchange 组织中有两个大型部门的公司:For example, consider a company that has two large divisions in one Exchange organization:

  • 第四个咖啡,导入并卖出咖啡 bean。Fourth Coffee, which imports and sells coffee beans.

  • Contoso,underwrites 保险策略。Contoso, Ltd, which underwrites insurance policies.

对于大多数日常活动,第四个咖啡的员工不会与 Contoso,有限公司中的员工进行通信。因此,为了使员工能够更轻松地查找仅存在于其部门中的收件人,您可以创建两个新的自定义地址列表:一个用于第四个咖啡,另一个用于 Contoso,有限公司。但是,如果员工不确定收件人所在的位置,则可以在 GAL 中搜索,其中包含两个部门的所有收件人。For most day-to-day activities, employees at Fourth Coffee don't communicate with employees at Contoso, Ltd. Therefore, to make it easier for employees to find recipients who exist only in their division, you can create two new custom address lists: one for Fourth Coffee and one for Contoso, Ltd. However, if an employee is unsure about where recipient exists, they can search in the GAL, which contains all recipients from both divisions.

您还可以在 "其他地址列表" 下创建地址列表。You can also create address lists under other address lists. 例如,您可以创建一个包含曼彻斯特中所有收件人的地址列表,并且可以在 "只包含曼彻斯特办公室中的销售人员" 的 "仅限销售人员" 下创建另一个地址列表。For example, you can create an address list that contains all recipients in Manchester, and you can create another address list under Manchester named Sales that contains only sales people in the Manchester office. 您还可以在创建地址列表后将其移回到根或其他地址列表中。You can also move address lists back to the root, or under other address lists after you've created them. 有关详细信息,请参阅使用 Exchange 命令行管理程序移动地址列表For more information, see Use the Exchange Management Shell to move address lists.

创建其他地址列表的最佳实践Best practices for creating additional address lists

尽管地址列表对用户来说是有用的工具,但是规划不当的地址列表可能会适得其反。为了使地址列表成为用户的实用工具,请参考以下最佳实践:Although address lists are useful tools for users, poorly planned address lists can cause frustration. To make sure that your address lists are practical for users, consider the following best practices:

  • 地址列表应便于用户查找收件人。Address lists should make it easier for users to find recipients.

  • 避免创建如此多的地址列表,用户无法知道要使用哪个列表。Avoid creating so many address lists that users can't tell which list to use.

  • 对地址列表使用命名约定和位置层次结构,以便用户可以立即知道列表的内容(哪些收件人包含在列表中)。Use a naming convention and location hierarchy for your address lists so users can immediately tell what the list is for (which recipients are included in the list). 如果命名地址列表有困难,可以减少创建的列表数目,并提醒用户可以使用 GAL 查找组织中的任何人。If you have difficulty naming your address lists, create fewer lists and remind users that they can find anyone in your organization by using the GAL.

有关在 Exchange Server 中创建地址列表的详细说明,请参阅创建地址列表For detailed instructions about creating address lists in Exchange Server, see Create address lists.

更新地址列表Update address lists

在创建或修改地址列表后,需要更新成员身份。After you create or modify an address list, you need to update the membership.

如果地址列表包含大量收件人(我们的建议值大于3000),则应使用 Exchange 命令行管理程序更新地址列表(而不是 EAC)。If the address list contains a large number of recipients (our recommendation is more than 3000), you should use the Exchange Management Shell to update the address list (not the EAC). 有关详细信息,请参阅更新地址列表For more information, see Update address lists.

若要更新 GAL,您始终需要使用 Exchange 命令行管理程序。To update a GAL, you always need to use the Exchange Management Shell. 有关详细信息,请参阅使用 Exchange 命令行管理程序更新全局地址列表For more information, see Use the Exchange Management Shell to update global address lists.