部署 Azure Stack HCI 操作系统Deploy the Azure Stack HCI operating system

适用于:Azure Stack HCI 版本 20H2Applies to: Azure Stack HCI, version 20H2

部署 Azure Stack HCI 的第一步是在要加入群集的每个服务器上下载 Azure Stack HCI 并安装该操作系统。The first step in deploying Azure Stack HCI is to download Azure Stack HCI and install the operating system on each server that you want to cluster. 本文介绍了部署该操作系统的各种方法,以及如何使用 Windows Admin Center 来连接到服务器。This article discusses different ways to deploy the operating system, and using Windows Admin Center to connect to the servers.

备注

如果已从 Azure Stack HCI 目录通过你喜欢的 Microsoft 硬件合作伙伴购买 Azure Stack HCI 集成系统解决方案硬件,则 Azure Stack HCI 操作系统应已预安装。If you've purchased Azure Stack HCI Integrated System solution hardware from the Azure Stack HCI Catalog through your preferred Microsoft hardware partner, the Azure Stack HCI operating system should be pre-installed. 在这种情况下,可以跳过此步骤,并继续创建 Azure Stack HCI 群集In that case, you can skip this step and move on to Create an Azure Stack HCI cluster.

先决条件Prerequisites

在部署 Azure Stack HCI 操作系统之前,需要:Before you deploy the Azure Stack HCI operating system, you'll need to:

  • 确定硬件是否符合 Azure Stack HCI 群集的要求Determine whether your hardware meets the requirements for Azure Stack HCI clusters
  • 收集成功部署所需的信息Gather the required information for a successful deployment
  • 在管理 PC 或服务器上安装 Windows Admin Center·Install Windows Admin Center on a management PC or server

关于 Azure Stack HCI 上 Azure Kubernetes 服务的要求,请参阅 Azure Stack HCI 上的 AKS 要求For Azure Kubernetes Service on Azure Stack HCI requirements, see AKS requirements on Azure Stack HCI.

确定硬件要求Determine hardware requirements

Microsoft 建议从我们的合作伙伴购买经验证的 Azure Stack HCI 硬件/软件解决方案。Microsoft recommends purchasing a validated Azure Stack HCI hardware/software solution from our partners. 这些解决方案是依据我们的参考体系结构设计和汇编的,并且经过了验证,能够确保兼容性和可靠性,因此你可以快速起步和运行。These solutions are designed, assembled, and validated against our reference architecture to ensure compatibility and reliability, so you get up and running quickly. 检查所用的系统、组件、设备和驱动程序是否是通过 Windows Server 目录认证的 Windows Server 2019。Check that the systems, components, devices, and drivers you are using are Windows Server 2019 Certified per the Windows Server Catalog. 请访问 Azure Stack HCI 解决方案网站获取经验证的解决方案。Visit the Azure Stack HCI solutions website for validated solutions.

至少需要两台服务器、服务器之间可靠的高带宽、低延迟的网络连接,以及物理连接到每个服务器的 SATA、SAS、NVMe 或持久化内存驱动器。At minimum, you will need two servers, a reliable high-bandwidth, low-latency network connection between servers, and SATA, SAS, NVMe, or persistent memory drives that are physically attached to just one server each.

但是,硬件要求可能会因要部署的群集的大小和配置而异。However, your hardware requirements may vary depending on the size and configuration of the cluster(s) you wish to deploy. 若要确保部署成功,请查看 Azure Stack HCI 系统要求To make sure your deployment is successful, review the Azure Stack HCI system requirements.

收集信息Gather information

若要为部署做准备,请收集有关你的环境的以下详细信息:To prepare for deployment, gather the following details about your environment:

  • 服务器名称: 熟悉你的组织的计算机、文件、路径和其他资源的命名策略。Server names: Get familiar with your organization's naming policies for computers, files, paths, and other resources. 你需要预配多台服务器,每台都有唯一的名称。You'll need to provision several servers, each with unique names.
  • 域名: 熟悉你的组织用于域命名和域加入的策略。Domain name: Get familiar with your organization's policies for domain naming and domain joining. 你需要将服务器加入域,且需指定域名。You'll be joining the servers to your domain, and you'll need to specify the domain name.
  • 静态 IP 地址: Azure Stack HCI 要求为存储和工作负荷 (VM) 流量使用静态 IP 地址,不支持通过 DHCP 为此高速网络分配动态 IP 地址。Static IP addresses: Azure Stack HCI requires static IP addresses for storage and workload (VM) traffic and doesn't support dynamic IP address assignment through DHCP for this high-speed network. 你可以为管理网络适配器使用 DHCP,除非你在一个团队中使用两个适配器,在这种情况下,你仍需使用静态 IP。You can use DHCP for the management network adapter unless you're using two in a team, in which case again you need to use static IPs. 有关群集中每台服务器应该使用的 IP 地址,请询问网络管理员。Consult your network administrator about the IP address you should use for each server in the cluster.
  • RDMA 网络: 有两种 RDMA 协议:iWarp 和 RoCE。RDMA networking: There are two types of RDMA protocols: iWarp and RoCE. 请记下你的网络适配器使用哪一种。如果是 RoCE,还请记下版本(v1 或 v2)。Note which one your network adapters use, and if RoCE, also note the version (v1 or v2). 对于 RoCE,还请记下架顶式交换机的型号。For RoCE, also note the model of your top-of-rack switch.
  • VLAN ID: 请记下用于服务器上的网络适配器的 VLAN ID(如果有)。VLAN ID: Note the VLAN ID to be used for the network adapters on the servers, if any. 应该能够从网络管理员处获取此信息。You should be able to obtain this from your network administrator.
  • 站点名称: 对于延伸群集,将使用两个站点以便进行灾难恢复。Site names: For stretched clusters, two sites are used for disaster recovery. 可以使用 Active Directory 域服务设置站点,也可以让创建群集向导自动为你设置站点。You can set up sites using Active Directory Domain Services, or the Create cluster wizard can automatically set them up for you. 有关站点设置的问题,可以咨询域管理员。Consult your domain administrator about setting up sites.

安装 Windows Admin CenterInstall Windows Admin Center

Windows Admin Center 是一个本地部署的基于浏览器的应用,用于管理 Azure Stack HCI。Windows Admin Center is a locally deployed, browser-based app for managing Azure Stack HCI. 若要安装 Windows Admin Center,最简单的方法是在本地管理 PC 上安装(桌面模式),但也可以在服务器上安装(服务模式)。The simplest way to install Windows Admin Center is on a local management PC (desktop mode), although you can also install it on a server (service mode).

如果在服务器上安装 Windows Admin Center,则那些需要 CredSSP 的任务(例如创建群集以及安装更新和扩展)使用的帐户必须是 Windows Admin Center 服务器上的“网关管理员”组的成员。If you install Windows Admin Center on a server, tasks that require CredSSP, such as cluster creation and installing updates and extensions, require using an account that's a member of the Gateway Administrators group on the Windows Admin Center server. 有关详细信息,请参阅配置用户访问控制和权限的前两个部分。For more information, see the first two sections of Configure User Access Control and Permissions.

准备好硬件用于部署Prepare hardware for deployment

为 Azure Stack HCI 解决方案获取服务器硬件后,就可以将其连接到机架并为其布线了。After you've acquired the server hardware for your Azure Stack HCI solution, it's time to rack and cable it. 请使用以下步骤为操作系统的部署准备服务器硬件。Use the following steps to prepare the server hardware for deployment of the operating system.

  1. 将你想要在服务器群集中使用的所有服务器节点放到机架中。Rack all server nodes that you want to use in your server cluster.
  2. 将服务器节点连接到网络交换机。Connect the server nodes to your network switches.
  3. 根据 Azure Stack HCI 硬件供应商的建议配置服务器的 BIOS 或统一可扩展固件接口 (UEFI),以最大程度地提高性能和可靠性。Configure the BIOS or the Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) of your servers as recommended by your Azure Stack HCI hardware vendor to maximize performance and reliability.

操作系统部署选项Operating system deployment options

你可以使用与部署其他 Microsoft 操作系统相同的方式来部署 Azure Stack HCI 操作系统:You can deploy the Azure Stack HCI operating system in the same ways that you're used to deploying other Microsoft operating systems:

  • 服务器制造商预安装。Server manufacturer pre-installation.
  • 使用应答文件进行无外设部署。Headless deployment using an answer file.
  • System Center Virtual Machine Manager (VMM)。System Center Virtual Machine Manager (VMM).
  • 网络部署。Network deployment.
  • 手动部署,方法是将键盘和监视器直接连接到数据中心的服务器硬件,或将 KVM 硬件设备连接到服务器硬件。Manual deployment by connecting either a keyboard and monitor directly to the server hardware in your datacenter, or by connecting a KVM hardware device to the server hardware.

服务器制造商预安装Server manufacturer pre-installation

对于 Azure Stack HCI 操作系统的企业部署,建议使用首选硬件合作伙伴提供的 Azure Stack HCI 集成系统解决方案硬件。For enterprise deployment of the Azure Stack HCI operating system, we recommend Azure Stack HCI Integrated System solution hardware from your preferred hardware partner. 该解决方案硬件预先安装了操作系统,并支持使用 Windows Admin Center 来部署和更新硬件制造商提供的驱动程序和固件。The solution hardware arrives with the operating system preinstalled, and supports using Windows Admin Center to deploy and update drivers and firmware from the hardware manufacturer.

解决方案硬件范围为2到16个节点,由 Microsoft 和合作伙伴供应商进行测试和验证。Solution hardware ranges from 2 to 16 nodes and is tested and validated by Microsoft and partner vendors. 若要查找首选硬件合作伙伴提供的 Azure Stack HCI 解决方案硬件,请参阅 Azure Stack HCI 目录To find Azure Stack HCI solution hardware from your preferred hardware partner, see the Azure Stack HCI Catalog.

无外设部署Headless deployment

你可以使用应答文件来执行操作系统的无外设部署。You can use an answer file to do a headless deployment of the operating system. 应答文件使用 XML 格式来定义在操作系统的无人参与安装过程中使用的配置设置和值。The answer file uses an XML format to define configuration settings and values during an unattended installation of the operating system.

对于此部署选项,你可以使用 Windows 系统映像管理器创建一个 unattend.xml 应答文件,以便在服务器上部署操作系统。For this deployment option, you can use Windows System Image Manager to create an unattend.xml answer file to deploy the operating system on your servers. Windows 系统映像管理器使用包含组件部分的图形工具创建无人参与应答文件,以定义配置问题的“答案”并确保文件中的格式和语法正确。Windows System Image Manager creates your unattend answer file through a graphical tool with component sections to define the "answers" to the configuration questions, and then ensure the correct format and syntax in the file. Windows 系统映像管理器工具在 Windows 评估和部署工具包 (Windows ADK) 中提供。The Windows System Image Manager tool is available in the Windows Assessment and Deployment Kit (Windows ADK). 开始操作:下载并安装 Windows ADKTo get started: Download and install the Windows ADK.

System Center Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) 部署System Center Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) deployment

可以使用 System Center Virtual Machine Manager 在裸机硬件上部署 Azure Stack HCI 操作系统,并将服务器加入群集。You can use System Center Virtual Machine Manager to deploy the Azure Stack HCI operating system on bare-metal hardware, as well as to cluster the servers. 若要了解 VMM,请参阅 System Center Virtual Machine Manager 的系统要求To learn about VMM, see System requirements for System Center Virtual Machine Manager.

若要详细了解如何使用 VMM 来执行操作系统裸机部署,请参阅从裸机计算机预配 Hyper-V 主机或群集For more information about using VMM to do a bare-metal deployment of the operating system, see Provision a Hyper-V host or cluster from bare metal computers.

网络部署Network deployment

另一种方法是使用 Windows 部署服务通过网络安装 Azure Stack HCI 操作系统。Another option is to install the Azure Stack HCI operating system over the network using Windows Deployment Services.

手动部署Manual deployment

若要在要加入群集的每台服务器的系统驱动器上手动部署 Azure Stack HCI 操作系统,请通过你的首选方法(如从 DVD 或 USB 驱动器启动)安装操作系统。To manually deploy the Azure Stack HCI operating system on the system drive of each server to be clustered, install the operating system via your preferred method, such as booting from a DVD or USB drive. 使用服务器配置工具 (Sconfig) 完成安装过程,以准备用于创建群集的服务器。Complete the installation process using the Server Configuration tool (Sconfig) to prepare the servers for clustering. 若要详细了解该工具,请参阅使用 Sconfig 配置服务器核心安装To learn more about the tool, see Configure a Server Core installation with Sconfig.

若要手动安装 Azure Stack HCI 操作系统,请执行以下操作:To manually install the Azure Stack HCI operating system:

  1. 在要安装操作系统的服务器的系统驱动器上,启动“安装 Azure Stack HCI”向导。Start the Install Azure Stack HCI wizard on the system drive of the server where you want to install the operating system.

  2. 选择要安装的语言或接受默认的语言设置,选择“下一步”,然后在向导的下一页上选择“立即安装”。Choose the language to install or accept the default language settings, select Next, and then on next page of the wizard, select Install now.

    “安装 Azure Stack HCI”向导的语言页。

  3. 在“适用的声明和许可条款”页上查看许可条款,选中“我接受许可条款”复选框,然后选择“下一步”。On the Applicable notices and license terms page, review the license terms, select the I accept the license terms checkbox, and then select Next.

  4. 在“你想执行哪种类型的安装?”页面上,选择“自定义:仅安装较新版本的 Azure Stack HCI (高级)”。On the Which type of installation do you want? page, select Custom: Install the newer version of Azure Stack HCI only (advanced).

    备注

    此版本的操作系统不支持升级安装。Upgrade installations are not supported in this release of the operating system.

    “安装 Azure Stack HCI”向导的安装类型选项页。

  5. 在“你想将 Azure Stack HCI 安装在哪里?”页面上,确认你想要安装操作系统的驱动器位置或更新该位置,然后选择“下一步”。On the Where do you want to install Azure Stack HCI? page, either confirm the drive location where you want to install the operating system or update it, and then select Next.

    “安装 Azure Stack HCI”向导的驱动器位置页。

  6. 此时会出现“正在安装 Azure Stack HCI”页,以显示过程状态。The Installing Azure Stack HCI page displays to show status on the process.

    “安装 Azure Stack HCI”向导的状态页。

    备注

    安装过程会两次重启操作系统来完成该过程,并在打开管理员命令提示之前显示有关启动服务的通知。The installation process restarts the operating system twice to complete the process, and displays notices on starting services before opening an Administrator command prompt.

  7. 在管理员命令提示符下,选择 "确定" 以在登录到操作系统之前更改用户的密码,然后按 enter。At the Administrator command prompt, select Ok to change the user’s password before signing in to the operating system, and press Enter.

    更改密码提示。

  8. 在“为管理员输入新凭据”提示下输入一个新密码,再次输入该密码进行确认,然后按 Enter。At the Enter new credential for Administrator prompt, enter a new password, enter it again to confirm it, and then press Enter.

  9. 在“你的密码已更改”确认提示下,按 Enter。At the Your password has been changed confirmation prompt, press Enter.

    “已更改密码”确认提示

现在,你可以使用服务器配置工具 (Sconfig) 来执行重要任务了。Now you're ready to use the Server Configuration tool (Sconfig) to perform important tasks. 若要使用 Sconfig,请登录到运行 Azure Stack HCI 操作系统的服务器。To use Sconfig, log on to the server running the Azure Stack HCI operating system. 这可以通过键盘和监视器在本地进行,也可以使用远程管理(无外设或 BMC)控制器或远程桌面来进行。This could be locally via a keyboard and monitor, or using a remote management (headless or BMC) controller, or Remote Desktop. 当你登录到服务器时,Sconfig 工具会自动打开。The Sconfig tool opens automatically when you log on to the server.

服务器配置工具界面。

在 Sconfig 工具的主页中,你可以执行以下初始配置任务:From the main page of the Sconfig tool, you can perform the following initial configuration tasks:

  • 配置网络,或确认已使用动态主机配置协议 (DHCP) 自动配置了网络。Configure networking or confirm that the network was configured automatically using Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).
  • 如果默认的自动生成的服务器名称不能满足你的需要,请重命名服务器。Rename the server if the default automatically generated server name does not suit you.
  • 将服务器加入到 Active Directory 域。Join the server to an Active Directory domain.
  • 将你的域用户帐户或指定的域组添加到本地管理员组。Add your domain user account or designated domain group to local administrators.
  • 如果计划从本地子网外部管理服务器并决定目前不加入域,请启用对 Windows 远程管理 (WinRM) 的访问权限。Enable access to Windows Remote Management (WinRM) if you plan to manage the server from outside the local subnet and decided not to join domain yet. (默认防火墙规则同时允许从本地子网和 Active Directory 域服务中的任何子网进行管理。)(The default Firewall rules allow management both from local subnet and from any subnet within your Active Directory domain services.)

在每台服务器上使用 Sconfig 根据需要配置操作系统后,可以使用 Windows Admin Center 中的“群集创建”向导将服务器加入群集。After configuring the operating system as needed with Sconfig on each server, you're ready to use the Cluster Creation wizard in Windows Admin Center to cluster the servers.

后续步骤Next steps

若要执行与本文相关的下一个管理任务,请参阅:To perform the next management task related to this article, see: