Exchange Server 中的队列中的队列和邮件Queues and messages in queues in Exchange Server

“队列”** 是等待进入下一个处理阶段或传递到目标的邮件的临时存放位置。A queue is a temporary holding location for messages that are waiting to enter the next stage of processing or delivery to a destination. 每个队列代表 Exchange 服务器按照特定顺序处理的邮件逻辑组。Each queue represents a logical set of messages that the Exchange server processes in a specific order. 在 Exchange 2016 和 Exchange 2019 中,队列在传递前后保留邮件。In Exchange 2016 and Exchange 2019, queues hold messages before, during, and after delivery. 队列存在于邮箱服务器和边缘传输服务器上的传输服务中。Queues exist in the Transport service on Mailbox servers and on Edge Transport servers. 在本主题中,邮箱服务器和边缘传输服务器统称为“传输服务器”**。Mailbox servers and Edge Transport servers are called transport servers throughout this topic.

与所有早期版本的 Exchange 一样,单个可扩展存储引擎(ESE)数据库用于队列存储。Like all previous versions of Exchange, a single Extensible Storage Engine (ESE) database is used for queue storage.

您可以使用 exchange 工具箱中的 Exchange 命令行管理程序和队列查看器管理队列中的队列和邮件。You can manage queues and messages in queues by using the Exchange Management Shell and Queue Viewer in the Exchange Toolbox. 可以使用这些界面来查看队列的状态和内容以及详细的邮件属性。You can use these interfaces to view the status and contents of queues and detailed message properties. 还可以执行修改队列或队列中的邮件的操作。You can also perform actions that modify queues or the messages in queues. 有关详细信息,请参阅针对队列中的邮件过程:队列和过程。For more information, see Procedures for queues and Procedures for messages in queues.

队列类型Types of queues

在 Exchange 2016 和 Exchage 2019 中使用以下队列类型,这与 Exchange 2013 相同:The following types of queues are used in Exchange 2016 and Exchage 2019, which are the same as Exchange 2013:


队列Queue 服务器角色Server role 说明Description
传递队列Delivery queues 邮箱服务器和边缘服务器Mailbox servers and Edge Transport servers 包含要传递到所有内部和外部目标的邮件。Holds messages that are being delivered to all internal and external destinations.
当传递队列为空且过期时间已过,要求删除和自动删除传递队列时,则会动态创建传递队列。Delivery queues are dynamically created when they're required, and are automatically deleted when the queue is empty and the expiration time has passed. 队列过期时间由set-transportservice cmdlet 上的_QueueMaxIdleTime_参数控制。The queue expiration time is controlled by the QueueMaxIdleTime parameter on the Set-TransportService cmdlet. 默认值为 3 分钟。The default value is three minutes.
在边缘传输服务器上,每个唯一的目标 SMTP 域或智能主机都有一个队列。On Edge Transport servers, there's a queue for every unique destination SMTP domain or smart host.
On Mailbox servers, there's a queue for every unique destination as indicated by the NextHopSolutionKey property.On Mailbox servers, there's a queue for every unique destination as indicated by the NextHopSolutionKey property. For more information, see the NextHopSolutionKey section later in this topic.For more information, see the NextHopSolutionKey section later in this topic.
所有邮件通过使用 SMTP 在 Exchange 2016 和 Exchange 2013 服务器间传输。All messages are transmitted between Exchange 2016 and Exchange 2013 servers by using SMTP. 如果由传递代理连接器为目标提供服务,那么非 SMTP 目标也使用传递队列。Non-SMTP destinations also use delivery queues if the destination is serviced by a Delivery Agent connector. 有关详细信息,请参阅传递代理和传递代理连接器For more information, see Delivery Agents and Delivery Agent Connectors.
病毒邮件队列Poison message queue 邮箱服务器和边缘服务器Mailbox servers and Edge Transport servers Isolates messages that contain errors and are determined to be harmful to Exchange after a server or service failure.Isolates messages that contain errors and are determined to be harmful to Exchange after a server or service failure. The messages may be genuinely harmful in their content and format, or the messages might have been the victims of a poorly written transport agent or a software bug that crashed the Exchange server while it was processing the otherwise valid messages.The messages may be genuinely harmful in their content and format, or the messages might have been the victims of a poorly written transport agent or a software bug that crashed the Exchange server while it was processing the otherwise valid messages.
The poison message queue is typically empty.The poison message queue is typically empty. If the poison message queue contains no messages, then it doesn't appear in the queue management tools.If the poison message queue contains no messages, then it doesn't appear in the queue management tools. Messages in the poison message queue are never automatically resumed or expired.Messages in the poison message queue are never automatically resumed or expired. Messages remain in the poison message queue until they're manually resumed or removed by an administrator.Messages remain in the poison message queue until they're manually resumed or removed by an administrator.
每个邮箱服务器或边缘传输服务器仅有一个病毒邮件队列。Every Mailbox server or Edge Transport server has only one poison message queue.
卷影队列Shadow queues 邮箱服务器Mailbox servers 卷影队列在邮件传输时会保留邮件的冗余副本。Shadow queues hold redundant copies of messages while the messages are in transit. 有关详细信息,请参阅Exchange Server 中的卷影冗余For more information, see Shadow redundancy in Exchange Server.
提交队列Submission queue 邮箱服务器和边缘服务器Mailbox servers and Edge Transport servers Holds messages that have been accepted by the Transport service, but haven't been processed.Holds messages that have been accepted by the Transport service, but haven't been processed. Messages in the Submission queue are either waiting to be processed, or are actively being processed.Messages in the Submission queue are either waiting to be processed, or are actively being processed.
On Mailbox servers, messages are received by a Receive connector, the Pickup or Replay directories, or the Mailbox Transport Submission service.On Mailbox servers, messages are received by a Receive connector, the Pickup or Replay directories, or the Mailbox Transport Submission service. On Edge Transport servers, messages are typically received by a Receive connector, but the Pickup and Replay directories are also available.On Edge Transport servers, messages are typically received by a Receive connector, but the Pickup and Replay directories are also available.
分类程序从此队列中检索邮件,并确定收件人的位置以及到达该位置的路由。The categorizer retrieves messages from this queue and, among other things, determines the location of the recipient and the route to that location. 邮件在进行分类之后,会移动到传递队列或无法到达队列。After categorization, the message is moved to a delivery queue or to the Unreachable queue. 有关分类程序和传输管道的详细信息,请参阅邮件流和传输管道For more information about the categorizer and the transport pipeline, see Mail flow and the transport pipeline.
每个邮箱服务器或边缘传输服务器仅有一个提交队列。Every Mailbox server or Edge Transport server has only one Submission queue.
无法到达的队列Unreachable queue 邮箱服务器和边缘服务器Mailbox servers and Edge Transport servers Contains messages that can't be routed to their destinations.Contains messages that can't be routed to their destinations. Typically, an unreachable destination is caused by configuration changes that have modified the routing path for delivery.Typically, an unreachable destination is caused by configuration changes that have modified the routing path for delivery. Regardless of destination, all messages that have unreachable recipients reside in this queue.Regardless of destination, all messages that have unreachable recipients reside in this queue.
每个邮箱服务器或边缘传输服务器仅有一个无法到达的队列。Every Mailbox server or Edge Transport server has only one Unreachable queue.

队列数据库文件Queue database files

所有不同的队列都存储在一个 ESE 数据库中。All the different queues are stored in a single ESE database. 默认情况下,此队列数据库位于中的传输服务器上 %ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data\QueueBy default, this queue database is located on the transport server at %ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data\Queue.

Like any ESE database, the queue database uses log files to accept, track, and maintain data.Like any ESE database, the queue database uses log files to accept, track, and maintain data. To enhance performance, all message transactions are written first to log files and memory, and then to the database file.To enhance performance, all message transactions are written first to log files and memory, and then to the database file. The checkpoint file tracks the transaction log entries that have been committed to the database.The checkpoint file tracks the transaction log entries that have been committed to the database. During an ordinary shutdown of the Microsoft Exchange Transport service, uncommitted database changes that are found in the transaction logs are committed to the database.During an ordinary shutdown of the Microsoft Exchange Transport service, uncommitted database changes that are found in the transaction logs are committed to the database.

Circular logging is used for the queue database.Circular logging is used for the queue database. This means that transaction logs that are older than the current checkpoint are immediately and automatically deleted.This means that transaction logs that are older than the current checkpoint are immediately and automatically deleted. Therefore, the transaction logs can't be replayed for queue database recovery from backup.Therefore, the transaction logs can't be replayed for queue database recovery from backup.

下表列出了构成队列数据库的文件。The following table lists the files that constitute the queue database.

文件File 描述Description
Mail.queMail.que 此队列数据库文件存储所有排队的邮件。This queue database file stores all the queued messages.
.TmpTmp.edb 此临时数据库文件用于验证启动时的队列数据库架构。This temporary database file is used to verify the queue database schema on startup.
Trn.log *Trn*.log 事务日志用于记录队列数据库的所有更改。Transaction logs record all changes to the queue database. 数据库的更改首先写入事务日志,然后提交到数据库。Changes to the database are first written to the transaction log and then committed to the database. Trn.log 是当前的活动事务日志文件。Trn.log is the current active transaction log file. Trntmp.log 是提前创建接下来提供的事务日志文件。Trntmp.log is the next provisioned transaction log file that's created in advance. 如果现有的 Trn.log 事务日志文件达到其最大大小,则 Trn.log 将被重命名为 Trn.log nnnn,其中_nnnn_是一个序列号。If the existing Trn.log transaction log file reaches its maximum size, Trn.log is renamed to Trn nnnn.log, where nnnn is a sequence number. 然后,Trntmp.log 重命名为 Trn.log,并用作当前的活动事务日志文件。Trntmp.log is then renamed Trn.log and becomes the current active transaction log file.
Trn.logTrn.chk This checkpoint file tracks the transaction log entries that have been committed to the database.This checkpoint file tracks the transaction log entries that have been committed to the database. This file is always in the same location as the mail.que file.This file is always in the same location as the mail.que file.
处、。 trnres00001.jrsTrnres00001.jrs
Trnres00002.jrs。 trnres00001.jrsTrnres00002.jrs
These reserve transaction log files act as placeholders.These reserve transaction log files act as placeholders. They're only used when the hard disk that contains the transaction log runs out of space to stop the queue database cleanly.They're only used when the hard disk that contains the transaction log runs out of space to stop the queue database cleanly.

Exchange 使用生成表存储和清理队列数据库中的邮件。Exchange uses generation tables for storage and clean-up of messages in the queue database. 队列数据库不是从一个大表中处理和删除单个邮件记录,而是在基于时间的表格中存储邮件,而且仅在成功处理表中的所有邮件之后,删除整个表。Instead of processing and deleting individual message records from one large table, the queue database stores messages in time-based tables, and only deletes the entire table after all the messages in the table have been successfully processed. 例如,请考虑以下示例:For example, consider the following example:

  • 从 1:00 PM 到 2:00 PM 排队的所有邮件都存储在表中,而不考虑队列或目标 1p-2p_msgsAll messages queued from 1:00 PM to 2:00 PM, regardless of the queue or destination, are stored in the 1p-2p_msgs table.

  • 在 2:00 PM,新邮件存储在表中 2p-3p_msgsAt 2:00 PM, new messages are stored in the 2p-3p_msgs table.

  • 在 4:00 PM,创建一个名 4p-5p_msgs 为的新表。At 4:00 PM, a new table named 4p-5p_msgs is created. 只有在 1p-2p_msgs 表中的所有邮件都已成功处理的情况下,才会删除整个表。The entire 1p-2p_msgs table is deleted, but only if all messages in the table have been successfully processed.

删除整个邮件表格而不是删除单个邮件的方法有助于提高保留队列数据库的驱动器的 I/O 性能。This approach of deleting entire messages tables instead of individual messages helps improves the I/O performance of the drive that holds the queue database.

用于配置队列数据库的选项Options for configuring the queue database

您可以通过在 %ExchangeInstallPath%Bin\EdgeTransport.exe.config XML 应用程序配置文件中添加或修改密钥来配置队列数据库。You configure the queue database by adding or modifying keys in the %ExchangeInstallPath%Bin\EdgeTransport.exe.config XML application configuration file. 此文件与 Microsoft Exchange 传输服务相关联。This file is associated with the Microsoft Exchange Transport service. 在重新启动 Microsoft Exchange 传输服务后,对 EdgeTransport.exe.config 文件所做的更改将会生效。Changes you make to the EdgeTransport.exe.config file take effect after you restart the Microsoft Exchange Transport service.

备注

当您安装 exExchangeNoVersion 累积更新(CU)时,将覆盖您在 exExchangeNoVersion XML 应用程序配置文件(例如,web.config 文件或 EdgeTransport.exe.config 文件)中所做的任何自定义的每个服务器的 Exchange 或 Internet 信息服务器设置。Any customized per-server Exchange or Internet Information Server settings you make in exExchangeNoVersion XML application configuration files (for example, web.config files or the EdgeTransport.exe.config file) will be overwritten when you install an exExchangeNoVersion Cumulative Update (CU). 请务必保存此类信息,以便在安装累积更新后可以轻松地重新配置服务器。Make sure that you save this information so that you can easily re-configure your server after the install. 安装 exExchangeNoVersion CU 后,必须重新配置这些设置。You must re-configure these settings after you install an exExchangeNoVersion CU.

<appSettings>可以在 EdgeTransport.exe.config 文件部分中添加新密钥或修改现有密钥。The <appSettings> section of the EdgeTransport.exe.config file is where you can add new keys or modify existing keys. 如果某个特定的键不存在,则可以手动添加它以更改其值。If a specific key doesn't exist, you can add it manually to change its value.

下表描述了 EdgeTransport.exe.config 文件中可用的队列数据库的键。The keys for the queue database that are available in the EdgeTransport.exe.config file are described in the following table.

EdgeTransport.exe.config 文件中可用的邮件队列数据库键Message queue database keys that are available in the EdgeTransport.exe.config file

Key 默认值Default value 说明Description
QueueDatabaseBatchSizeQueueDatabaseBatchSize 4040 指定在执行之前可以组合在一起的数据库 i/o 操作的数量。Specifies the number of database I/O operations that can be grouped together before they're executed.
默认情况下,EdgeTransport.exe.config 文件中不存在此项。By default, this key doesn't exist in the EdgeTransport.exe.config file.
QueueDatabaseBatchTimeoutQueueDatabaseBatchTimeout 100100 指定数据库将在执行多个数据库 i/o 操作之前等待多长时间(以毫秒为单位)。Specifies the maximum time in milliseconds that the database will wait for multiple database I/O operations to group before it executes them. 如果满足以下条件,则执行数据库 i/o 操作而不等待更多的情况:The database I/O operations are executed without waiting for any more if the following conditions are true:
•尚未达到由_QueueDatabaseBatchSize_项指定的数据库 i/o 操作的数量。• The number of database I/O operations that's specified by the QueueDatabaseBatchSize key hasn't been reached.
• _QueueDatabaseBatchTimeout_键指定的时间已过。• The time specified by the QueueDatabaseBatchTimeout key has passed.
默认情况下,EdgeTransport.exe.config 文件中不存在此项。By default, this key doesn't exist in the EdgeTransport.exe.config file.
QueueDatabaseMaxConnectionsQueueDatabaseMaxConnections 4 4 指定可以打开的 ESE 数据库连接数。Specifies the number of ESE database connections that can be open.
QueueDatabaseLoggingBufferSizeQueueDatabaseLoggingBufferSize 5MB5MB 指定在将事务记录写入事务日志文件之前用于缓存这些记录的内存。Specifies the memory that's used to cache the transaction records before they're written to the transaction log file.
QueueDatabaseLoggingFileSizeQueueDatabaseLoggingFileSize 5MB5MB 指定事务日志文件的最大大小。Specifies the maximum size of a transaction log file. 达到最大日志文件大小时,将打开新的日志文件。When the maximum log file size is reached, a new log file is opened.
QueueDatabaseLoggingPathQueueDatabaseLoggingPath %ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data\Queue 指定队列数据库日志文件的默认目录。Specifies the default directory for the queue database log files. 有关如何更改队列数据库的位置的说明,请参阅更改队列数据库的位置For instructions on how to change the location of the queue database, see Change the location of the queue database.
QueueDatabaseMaxBackgroundCleanupTasksQueueDatabaseMaxBackgroundCleanupTasks 3232 指定可随时在数据库引擎线程池中排队的后台清理工作项的最大数量。Specifies the maximum number of background cleanup work items that can be queued to the database engine thread pool at any time.
QueueDatabaseOnlineDefragEnabledQueueDatabaseOnlineDefragEnabled TrueTrue 启用或禁用邮件队列数据库的计划的联机碎片整理。Enables or disables scheduled online defragmentation of the mail queue database.
默认情况下,EdgeTransport.exe.config 文件中不存在此项。By default, this key doesn't exist in the EdgeTransport.exe.config file.
QueueDatabaseOnlineDefragScheduleQueueDatabaseOnlineDefragSchedule 1:00:00或上午1:001:00:00 or 1:00 A.M. 指定一天中的哪一时间启动邮件队列数据库的联机碎片整理(24小时格式)。Specifies the time of day in 24 hour format to start the online defragmentation of the mail queue database. 若要指定值,请输入值作为时间跨度: hh: mm: ss,其中_h_ = 小时, m = 分钟, s = 秒。To specify a value, enter the value as a time span: hh:mm:ss, where h = hours, m = minutes, and s = seconds.
QueueDatabaseOnlineDefragTimeToRunQueueDatabaseOnlineDefragTimeToRun 3:00:00或3小时3:00:00 or 3 hours 指定允许联机碎片整理任务运行的时间长度。Specifies the length of time the online defragmentation task is allowed to run. 即使碎片整理任务未在指定的时间内完成,队列数据库仍处于 "一致" 状态。Even if the defragmentation task doesn't finish in the time specified, the queue database is left in a consistent state. 若要指定值,请输入值作为时间跨度: hh: mm: ss,其中_h_ = 小时, m = 分钟, s = 秒。To specify a value, enter the value as a time span: hh:mm:ss, where h = hours, m = minutes, and s = seconds.
QueueDatabasePathQueueDatabasePath %ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data\Queue 指定队列数据库文件的默认目录。Specifies the default directory for the queue database files. 有关如何更改队列数据库的位置的说明,请参阅更改队列数据库的位置For instructions on how to change the location of the queue database, see Change the location of the queue database.

队列属性Queue properties

A queue has many properties that describe the purpose and status of the queue.A queue has many properties that describe the purpose and status of the queue. Some queue properties are applied to the queue when the queue is created, and don't change.Some queue properties are applied to the queue when the queue is created, and don't change. Other properties contain status, size, time, or other indicators that are updated frequently.Other properties contain status, size, time, or other indicators that are updated frequently.

NextHopSolutionKeyNextHopSolutionKey

The routing component of the categorizer in the Microsoft Exchange Transport service selects the destination for a message, and this destination is used to create the delivery queue.The routing component of the categorizer in the Microsoft Exchange Transport service selects the destination for a message, and this destination is used to create the delivery queue. The destination is stamped on every recipient as the NextHopSolutionKey property.The destination is stamped on every recipient as the NextHopSolutionKey property. Every unique value of the NextHopSolutionKey property corresponds to a separate delivery queue.Every unique value of the NextHopSolutionKey property corresponds to a separate delivery queue.

NextHopSolutionKey 属性包含以下字段:The NextHopSolutionKey property contains the following fields:

  • DeliveryType:表示邮件分类的结果,以及传输服务打算如何将邮件传输到下一个跃点,这可能是邮件的最终目标,也可能是中间的一种跃点。DeliveryType: Represents the results of the categorization of the message, and how the Transport service intends to transmit the message to the next hop, which could be the ultimate destination of the message, or an intermediate hop along the way. 传输服务将预定义值列表用于 DeliveryTypeThe Transport service uses a predefined list of values for DeliveryType.

    基于 DeliveryType 的值,将 NextHopCategory 属性添加到队列。Based on the value of DeliveryType, the NextHopCategory property is added to the queue.

    • External 表示队列的下一个跃点在 Exchange 组织之外。The value External indicates the next hop for the queue is outside the Exchange organization.

    • Internal 表示队列的下一个跃点位于 Exchange 组织内。The value Internal indicates the next hop for the queue is inside the Exchange organization.

      请注意,外部收件人的邮件在外部传递之前可能需要一个或多个内部跃点。Note that a message for an external recipient may require one or more internal hops before the message is delivered externally.

  • NextHopDomain:根据DeliveryType字段的值使用特定值。NextHopDomain: Uses specific values based on the value of the DeliveryType field. 对于传递队列,字段的值实际上就是队列的名称。For delivery queues, the value of this field is effectively the name of the queue.

    NextHopDomain 的值并不总是一个域名。The value of NextHopDomain isn't always a domain name. 例如,值可以是目标 Active Directory 站点或数据库可用性组 (DAG) 的名称。For example, the value could be the name of the target Active Directory site or database availability group (DAG). 将此字段视为下一个跃点名称Think of this field as the next hop name.

  • NextHopConnector:根据DeliveryType字段的值使用特定值。NextHopConnector: Uses specific values based on the value of the DeliveryType field. 此值通常表述为 GUID。The value is always expressed as a GUID. 如果未使用此字段,那么其值是均为零的 GUID。If this field isn't used, the value is a GUID with all zeroes.

    NextHopConnector 的值不总是连接器的 GUID。The value of NextHopConnector isn't always the GUID of a connector. 例如,此值可能是目标 Active Directory 站点或 DAG 的 GUID。For example, the value could be the GUID of the target Active Directory site or DAG. 将此字段视为下一个跃点 GUIDThink of this field as the next hop GUID.

DeliveryTypeNextHopCategoryNextHopDomainNextHopConnector 的值都在下表中说明。The values of DeliveryType, NextHopCategory, NextHopDomain and NextHopConnector are described in the following table.

队列查看器中的传递类型Delivery Type in Queue Viewer Exchange 命令行管理程序 中的 DeliveryTypeDeliveryType in the Exchange Management Shell 说明Description NextHopCategoryNextHopCategory NextHopDomainNextHopDomain NextHopConnectorNextHopConnector
传递代理Delivery Agent DeliveryAgent 队列会保留传递到非 SMTP 地址空间(由传递代理和传递代理连接器为其提供服务)中收件人的邮件。The queue holds messages for delivery to recipients in a non-SMTP address space that's serviced by a delivery agent and a Delivery Agent connector. 该连接器具有配置为源服务器的本地邮箱服务器。The connector has the local Mailbox server configured as a source server. 有关详细信息,请参阅传递代理和传递代理连接器For more information, see Delivery Agents and Delivery Agent Connectors. 外部External 此值为在传递代理连接器上配置的目标地址空间。This value is the destination address space that's configured on the Delivery Agent connector. 例如,MOBILEFor example, MOBILE. 此值为传递代理连接器的 GUID。This value is the GUID of the Delivery Agent connector. 例如,4520e633-d83d-411a-bbe4-6a84648674eeFor example, 4520e633-d83d-411a-bbe4-6a84648674ee.
DnsConnectorDeliveryDnsConnectorDelivery DnsConnectorDelivery The queue holds messages for delivery to recipients in an SMTP domain.The queue holds messages for delivery to recipients in an SMTP domain. The Send connector that services the domain has the local transport server configured as source server, and the Send connector is configured to use DNS routing.The Send connector that services the domain has the local transport server configured as source server, and the Send connector is configured to use DNS routing. ExternalExternal 此值为在发送连接器上配置的目标地址空间。This value is the destination address space that's configured on the Send connector. 例如,contoso.comFor example, contoso.com. 此值为发送连接器的 GUID。This value is the GUID of the Send connector. 例如,4520e633-d83d-411a-bbe4-6a84648674eeFor example, 4520e633-d83d-411a-bbe4-6a84648674ee.
HeartbeatHeartbeat Heartbeat 此值保留供 Microsoft 内部使用。This value is reserved for internal Microsoft use. 有关检测信号的详细信息,请参阅Exchange Server 中的卷影冗余For more information about heartbeat, see Shadow redundancy in Exchange Server. 不适用n/a 不适用n/a 不适用n/a
MapiDeliveryMapiDelivery MapiDelivery 注意: Exchange 2013 或更高版本不使用此值。Note: This value isn't used by Exchange 2013 or later. 向后与 Exchange 2010 兼容时将其包含在内。It's included for backwards compatibility with Exchange 2010.
队列保留由 Exchange 2010 集线器传输服务器传递到本地 Active Directory 站点的 Exchange 2010 邮箱服务器上邮箱的邮件。The queue holds messages for delivery by an Exchange 2010 Hub Transport server to a mailbox on an Exchange 2010 Mailbox server in the local Active Directory site.
不适用n/a 不适用n/a 不适用n/a
NonSmtpGatewayDeliveryNonSmtpGatewayDelivery NonSmtpGatewayDelivery 队列会保留传递到非 SMTP 地址空间(由外部连接器为其提供服务)中收件人的邮件。The queue holds messages for delivery to recipients in a non-SMTP address space that's serviced by a Foreign connector. 该连接器具有配置为源服务器的本地邮箱服务器。The connector has the local Mailbox server configured as a source server. 有关详细信息,请参阅Foreign ConnectorsFor more information, see Foreign Connectors. 外部External 此值为在外部连接器上配置的目标地址空间。This value is the destination address space that's configured on the Foreign connector. 例如,FAXFor example, FAX. 此值为外部连接器的 GUID。This value is the GUID of the Foreign connector. 例如,4520e633-d83d-411a-bbe4-6a84648674eeFor example, 4520e633-d83d-411a-bbe4-6a84648674ee.
卷影冗余Shadow Redundancy ShadowRedundancy 队列会保留卷影队列中的邮件。The queue holds messages in a shadow queue. 卷影队列保留传输中邮件的冗余副本以防主邮件没有成功传递。A shadow queue holds redundant copies messages in transit in case the primary messages aren't successfully delivered. 有关详细信息,请参阅Exchange Server 中的卷影冗余For more information, see Shadow redundancy in Exchange Server. 内部Internal 此值为让卷影队列保留主邮件冗余副本的主传输服务器的 FQDN。This value is the FQDN of the primary transport server for which the shadow queue is holding redundant copies of the primary messages. 例如,mailbox01.contoso.comFor example, mailbox01.contoso.com. 此值为 00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000This value is 00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000.
SmartHostConnectorDeliverySmartHostConnectorDelivery SmartHostConnectorDelivery 队列会保留传递到 SMTP 域中收件人的邮件。The queue holds messages for delivery to recipients in an SMTP domain. 为域提供服务的发送连接器具有配置为源服务器的本地传输服务器,并且发送连接器已配置为使用智能主机路由。The Send connector that services the domain has the local transport server configured as source server, and the Send connector is configured to use smart host routing. 外部External This value is the list of smart hosts that are configured on the Send connector.This value is the list of smart hosts that are configured on the Send connector. Smart hosts can be configured as FQDNs, IP addresses or both.Smart hosts can be configured as FQDNs, IP addresses or both. The values can be one of the following:The values can be one of the following:
FQDN:语法为 <FQDN1,FQDN2,...>FQDN: The syntax is <FQDN1,FQDN2,...>. 例如, smarthost01.contoso.comsmarthost01.contoso.com,smarthost02.fabrikam.comFor example, smarthost01.contoso.com or smarthost01.contoso.com,smarthost02.fabrikam.com.
IP 地址:语法为 <[IPAddress1],[IPAddress2],...>IP address: The syntax is <[IPAddress1],[IPAddress2],...>. 例如, [10.10.10.100][10.10.10.100],[10.10.10.101]For example, [10.10.10.100] or [10.10.10.100],[10.10.10.101].
FQDN 和 IP 地址:语法为 <[IPAddress1],FQDN1,...> ,并取决于智能主机在发送连接器上的列出方式。FQDN and IP address: The syntax is <[IPAddress1],FQDN1,...>, and depends on how the smart hosts are listed on the Send connector. 例如, [172.17.17.7],relay.tailspintoys.commail.contoso.com,[192.168.1.50]For example, [172.17.17.7],relay.tailspintoys.com or mail.contoso.com,[192.168.1.50].
此值为发送连接器的 GUID。This value is the GUID of the Send connector. 例如,4520e633-d83d-411a-bbe4-6a84648674eeFor example, 4520e633-d83d-411a-bbe4-6a84648674ee.
SMTP 传递到 Ex OnlineSMTP Delivery to Ex Online SmtpDeliveryToExo 此值不在本地 Exchange 中使用。This value isn't used in on-premises Exchange. 不适用n/a 不适用n/a 不适用n/a
SMTP 传递到邮箱SMTP Delivery to Mailbox SmtpDeliveryToMailbox 队列保留传递到 Exchange 2013 或更高版本的邮箱收件人的邮件。The queue holds messages for delivery to Exchange 2013 or later mailbox recipients. 目标邮箱数据库位于下列位置之一:The destination mailbox database is in one of the following locations:
•本地 Exchange 2013 或更高版本的邮箱服务器。• The local Exchange 2013 or later Mailbox server.
•同一 Exchange 2019 DAG 中的 Exchange 2019 邮箱服务器。• An Exchange 2019 Mailbox server in the same Exchange 2019 DAG.
•同一 Exchange 2016 DAG 中的 Exchange 2016 邮箱服务器。• An Exchange 2016 Mailbox server in the same Exchange 2016 DAG.
同一个Exchange 2013 DAG 中的 Exchange 2013 邮箱服务器。An Exchange 2013 Mailbox server in the same Exchange 2013 DAG.
•非 DAG 环境中的同一 Active Directory 站点中的 Exchange 2013 或更高版本的邮箱服务器。• An Exchange 2013 or later Mailbox server in the same Active Directory site in non-DAG environments.
内部Internal 此值为目标邮箱数据库的名称。This value is the name of the destination mailbox database. 例如,Mailbox Database 0471695037For example, Mailbox Database 0471695037. 此值为目标邮箱数据库的 GUID。This value is the GUID of the target mailbox database. 例如,6dcb5a1e-0a88-4fc9-b8f9-634c34b1a123For example, 6dcb5a1e-0a88-4fc9-b8f9-634c34b1a123.
SMTP 中继到发送连接器源服务器SMTP Relay to Send Connector Source Servers SmtpRelayToConnectorSourceServers 队列保留传递到 SMTP 或非 SMTP 地址空间(由发送连接器、传递代理连接器或外部连接器提供服务)的邮件。The queue holds messages for delivery to an SMTP or non-SMTP address space that's serviced by a Send connector, Delivery Agent connector, or Foreign connector. 该连接器具有配置为源服务器的远程传输服务器。The connector has a remote transport server configured as a source server.
远程传输服务器可以是 Exchange 2013 或更高版本的邮箱服务器,也可以是 Exchange 2010 集线器传输服务器。The remote transport server could be an Exchange 2013 or later Mailbox server or an Exchange 2010 Hub Transport server.
该远程传输服务器可能位于本地 Active Directory 站点或远程 Active Directory 站点中。The remote transport server could be located in the local Active Directory site, or in a remote Active Directory site.
内部Internal 此值为目标发送连接器、传递代理连接器或外部连接器的名称。This value is the name of the destination Send connector, Delivery Agent connector, or Foreign connector. 例如,Contoso.com Send ConnectorFor example, Contoso.com Send Connector. 此值为目标发送连接器、传递代理连接器或外部连接器的 GUID。This value is the GUID of the destination Send connector, Delivery Agent connector, or Foreign connector. 例如,4520e633-d83d-411a-bbe4-6a84648674eeFor example, 4520e633-d83d-411a-bbe4-6a84648674ee.
SMTP 中继到数据库可用性组SMTP Relay to Database Availability Group SmtpRelayToDag 队列保留传递到 Exchange 2013 或更高版本邮箱收件人的邮件,其中目标邮箱数据库位于远程 DAG 中。The queue holds messages for delivery to Exchange 2013 or later mailbox recipients, where the destination mailbox database is located in a remote DAG.
该远程 DAG可能位于本地 Active Directory 站点或远程 Active Directory 站点中。The remote DAG could be located in the local Active Directory site, or in a remote Active Directory site.
内部Internal 此值为目标 DAG 的名称。This value is the name of the destination DAG. 例如,DAG1For example, DAG1. 此值为目标 DAG 的 GUID。This value is the GUID of the destination DAG. 例如,6dcb5a1e-0a88-4fc9-b8f9-634c34b1a123For example, 6dcb5a1e-0a88-4fc9-b8f9-634c34b1a123
SMTP 中继到邮箱传递组SMTP Relay to Mailbox Delivery Group SmtpRelayToMailboxDeliveryGroup 队列保留传递给旧式邮箱收件人的邮件,其中目标邮箱位于 Exchange 2010 邮箱服务器上。The queue holds messages for delivery to legacy mailbox recipients, where the destination mailbox is on an Exchange 2010 Mailbox server. 邮件与 Exchange 2010 集线器传输服务器相关联。The message is related to an Exchange 2010 Hub Transport server.
该目标 Exchange 2010 集线器传输服务器可能位于本地 Active Directory 站点或远程 Active Directory 站点中。The destination Exchange 2010 Hub Transport server could be in the local Active Directory site, or a remote Active Directory site.
内部Internal 队列名称使用语法: Site:<ADSiteName>;Version:<ExchangeVersion> ,其中 <ADSiteName> 是目标 Active Directory 站点的名称, <ExchangeVersion> 是邮箱服务器上的 Exchange 2010 的版本。The queue name uses the syntax: Site:<ADSiteName>;Version:<ExchangeVersion>, where <ADSiteName> is the name of the destination Active Directory site, and <ExchangeVersion> is the version of Exchange 2010 on the Mailbox server. 此值为空。This value is blank.
SMTP 中继到远程 Active Directory 站点SMTP Relay to Remote Active Directory Site SmtpRelayToRemoteActiveDirectorySite 队列保留传递到远程目标的邮件,路由拓扑需要通过特定 Active Directory 站点路由邮件。The queue holds messages for delivery to a remote destination, and the routing topology requires the message to be routed through a specific Active Directory site. 此站点是通往最终目标的中间跃点。The site is an intermediate hop on the way to the final destination. 在以下环境情况下会出现此情况:This situation occurs under the following circumstances:
需要通过集线器站点来路由邮件。The message needs to be routed through a hub site.
需要通过远程 Active Directory 站点订阅的边缘传输服务器上配置的发送连接器来传递邮件。The message requires delivery through a Send connector that's configured on an Edge Transport server that's subscribed to a remote Active Directory site.
内部Internal 此值是目标 Active Directory 站点的名称。This value is the target Active Directory site name. 例如,NorthAmericaSiteFor example, NorthAmericaSite. 此值是目标 Active Directory 站点的 GUID。This value is the GUID of the target Active Directory site. 例如,bfd6c3df-5b65-8bfb-53f1f2c0d55cFor example, bfd6c3df-5b65-8bfb-53f1f2c0d55c.
SMTP 中继到指定远程林SMTP Relay to specified remote forest SmtpRelayToRemoteForest 此值不在本地 Exchange 中使用This value isn't used in on-premises Exchange 不适用n/a 不适用n/a 不适用n/a
SMTP 中继到指定的 Exchange 服务器SMTP Relay to Specified Exchange Servers SmtpRelayToServers 队列会保留传递到为指定展开服务器配置的通讯组的邮件。The queue holds messages for delivery to a distribution group that's configured for a specific expansion server. 展开服务器可以是 Exchange 2013 或更高版本的邮箱服务器或 Exchange 2010 集线器传输服务器。The expansion server could be an Exchange 2013 or later Mailbox server or an Exchange 2010 Hub Transport server.
该扩展服务器可能位于本地 Active Directory 站点或远程 Active Directory 站点中。The expansion server could be located in the local Active Directory site, or in a remote Active Directory site.
内部Internal 此值为目标展开服务器的 FQDN。This value is the FQDN of the target expansion server. 例如,mailbox01.contoso.comFor example, mailbox01.contoso.com. 此值为 0000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000This value is 0000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000.
SmtpRelayToTiRgSmtpRelayToTiRg SmtpRelayToTiRg 注意: Exchange 2013 或更高版本不使用此值。Note: This value isn't used by Exchange 2013 or later. 向后与 Exchange 2010 兼容时将其包含在内。It's included for backwards compatibility with Exchange 2010.
队列保留由 Exchange 2010 集线器传输服务器传递到 Exchange 2003 路由组的邮件。The queue holds messages for delivery by an Exchange 2010 Hub Transport server to an Exchange 2003 routing group.
不适用n/a 不适用n/a 不适用n/a
Active Directory 站点中的 SMTP 中继Smtp Relay in Active Directory Site SmtpRelayWithinAdSite 注意: Exchange 2013 或更高版本不使用此值。Note: This value isn't used by Exchange 2013 or later. 向后与 Exchange 2010 兼容时将其包含在内。It's included for backwards compatibility with Exchange 2010.
队列保留由 Exchange 2010 集线器传输服务器传递到同一 Active Directory 站点中另一个集线器传输服务器的邮件。The queue holds messages for delivery by an Exchange 2010 Hub Transport server to another Hub Transport server in the same Active Directory site.
不适用n/a 不适用n/a 不适用n/a
Active Directory 站点中的 SMTP 中继到边缘传输服务器SMTP Relay in Active Directory Site to Edge Transport Server SmtpRelayWithinAdSiteToEdge 队列保留传递到外部 SMTP 域(由在边缘传输服务器上配置的发送连接器为其提供服务)的邮件。The queue holds messages for delivery to an external SMTP domain that's serviced by a Send connector that's configured on an Edge Transport server. 向本地 Active Directory 站点订阅边缘传输服务器。The Edge Transport server is subscribed to the local Active Directory site. 内部Internal 此值为将出站 Internet 邮件从边缘传输服务器发送到 Internet 的发送连接器的名称。This value is the name of the Send connector that sends outbound Internet mail from the Edge Transport server to the Internet. 此发送连接器由边缘订阅自动创建,名为 "EdgeSync- <ADSiteName> 到 Internet"。This Send connector is automatically created by the Edge subscription, and is named EdgeSync - <ADSiteName> to Internet. 此值为发送连接器的 GUID。This value is the GUID of the Send connector. 例如,4520e633-d83d-411a-bbe4-6a84648674eeFor example, 4520e633-d83d-411a-bbe4-6a84648674ee.
UndefinedUndefined Undefined 此值只用于提交队列和病毒邮件队列。This value is used only on the Submission queue and the poison message queue. 内部Internal 对于提交队列,此值为 SubmisssionFor the Submission queue, this value is Submisssion. 对于病毒邮件队列,此值为 Poison MessageFor the poison message queue, this value is Poison Message. 此值为 00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000This value is 00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000.
Unreachable Unreachable 此值只用于无法到达队列。This value is used only on the Unreachable queue. 内部Internal 此值为 Unreachable DomainThis value is Unreachable Domain. 此值为 00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000This value is 00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000.

传入率、传出率和速度IncomingRate, OutgoingRate, and Velocity

Exchange 衡量进入和离开队列的邮件的速率,并将这些值存储在队列属性中。Exchange measures the rate of messages entering and leaving a queue and stores these values in queue properties. 可以使用这些速率作为队列和传输服务器运行状况的指示器。You can use these rates as an indicator of queue and transport server health. 属性如下表所述:The properties are described in the following table:


属性Property 说明Description
IncomingRateIncomingRate The rate that messages are entering the queue.The rate that messages are entering the queue. The rate is the number of messages per second averaged over the last minute.The rate is the number of messages per second averaged over the last minute.
传出率OutgoingRate The rate that messages are leaving the queue.The rate that messages are leaving the queue. The rate is the number of messages per second averaged over the last minute.The rate is the number of messages per second averaged over the last minute.
VelocityVelocity 队列的消耗率,通过 OutgoingRate 的值减去 IncomingRate 的值计算得出。The drain rate of the queue, calculated by subtracting the value of IncomingRate from the value of OutgoingRate.
如果值大于 0,那么邮件离开队列的速度大于邮件进入队列的速度。If the value is greater than 0, messages are leaving the queue faster than they are entering the queue.
If the value equals 0, messages are leaving the queue as fast as they are entering the queue.If the value equals 0, messages are leaving the queue as fast as they are entering the queue. This is also the value you'll see when the queue is inactive.This is also the value you'll see when the queue is inactive.
如果值小于 0,那么邮件进入队列的速度大于邮件离开队列的速度。If the value is less than 0, messages are entering the queue faster than they are leaving the queue.
Velocity 值显示在 Get-Queue 的结果中。The Velocity value is displayed in the results of Get-Queue.

At a basic level, a positive value of Velocity indicates a healthy queue that's efficiently draining, and a negative value of Velocity indicates a queue that isn't efficiently draining.At a basic level, a positive value of Velocity indicates a healthy queue that's efficiently draining, and a negative value of Velocity indicates a queue that isn't efficiently draining. However, you also need to consider the values of IncomingRate, OutgoingRate, and MessageCount, as well as the magnitude of Velocity.However, you also need to consider the values of IncomingRate, OutgoingRate, and MessageCount, as well as the magnitude of Velocity.

例如,考虑一个具有以下属性值的队列。For example, consider a queue that has the following property values.

  • 速度:-50Velocity: -50

  • MessageCount:1000MessageCount: 1000

  • 传出率:10OutgoingRate: 10

  • IncomingRate:60IncomingRate: 60

基于此队列的属性值, Velocity 的负值清楚地表明该队列消耗不正常。Based on the property values for this queue, the negative value for Velocity clearly indicates that the queue isn't draining properly.

现在考虑一个具有以下属性值的队列。Now consider a queue that has the following property values.

  • 速度:-0.85Velocity: -0.85

  • MessageCount:2MessageCount: 2

  • 传出率:0.15OutgoingRate: 0.15

  • IncomingRate:1IncomingRate: 1

Although the value for Velocity is negative, it's very close to zero, and the values of the other properties are also very small.Although the value for Velocity is negative, it's very close to zero, and the values of the other properties are also very small. Therefore, a negative Velocity value for this queue doesn't indicate a problem with the queue.Therefore, a negative Velocity value for this queue doesn't indicate a problem with the queue.

队列状态Queue status

The current status of a queue is stored in the Status property of the queue.The current status of a queue is stored in the Status property of the queue. A queue can have one of the status values that's described in the following table:A queue can have one of the status values that's described in the following table:

队列状态Queue status 说明Description
活动Active 队列正在主动传输邮件。The queue is actively transmitting messages.
正在连接Connecting 队列处于连接到下一个跃点的过程中。The queue is in the process of connecting to the next hop.
就绪Ready 最近向队列传输了邮件,但是队列现在是空的。The queue recently transmitted messages, but the queue is now empty.
重试Retry 最后一次自动或手动连接尝试失败,队列正等待重试连接。The last automatic or manual connection attempt failed, and the queue is waiting to retry the connection.
已暂停Suspended The queue has been manually suspended by an administrator to prevent message delivery.The queue has been manually suspended by an administrator to prevent message delivery. New messages can enter the queue, and messages that are in the act of being transmitted to the next hop will finish delivery and leave the queue.New messages can enter the queue, and messages that are in the act of being transmitted to the next hop will finish delivery and leave the queue. Otherwise, messages won't leave the queue until the queue is manually resumed by an administrator.Otherwise, messages won't leave the queue until the queue is manually resumed by an administrator.
注意:Notes:
可以暂停以下队列:You can suspend the following queues:
处于任何状态的传递队列。Delivery queues that have any status.
The Unreachable queue.The Unreachable queue. When you suspend this queue, messages are no longer automatically resubmitted to the categorizer when configuration updates are detected.When you suspend this queue, messages are no longer automatically resubmitted to the categorizer when configuration updates are detected. To automatically resubmit these messages, you need to manually resume the queue.To automatically resubmit these messages, you need to manually resume the queue.
The Submission queue.The Submission queue. When you suspend this queue, messages aren't picked up by the categorizer until the queue is resumed.When you suspend this queue, messages aren't picked up by the categorizer until the queue is resumed.
挂起队列并不改变队列中邮件的状态。Suspending a queue doesn't change the status of the messages in the queue.

其他队列属性Other queue properties

还有一些其他一目了然的队列属性。There are other queue properties that are self-explanatory. 最常使用的作为筛选器选项的队列属性。You can use most of the queue properties as filter options. 通过指定筛选条件,可以快速找到队列并对队列执行操作。By specifying filter criteria, you can quickly locate queues and take action on them. 有关可筛选队列属性的完整说明,请参阅队列属性For a complete description of the filterable queue properties, see Queue properties.

An important queue property that's also worth mentioning here is the MessageCount property that shows how many messages are in a queue.An important queue property that's also worth mentioning here is the MessageCount property that shows how many messages are in a queue. This property is an important indicator of queue health.This property is an important indicator of queue health. For example, a delivery queue that contains a large number of messages that continues to grow and never decreases could indicate a routing or transport pipeline issue that requires your attention.For example, a delivery queue that contains a large number of messages that continues to grow and never decreases could indicate a routing or transport pipeline issue that requires your attention.

邮件属性Message properties

A message in a queue has many properties.A message in a queue has many properties. Many of the properties reflect the information that was used to create the message.Many of the properties reflect the information that was used to create the message. Some of the messages status and information properties are heavily influenced by corresponding properties on the queue.Some of the messages status and information properties are heavily influenced by corresponding properties on the queue. However, an individual message may have a different value than the corresponding property of the queue.However, an individual message may have a different value than the corresponding property of the queue. Other properties contain status, time, or other indicators that are updated frequently.Other properties contain status, time, or other indicators that are updated frequently.

邮件状态Message status

The current status of a message is stored in the Status property of the message.The current status of a message is stored in the Status property of the message. A message can have one of the status values that's described in the following table:A message can have one of the status values that's described in the following table:

邮件状态Message status 说明Description
活动Active If the message is in a delivery queue, the message is being delivered to its destination.If the message is in a delivery queue, the message is being delivered to its destination. If the message is in the Submission queue, the message is being processed by the categorizer.If the message is in the Submission queue, the message is being processed by the categorizer.
已锁定Locked 此值保留供 Microsoft 内部使用,不在本地 Exchange 组织中使用。This value is reserved for internal Microsoft use, and isn't used in on-premises Exchange organizations.
PendingRemovePendingRemove The message was deleted by the administrator, but the message was already in the act of being transmitted to the next hop.The message was deleted by the administrator, but the message was already in the act of being transmitted to the next hop. The message will be deleted if the delivery ends in an error that causes the message to reenter the queue.The message will be deleted if the delivery ends in an error that causes the message to reenter the queue. Otherwise, delivery will continue.Otherwise, delivery will continue.
PendingSuspendPendingSuspend The message was suspended by the administrator, but the message was already in the act of being transmitted to the next hop.The message was suspended by the administrator, but the message was already in the act of being transmitted to the next hop. The message will be suspended if the delivery ends in an error that causes the message to reenter the queue.The message will be suspended if the delivery ends in an error that causes the message to reenter the queue. Otherwise, delivery will continue.Otherwise, delivery will continue.
就绪Ready 邮件正在队列中等待进行处理。The message is waiting in the queue and is ready to be processed.
重试Retry The last automatic or manual connection attempt fail for the queue that holds the message.The last automatic or manual connection attempt fail for the queue that holds the message. The message is waiting for the next automatic queue connection retry.The message is waiting for the next automatic queue connection retry.
已暂停Suspended 邮件由管理员手动挂起。The message was manually suspended by an administrator.
病毒邮件队列中的任何邮件都处于永久挂起状态。Any messages in the poison message queue are in a permanently suspended state.

其他邮件属性Other message properties

还有一些其他一目了然的邮件属性。There are other message properties that are self-explanatory. 最常使用的作为筛选器选项的邮件属性。You can use most of the message properties as filter options. 通过指定筛选条件,可以迅速找到邮件并对其执行操作。By specifying filter criteria, you can quickly locate messages and take action on them. 有关可筛选邮件属性的完整说明,请参阅 "队列中的邮件的属性"。For a complete description of the filterable message properties, see Properties of messages in queues.

管理队列和队列中的邮件Manage queues and messages in queues

Exchange 命令行管理程序中的队列查看器和历史队列和邮件管理 cmdlet 限制为单个 Exchange 服务器。Queue Viewer and the historical queue and message management cmdlets in the Exchange Management Shell are restricted to a single Exchange server. 可以查看或操作单个或多个队列或邮件,但是只能在一个指定的服务器上进行。You can view or operate on individual queues or messages, or multiple queues or messages, but only on a specific server.

Get-queuedigest Cmdlet 在 Exchange 2013 中引入,以提供特定范围内所有服务器上的队列状态的高级别聚合视图。The Get-QueueDigest cmdlet was introduced in Exchange 2013 to provide a high-level, aggregate view of the state of queues on all servers within a specific scope. 该作用域可以是 DAG、Active Directory 站点、服务器列表或整个 Active Directory 林。The scope could be a DAG, an Active Directory site, a list of servers, or the entire Active Directory forest. 请注意,外围网络中已订阅的边缘传输服务器上的队列不包括在结果中。Note that queues on a subscribed Edge Transport server in the perimeter network aren't included in the results. 此外, Get-QueueDigest 在边缘传输服务器中可用,但结果仅限于边缘传输服务器上的队列。Also, Get-QueueDigest is available on Edge Transport servers, but the results are restricted to queues on the Edge Transport server.

备注

By default, the Get-QueueDigest cmdlet displays delivery queues that contain ten or more messages, and the results are between one and two minutes old.By default, the Get-QueueDigest cmdlet displays delivery queues that contain ten or more messages, and the results are between one and two minutes old. For instructions on how to change these default values, see Configure Get-QueueDigest.For instructions on how to change these default values, see Configure Get-QueueDigest.

下表说明了可以对队列或队列中的邮件执行的管理任务。The following table describes the management tasks you can perform on queues or messages in queues.

任务Task 说明Description 使用工具Tool to use 说明Instructions
在服务器上查看和筛选队列View and filter queues on a server Displays one or more queues on a transport server.Displays one or more queues on a transport server. You can use the results to take action on the queues.You can use the results to take action on the queues. 队列查看器或获取队列cmdlet。Queue Viewer or the Get-Queue cmdlet. 队列的过程Procedures for queues
查看并筛选特定 DAG 中的特定服务器上、特定 Active Directory 站点上或整个 Active Directory 林中的队列。View and filter queues on specific servers in specific DAGs, specific Active Directory sites, or in the whole Active Directory forest. 显示队列的摘要列表。Displays a summary list of queues. Get-QueueDigest cmdletGet-QueueDigest cmdlet 队列的过程Procedures for queues
挂起队列Suspend queues Temporarily prevent delivery of messages that are currently in the queue.Temporarily prevent delivery of messages that are currently in the queue. The queue continues to accept new messages, but no messages leave the queue.The queue continues to accept new messages, but no messages leave the queue. 队列查看器或挂起队列cmdlet。Queue Viewer or the Suspend-Queue cmdlet. 队列的过程Procedures for queues
恢复队列Resume queues 作用与挂起队列操作相反,恢复排队邮件的传递。Reverses the effect of the suspend queue action, and enables delivery of queued messages to resume. 队列查看器或恢复队列cmdlet。Queue Viewer or the Resume-Queue cmdlet. 队列的过程Procedures for queues
重试队列Retry queues Immediately tries to connect to the next hop.Immediately tries to connect to the next hop. Without manual intervention, when the connection to the next hop fails, the connection is attempted a specific number of times after a specific time interval between each attempt.Without manual intervention, when the connection to the next hop fails, the connection is attempted a specific number of times after a specific time interval between each attempt.
Whether the connection attempt is manual or automatic, any connection attempt resets the next retry time.Whether the connection attempt is manual or automatic, any connection attempt resets the next retry time. For more information, see Message retry, resubmit, and expiration intervals.For more information, see Message retry, resubmit, and expiration intervals.
队列查看器或重试队列cmdlet。Queue Viewer or the Retry-Queue cmdlet. 队列的过程Procedures for queues
重新提交队列中的邮件Resubmit messages in queues 导致队列中的邮件被重新提交到提交队列并通过分类过程返回。Causes messages in the queue to be resubmitted to the Submission queue and to go back through the categorization process. 使用_重新提交_参数重试队列Retry-Queue with the Resubmit parameter
请注意,您可以使用队列查看器重新提交邮件,但只能从病毒邮件队列中进行提交。Note that you can use Queue Viewer to resubmit messages, but only from the poison message queue. 若要重新提交病毒邮件,首先需要在队列查看器中或通过使用Resume message cmdlet 恢复邮件。To resubmit a poison message, you first need to resume the message in Queue Viewer, or by using the Resume-Message cmdlet.
队列的过程Procedures for queues
挂起队列中的邮件Suspend messages in queues Temporarily prevents delivery of a message.Temporarily prevents delivery of a message. You can use the suspend message action to prevent delivery of a message to all the recipients in a specific queue or to all recipients in all queues.You can use the suspend message action to prevent delivery of a message to all the recipients in a specific queue or to all recipients in all queues. 队列查看器或挂起-消息cmdlet。Queue Viewer or the Suspend-Message cmdlet. 队列中邮件的过程Procedures for messages in queues
恢复队列中的邮件Resume messages in queues Reverses the effect of the suspend message action, and enables the delivery of queued messages to resume.Reverses the effect of the suspend message action, and enables the delivery of queued messages to resume. You can resume the delivery of a message to all recipients in a specific queue, or to all recipients in all queues.You can resume the delivery of a message to all recipients in a specific queue, or to all recipients in all queues. 队列查看器或恢复消息cmdlet。Queue Viewer or the Resume-Message cmdlet. 队列中邮件的过程Procedures for messages in queues
删除队列中的邮件Remove messages from queues Permanently prevents the delivery of a message.Permanently prevents the delivery of a message. You can prevent the delivery of a message to any recipients in a specific queue, or to all recipients in all queues.You can prevent the delivery of a message to any recipients in a specific queue, or to all recipients in all queues. Optionally, you can send a non-delivery report (also known as an NDR, delivery status notification, DSN or bounce message) to the sender when the message is removed.Optionally, you can send a non-delivery report (also known as an NDR, delivery status notification, DSN or bounce message) to the sender when the message is removed. 队列查看器或删除-消息cmdlet。Queue Viewer or the Remove-Message cmdlet. 队列中邮件的过程Procedures for messages in queues
从队列导出邮件Export messages from queues Copies a message to the location that you specify.Copies a message to the location that you specify. The messages aren't deleted from the queue, but a copy of the message is saved as a file in the specified location.The messages aren't deleted from the queue, but a copy of the message is saved as a file in the specified location. This enables administrators or officials in an organization to later examine the messages.This enables administrators or officials in an organization to later examine the messages. Before you export a message, you need to temporarily suspend the message.Before you export a message, you need to temporarily suspend the message. Export-Message cmdlet。Export-Message cmdlet only. 从队列导出邮件Export messages from queues