SharePoint 2013 安装和配置概述Overview of SharePoint 2013 installation and configuration

适用于: 是2013 无2016 无2019 SharePoint OnlineAPPLIES TO: yes2013 no2016 no2019 noSharePoint Online

尽管 SharePoint 产品 服务器场的复杂性和大小各异,但是通过结合认真仔细的规划和包含经常性测试及评估的分阶段部署,将会大大降低出现意外结果的风险。本文概述所有类型的 SharePoint Server 2013 场部署。Although SharePoint products farms vary in complexity and size, a combination of careful planning and a phased deployment that includes ongoing testing and evaluation significantly reduces the risk of unexpected outcomes. This article provides an overview for all types of SharePoint Server 2013 farm deployment.

有关本文中信息的直观图表,请参阅 SharePoint Server 的技术图表主题中的 SharePoint 2013 产品部署模型。相关技术图表包括“SharePoint 2013 的拓扑SharePoint Server 2013 中的服务”。For a visual representation of the information in this article, see the SharePoint 2013 Products Deployment model in the Technical diagrams for SharePoint Server topic. Related technical diagrams include " Topologies for SharePoint 2013 and Services in SharePoint Server 2013".

概念Concepts

从逻辑上讲,SharePoint Server 2013 的灵活性和丰富功能可能会使 SharePoint Server 2013 的正确安装和配置变得很复杂。为了正确部署和支持 SharePoint Server 2013,需要对 SharePoint Server 2013 环境中的以下关键结构性元素有一些基本了解:The logical result of SharePoint Server 2013's flexibility and richness can be a high degree of complexity around installing and configuring SharePoint Server 2013 correctly. A fundamental understanding of the following key structural elements in a SharePoint Server 2013 environment is required in order to correctly deploy and support SharePoint Server 2013:

  • 服务器场:SharePoint Server 2013 的逻辑体系结构设计的顶级元素。Server farm: The top-level element of a logical architecture design for SharePoint Server 2013.

  • Web 应用程序:SharePoint Server 2013 创建和使用的 IIS 网站。Web application: An IIS Web site that is created and used by SharePoint Server 2013.

  • 内容数据库:提供存储 Web 应用程序内容。可以在网站集级别将内容分散到多个内容数据库中。Content database: Provides storage Web application content. You can separate content into multiple content databases at the site collection level.

  • 网站集:具有相同所有者并共享管理设置的网站的集合。Site collection: A set of Web sites that have the same owner and share administration settings.

  • 网站:在网站集中托管的一个或多个相关网页以及其他项(如列表、库和文档)。Site: One or more related Web pages and other items (such as lists, libraries, and documents) that are hosted inside a site collection.

除了解 SharePoint Server 2013 环境的各元素以及需要如何针对解决方案配置这些元素外,还必须考虑以下附加因素:物理体系结构、安装和配置以及部署的各个阶段。In addition to understanding the elements of a SharePoint Server 2013 environment and how they have to be configured for your solution, you must consider the following additional factors: physical architecture, installation and configuration, and the various stages of deployment.

物理体系结构Physical architecture

物理体系结构由一台或多台服务器及网络基础结构组成,使您可以实现 SharePoint Server 2013 解决方案的逻辑体系结构。通常通过两种方法来描述物理体系结构:按其大小或按其拓扑。大小可通过多种方法衡量,例如用户数或文档数,可用于将服务器场分类为小型、中型或大型。拓扑使用层或服务器组的概念来定义场服务器的逻辑安排。The physical architecture, which consists of one or more servers and the network infrastructure, enables you to implement the logical architecture for a SharePoint Server 2013 solution. The physical architecture is typically described in two ways: by its size and by its topology. Size, which can be measured in several ways, such as the number of users or the number of documents, is used to categorize a farm as small, medium, or large. Topology uses the idea of tiers or server groups to define a logical arrangement of farm servers.

大小Size

大小使用用户数和内容项目数作为基本计量方法来指示服务器场的规模是大型、中型还是大型,具体指标如下所示:Size uses the number of users and number of content items as a fundamental measure to indicate whether a server farm is small, medium, and large, as follows:

  • 小型服务器场通常由至少两台 Web 服务器和一台数据库服务器组成。其中一台 Web 服务器承载管理中心网站,另一台处理其他与服务器场相关的任务,例如向用户提供内容。A small server farm typically consists of at least two Web servers and a database server. One of the Web servers hosts the Central Administration site and the other handles additional farm-related tasks, such as serving content to users.

    为了满足所需的用户数、内容项目数和服务数,可以使用专用的应用程序服务器将小型服务器场扩展到三层。The small farm can be scaled out to three tiers using a dedicated application server in response to the number of users, the number of content items, and the number of services that are required.

  • 中型服务器场通常包含两台或更多台 Web 服务器、两台应用程序服务器和多台数据库服务器。建议您从执行上述配置开始,然后再进行扩展以适应服务器上的工作负荷。A medium server farm typically consists of two or more Web servers, two application servers, and more than one database servers. We recommend that you start with the preceding configuration and then scale out to accommodate the workload placed on the servers.

    在已知服务使用不成比例的资源数量的情形中,您可以扩展应用程序层。性能数据将指示应将哪些服务的负荷卸载到专用服务器。In scenarios where services are known to use a disproportionate amount of resources, you can scale out the application tier. Performance data will indicate which services you should consider off-loading to a dedicated server.

  • 大型服务器场可以是扩展中型服务器场以满足容量和性能要求的逻辑结果,也可以是在实现 SharePoint Server 2013 解决方案之前的设计结果。三层拓扑环境通常在所有层上都使用专用服务器。此外,这些服务器通常根据它们在服务器场中的角色进行分组。例如,可以将所有与客户端有关的服务分组到一台或两台服务器,然后可以根据需要向该组中添加服务器以进行扩展,从而满足用户对这些服务的需要。A large server farm can be the logical result of scaling out a medium farm to meet capacity and performance requirements or by design before a SharePoint Server 2013 solution is implemented. A three-tier topology environment typically uses dedicated servers on all the tiers. Additionally, these servers are often grouped according to their role in the farm. For example, all client-related services can be grouped onto one or two servers and then scaled out by adding servers to this group as needed in response to user demand for these services.

    备注

    扩展服务器场的建议做法是将具有类似性能特征的服务或数据库分组到专用服务器,然后作为一个组来扩展服务器。在大型环境中,可演变成服务器场的特定组数取决于服务器场中每项服务的特定需求。The recommendation for scaling out a farm is to group services or databases with similar performance characteristics onto dedicated servers and then scale out the servers as a group. In large environments, the specific groups that evolve for a farm depend on the specific demands for each service in a farm.

有关与小型、中型和大型服务器场相关的具体数目,请参阅 SharePoint Server 2013 中的性能规划For specific numbers related to small, medium, and large farms, see Performance planning in SharePoint Server 2013.

拓扑Topology

拓扑使用层作为模型,根据场服务器承载的组件或它们在服务器场中的角色对这些服务器进行合理安排。SharePoint Server 2013 服务器场部署在一层、两层或三层上,如下所示:Topology uses tiers as a model for logically arranging farm servers according to the components that they host or their roles in a server farm. A SharePoint Server 2013 farm is deployed on one, two, or three tiers, as follows:

  • 在单层部署中,SharePoint Server 2013 和数据库服务器安装在一台计算机上。In a single-tier deployment, SharePoint Server 2013 and the database server are installed on one computer.

  • 在双层部署中,SharePoint Server 2013 组件和数据库安装在不同的服务器上。此部署类型适用于所谓的小型服务器场。前端 Web 服务器位于第一层,数据库服务器位于第二层。在计算机行业中,第一层通常称为 Web 层。数据库服务器所在的层通常称为数据库层或数据库后端。In a two-tier deployment, SharePoint Server 2013 components and the database are installed on separate servers. This kind of deployment maps to what is called a small farm. The front-end Web servers are on the first tier and the database server is located on the second tier. In the computer industry, the first tier is known as the Web tier. The database server is known as the database tier or database back-end.

  • 在三层部署中,前端 Web 服务器位于第一层,应用程序服务器位于第二层,这一层通常称为应用程序层,数据库服务器位于第三层。三层部署用于大中型服务器场。In a three-tier deployment, the front-end Web servers are on the first tier, the application servers are on the second tier, which is known as the application tier, and the database server is located on the third tier. A three-tier deployment is used for medium and large farms.

安装和配置Installation and configuration

完成解决方案的规划后,您可以创建一个 SharePoint Server 2013 服务器场来承载该解决方案。第一步是安装 SharePoint Server 2013 并创建解决方案所需的服务器场。准备环境的过程包含以下阶段:After you finish planning your solution you can create a SharePoint Server 2013 farm to host the solution. The first step is to install SharePoint Server 2013 and create the farm that is required for the solution. The process of preparing your environment consists of the following phases:

  1. 准备服务器Prepare the servers

  2. 创建服务器场Create the farm

  3. 配置设置、服务、解决方案和网站Configure settings, services, solutions, and sites

备注

[!注意] 在经历"SharePoint Server 2013 产品部署"模型中所示的不同部署阶段时,创建和部署的服务器场的大小、拓扑和复杂性将会发生重大变化。这是分阶段部署的典型和预期结果。这也是我们建议您执行本文的"部署阶段"一节中描述的所有阶段的原因。The farm that you create and deploy will undergo significant changes in size, topology, and complexity as you move through the different deployment stages illustrated in the SharePoint Server 2013 Products Deployment model. This is typical and the expected result of a phased deployment. This is why we recommend that you follow all of the stages described in the "Deployment stages" section of this article.

准备服务器Prepare the servers

在这一阶段,您将准备好服务器以承载产品。这包括支持服务器和将安装 SharePoint Server 2013 的服务器。必须配置以下服务器来支持和承载服务器场:In this phase, you get your servers ready to host the product. This includes the supporting servers and the servers that will have SharePoint Server 2013 installed. The following servers must be configured to support and host a farm:

  • 数据库服务器:数据库服务器上必须安装所需的 SQL Server 版本,包括 Service Pack 和累积更新。安装的版本必须包含任何附加功能,例如 SQL Analysis Services,并且必须添加和配置适当的 SharePoint Server 2013 登录名。数据库服务器必须经过强化,并且如果需要,DBA 还必须创建数据库。有关详细信息,请参阅:Database server: The required version of SQL Server, including service packs and cumulative updates must be installed on the database server. The installation must include any additional features, such as SQL Analysis Services, and the appropriate SharePoint Server 2013 logins have to be added and configured. The database server must be hardened and, if it is required, databases must be created by the DBA. For more information, see:

  • 应用程序服务器和前端 Web 服务器:必须按如下所述准备将要安装 SharePoint Server 2013 的场服务器:确保它们满足硬件要求,操作系统经过强化,配置了所需的网络和安全协议,安装并强化了 SharePoint Server 2013 必备软件,并且配置了所需的身份验证。有关详细信息,请参阅:Application servers and front-end Web servers: The farm servers that will have SharePoint Server 2013 installed must be prepared as follows: verify that they meet the hardware requirements, have the operating system hardened, have the required networking and security protocols configured, have the SharePoint Server 2013 software prerequisites installed and hardened, and have the required authentication configured. For more information, see:

  • 域控制器:必须为域配置所需的服务器场帐户,并且必须配置目录同步。Domain controller: The required farm accounts have to be configured for the domain and directory synchronization must be configured.

    重要

    [!重要说明] SharePoint Server 2013 不支持安装到生产环境中的域控制器上。此外,在开发人员环境、测试环境或演示环境中使用沙盒服务时,SharePoint Server 2013 不支持安装到域控制器。 > 此外,不支持单标签域 (SLD) 名称或单标签林。由于不建议使用 SLD 名称,并没有在该方案中对 SharePoint Server 2013 进行测试。因此,在单标签域环境中实现 SharePoint Server 2013 时,可能会出现不兼容问题。有关详细信息,请参阅关于如何为使用单标签 DNS 名称的域配置 Windows 的信息以及 DNS 命名空间规划解决方案中心SharePoint Server 2013 does not support installation on to a domain controller in a production environment. Additionally, SharePoint Server 2013 does not support installation on to a domain controller when using the sandbox service in developer, test, or demo environments. > A single label domain (SLD) names or single label forests is also not supported. Because the use of SLD names is not a recommended practice, SharePoint Server 2013 is not tested in this scenario. Therefore, there may be incompatibility issues when SharePoint Server 2013 are implemented in a single label domain environment. For more information, see Information about configuring Windows for domains with single-label DNS names and the DNS Namespace Planning Solution Center.

    有关所需帐户的信息,请参阅:For information about required accounts, see:

创建服务器场Create the farm

在这一阶段,您应安装产品并配置每台服务器以支持其在服务器场中的角色。还要创建配置数据库和 SharePoint 管理中心网站。以下服务器是 SharePoint Server 2013 服务器场所必需的:In this phase, you install the product and configure each server to support its role in the farm. You also create the configuration database and the SharePoint Central Administration Web site. The following servers are required for a SharePoint Server 2013 farm:

  • 数据库服务器:除非计划使用 DBA 创建的数据库,否则在运行 SharePoint 产品配置向导时将会创建配置数据库、内容数据库和其他必需的数据库。Database server: Unless you plan to use DBA-created databases, the configuration database, content database, and other required databases are created when you run the SharePoint Products Configuration Wizard.

  • 应用程序服务器:准备好应用程序服务器后,应安装支持信息权限管理 (IRM) 和决策等功能所需的任何附加组件。在将要承载 SharePoint 管理中心网站的服务器上安装 SharePoint Server 2013,然后运行 SharePoint 产品配置向导以创建和配置服务器场。Application server: After you prepare the application server, install any additional components that are required to support functions such as Information Rights Management (IRM) and decision support. Install SharePoint Server 2013 on the server that will host SharePoint Central Administration Web site and then run the SharePoint Products Configuration Wizard to create and configure the farm.

  • 前端 Web 服务器:在每台 Web 服务器上安装 SharePoint Server 2013,安装语言包,然后运行 SharePoint 产品配置向导将 Web 服务器添加到服务器场。Front-end Web server: Install SharePoint Server 2013 on each Web server, install language packs, and then run the SharePoint Products Configuration Wizard to add the Web servers to the farm.

    备注

    添加并配置所有前端 Web 服务器后,可以向服务器场中添加属于拓扑设计一部分的任何其他应用程序服务器。After you add and configure all the front-end Web servers, you can add any additional application servers that are part of your topology design to the farm.

配置设置、服务、解决方案和网站Configure settings, services, solutions, and sites

在这一阶段,需要完成以下任务以准备服务器场来承载网站内容:In this phase, you prepare the farm to host your site content by completing the following tasks:

备注

服务器场配置步骤并不是在服务器基础结构内的某个特定层中完成的。Farm configuration steps are not isolated to a specific tier in the server infrastructure.

部署阶段Deployment stages

通过分阶段部署 SharePoint Server 2013 解决方案,您可以获得系统性方法提供的好处,例如,收集可用于评估解决方案的性能和使用情况数据。其他好处包括验证您的容量管理假设以及在将服务器场投入生产之前发现问题。By deploying a SharePoint Server 2013 solution in stages, you gain the benefits that are provided by a systematic approach, such as collecting performance and usage data that you can use to evaluate your solution. Additional benefits include verifying your capacity management assumptions and identifying issues before the farm is put into production.

建议您分以下阶段部署服务器场:We recommend that you deploy your farm in the following stages:

  • 计划Planning

  • 开发Development

  • 概念证明Proof of concept

  • 试点Pilot

  • 用户验收测试User acceptance test

  • 生产Production

规划Planning

在部署服务器场之前,您必须规划要部署的解决方案,并确定基础结构要求,例如服务器资源和场拓扑。规划阶段完成后,您应该:Before you can deploy a farm, you must plan the solution that you want to deploy and determine the infrastructure requirements, such as server resources and farm topology. When you finish the planning stage, you should have documented the following:

  • 拥有用于支持您的解决方案的基础结构设计An infrastructure design to support your solution

  • 拥有介绍如何实现服务器场和解决方案的详细说明A detailed description of how you will implement the farm and the solution

  • 拥有解决方案的测试和验证规划A plan for testing and validating the solution

  • 拥有网站和解决方案体系结构A site and solution architecture

  • 了解监控和持续工程要求以支持解决方案An understanding of the monitoring and sustained engineering requirements to support the solution

  • 拥有解决方案控制方式的记录A record of how the solution will be governed

  • 了解如何通知用户有关解决方案的消息,以推广解决方案的采用An understanding of how the solution will be messaged to the user to drive adoption of the solution

建议您使用SharePoint Server 2016 的规划中介绍的规划资源和文章。We recommend that you use the planning resources and articles described in Plan for SharePoint Server.

重要

[!重要说明] 资源和时间问题可能迫使您无法在规划阶段做到一丝不漏。但我们建议您在这方面尽量多下功夫,因为任何被疏忽或不常接触的规划元素在您进入生产阶段后都有可能再度浮出水面,演变成大问题。这些问题可能导致需要执行大量额外的工作、占用预算外的资源,并可能导致 SharePoint Server 2013 部署失败。Resource and time issues may pressure you to be less rigorous during the planning stage. We recommend that you try to be as diligent as possible because missed or lightly touched planning elements can resurface as significant issues after you are in production. These issues can create much additional work, consume unbudgeted resources, and potentially take away from the success of your SharePoint Server 2013.

规划阶段完成后,您将进入以下部署阶段,以更新和修订计划、配置以及所测试的拓扑。After the planning stage, you move through the following deployment stages, updating and revising your plans, configurations, and topologies as you test.

开发Development

在部署阶段,您将会在单台或多台服务器上部署 SharePoint Server 2013,以开发、测试、评估和优化将要实现的解决方案。该环境可根据您在解决方案开发过程中的需要进行伸缩,并且可以作为缩减环境进行保留以用于将来的开发和测试。这不是一个稳定的环境,并且没有服务级别协议。During the development stage you will deploy SharePoint Server 2013 on a single server or on multiple servers to develop, test, evaluate, and refine the solution that you intend to implement. This environment is scaled according to your needs during solution development and can be retained as a scaled down environment for future development and testing. This is not a stable environment and there are no service-level agreements.

概念证明Proof of concept

在概念证明阶段,目标有双重意义:了解 SharePoint Server 2013 并评估 SharePoint Server 2013 能在多大程度上满足您的业务需求。通过在单台服务器上安装所有产品组件可完成第一级产品评估。通过概念证明部署可进行更大范围的产品评估。During the proof of concept stage, the objective is two-fold: to understand SharePoint Server 2013 and to evaluate SharePoint Server 2013 in the context of how it can address your business needs. The first level of product evaluation can be done by installing all of the product components on a single server. You do a more extensive product evaluation by a proof-of-concept deployment.

通过在单台服务器或小型服务器场上进行概念证明部署,可以扩大评估的范围。在此部署中,非 IT 人员会加入到评估团队,从而可从更广泛的角度了解 SharePoint Server 2013 功能在组织中的实际使用情况。概念证明部署的优势在于,您可以收集数据以优化原来的计划。利用此类数据(如页面视图、用户行为模式和服务器资源消耗),您还可以着手构建用于调整服务器场大小的基准。在评估服务应用程序和确定要为最终用户提供的功能集时,概念证明也非常有用。A proof-of-concept deployment on a single server or on a small farm enables you to expand the scope of your evaluation. In this deployment, non-IT staff is added to the evaluation team, which provides a broader view of how SharePoint Server 2013 features might be actually be used in the organization. The benefit of a proof-of-concept deployment is that you can collect data that can be used to refine your original plan. This data—such as page views, user behavior patterns, and server resource consumption—also enables you to start to build a benchmark for sizing your farm. A proof of concept is also good when you evaluate service applications and determining what feature sets that you will offer your end users.

需要注意的是,在概念证明阶段,您应了解这些功能的独特特征和作用,因为这有助于您定义整个拓扑。请注意,概念证明部署需要更多资源,并且在将 SharePoint Server 2013 部署到生产环境中时需要花费更长时间。It is important during the proof-of-concept stage that you understand the unique characteristics and functionality of these features because this understanding will help you define your overall topology. Be aware that a proof-of-concept deployment requires additional resources and extends the time required to put SharePoint Server 2013 into production.

提示

[!提示] 虚拟化为评估 SharePoint Server 2013 提供了一个绝佳平台,因为虚拟化环境可提供灵活性、快速部署功能以及将虚拟机回滚到之前状态的能力。Virtualization provides a good platform for evaluating SharePoint Server 2013 because a virtual environment provides flexibility, rapid deployment capability, and the ability to roll back virtual machines to previous states.

试点Pilot

试验部署可用于小规模测试您的解决方案。可通过两种方法使用试验部署。第一种方法着重于功能测试而不使用实际数据。第二种方法通过使用实际数据来测试生产特征,并且可以让您的试验用户测试不同类型的任务。建议使用第二种方法,因为它具有更广泛的范围,并且使用您可以收集并用于优化解决方案设计的实际数据。A pilot is used to test your solution on a small scale. There are two approaches to using a pilot deployment. In the first approach, the focus is on functional testing without using real data. By using the second approach you test for production characteristics by using real data and have your pilot users test different kinds of tasks. We recommend the second approach because of the broader scope and real-world data that you can collect and use to refine your solution design.

试验部署可提供许多好处。它使您能够收集用于验证服务器场设计的以下方面的数据:A pilot deployment provides many benefits. It enables you to collect data that you can use to validate the following aspects of your farm design:

  • 基础结构设计Infrastructure design

  • 容量管理假设Capacity management assumptions

  • 网站和解决方案体系结构Site and solution architecture

  • 解决方案使用情况假设。Solution usage assumptions

试验阶段还使您能够确定为了增加基准检验的宽度和深度而应收集的额外数据。如果您希望在用户验收测试之前,评估要添加到服务器场中的附加功能或服务的潜在影响,则这一点非常重要。The pilot stage also enables you to determine additional data that should be collected to increase the breadth and depth of your benchmarks. This is important if you want to assess the potential effect of additional features or services that you want to add to the farm before the user acceptance test.

试验部署结束时,可使用所收集的数据来调整解决方案及其支持基础结构的各个组成部分。At the conclusion of the pilot deployment, you can use the data that you collect to adjust the various components of the solution and its supporting infrastructure.

用户验收测试 (UAT)User acceptance test (UAT)

用户验收测试部署(也称为生产前环境)由组织用作从试验部署到生产部署的过渡步骤。组织的业务流程将确定用户验收测试的范围、规模和持续时间。A user acceptance test deployment—also known as a pre-production environment—is used by organizations as a transitional step from the pilot deployment to a production deployment. An organization's business processes determine the scope, scale, and duration of user accept testing.

生产前环境的拓扑应该与规划的生产拓扑相同或非常类似。在用户验收测试过程中,将根据部分或完整的生产数据对 SharePoint Server 2013 解决方案进行测试。该部署阶段可提供最后一次性能调整和验证操作过程(如备份和还原)的机会。The topology of the pre-production environment should be the same as, or very similar to the planned production topology. During user acceptance testing, the SharePoint Server 2013 solution is tested against a subset or a complete copy of production data. This deployment stage provides a final opportunity for performance tuning and validating operational procedures such as backups and restores.

生产Production

最后一个阶段是将服务器场部署到生产环境中。在这一阶段,您将并入在用户验收测试阶段确定的必需的解决方案和基础结构调整。The final stage is rolling your farm into a production environment. At this stage, you will have incorporated the necessary solution and infrastructure adjustments that were identified during the user acceptance test stage.

将服务器场投入生产需要您完成以下任务:Putting the farm into production requires you to complete the following tasks:

  • 部署服务器场。Deploy the farm.

  • 部署解决方案。Deploy the solution.

  • 实现操作计划。Implement the operations plan.

  • 如果需要,部署其他环境,例如创作和暂存服务器场及服务服务器场。If required, deploy additional environments such as authoring and staging farms, and services farms.