您现在访问的是微软AZURE全球版技术文档网站,若需要访问由世纪互联运营的MICROSOFT AZURE中国区技术文档网站,请访问 https://docs.azure.cn.

Azure 中的区域和可用性区域Regions and Availability Zones in Azure

Microsoft Azure 服务可在全球范围内实现云操作的最佳水平。Microsoft Azure services are available globally to drive your cloud operations at an optimal level. 你可以根据技术和监管注意事项选择最适合你的需求区域:服务功能、数据常驻、合规性要求和延迟。You can choose the best region for your needs based on technical and regulatory considerations: service capabilities, data residency, compliance requirements, and latency.

术语Terminology

为了更好地了解 Azure 中的区域和可用性区域,它有助于了解关键术语或概念。To better understand regions and Availability Zones in Azure, it helps to understand key terms or concepts.

术语或概念Term or concept 说明Description
区域region 在延迟定义的外围中部署的一组数据中心,并通过专用的区域低延迟网络进行连接。A set of datacenters deployed within a latency-defined perimeter and connected through a dedicated regional low-latency network.
geographygeography 世界上至少包含一个 Azure 区域的区域。An area of the world containing at least one Azure region. 地理位置定义了一个保持数据驻留和符合性界限的离散市场。Geographies define a discrete market that preserve data residency and compliance boundaries. 地域允许具有特定数据驻留和符合性要求的客户保持他们的数据和应用程序相邻近。Geographies allow customers with specific data-residency and compliance needs to keep their data and applications close. 地域具有容错能力,可通过其与专用的高容量网络基础结构的连接来经受完成区域故障。Geographies are fault-tolerant to withstand complete region failure through their connection to our dedicated high-capacity networking infrastructure.
可用性区域Availability Zone 区域中的唯一物理位置。Unique physical locations within a region. 每个区域由一个或多个数据中心组成,这些数据中心配置了独立电源、冷却和网络。Each zone is made up of one or more datacenters equipped with independent power, cooling, and networking.
推荐的区域recommended region 提供最广泛的服务功能的区域,旨在支持可用性区域现在或将来使用。A region that provides the broadest range of service capabilities and is designed to support Availability Zones now, or in the future. 根据 建议 在 Azure 门户中指定这些项。These are designated in the Azure portal as Recommended.
备用 (其他) 区域alternate (other) region 一种区域,它在 "数据驻留" 边界内扩展 Azure 占用量,其中还存在建议的区域。A region that extends Azure's footprint within a data residency boundary where a recommended region also exists. 备用区域有助于优化延迟,并为灾难恢复需要提供另一个区域。Alternate regions help to optimize latency and provide a second region for disaster recovery needs. 它们不是为了支持可用性区域 (,不过 Azure 会定期评估这些区域,以确定它们是否应该成为推荐的区域) 。They are not designed to support Availability Zones (although Azure conducts regular assessment of these regions to determine if they should become recommended regions). 它们在 Azure 门户中指定为 " 其他"。These are designated in the Azure portal as Other.
基础服务foundational service 一种核心 Azure 服务,该服务在区域公开上市时在所有区域提供。A core Azure service that is available in all regions when the region is generally available.
主流服务mainstream service 一项 Azure 服务,该服务在区域/服务的12个月内的所有推荐区域中提供,在备用区域中公开上市或要求驱动。An Azure service that is available in all recommended regions within 12 months of the region/service general availability or demand-driven availability in alternate regions.
专用服务specialized service 一项 Azure 服务,在自定义/专用硬件支持的各区域之间实现了要求驱动的可用性。An Azure service that is demand-driven availability across regions backed by customized/specialized hardware.
区域服务regional service 突破部署的 Azure 服务,可让客户指定要将服务部署到的区域。An Azure service that is deployed regionally and enables the customer to specify the region into which the service will be deployed. 有关完整列表,请参阅 可用产品(按区域)。For a complete list, see Products available by region.
非区域服务non-regional service 一个 Azure 服务,它与特定的 Azure 区域没有任何依赖关系。An Azure service for which there is no dependency on a specific Azure region. 非区域服务部署到两个或多个区域,如果出现区域性故障,另一个区域中的服务实例将继续为客户提供服务。Non-regional services are deployed to two or more regions and if there is a regional failure, the instance of the service in another region continues servicing customers. 有关完整列表,请参阅 可用产品(按区域)。For a complete list, see Products available by region.

区域Regions

区域是在延迟定义的外围中部署的一组数据中心,通过专用的区域低延迟网络进行连接。A region is a set of datacenters deployed within a latency-defined perimeter and connected through a dedicated regional low-latency network. Azure 可让你灵活地部署需要的应用程序,包括跨多个区域,以提供跨区域复原能力。Azure gives you the flexibility to deploy applications where you need to, including across multiple regions to deliver cross-region resiliency. 有关详细信息,请参阅 复原支柱概述For more information, see Overview of the resiliency pillar.

可用性区域Availability Zones

可用性区域是一种高可用性产品,可保护应用程序和数据免受数据中心故障的影响。An Availability Zone is a high-availability offering that protects your applications and data from datacenter failures. 可用性区域是 Azure 区域中独特的物理位置。Availability Zones are unique physical locations within an Azure region. 每个区域由一个或多个数据中心组成,这些数据中心配置了独立电源、冷却和网络。Each zone is made up of one or more datacenters equipped with independent power, cooling, and networking. 为确保能够进行复原,所有已启用的地区中都必须至少有三个单独的区域。To ensure resiliency, there's a minimum of three separate zones in all enabled regions. 区域中可用性区域的物理隔离可以在发生数据中心故障的情况下保护应用程序和数据。The physical separation of Availability Zones within a region protects applications and data from datacenter failures. 区域冗余服务可跨可用性区域复制应用程序和数据,以防范单点故障。Zone-redundant services replicate your applications and data across Availability Zones to protect from single-points-of-failure. Azure 凭借可用性区域提供一流的 99.99% VM 运行时间 SLA。With Availability Zones, Azure offers industry best 99.99% VM uptime SLA. 完整 Azure SLA 说明了 Azure 作为整体的保证可用性。The full Azure SLA explains the guaranteed availability of Azure as a whole.

Azure 区域中的可用性区域是容错域和更新域的组合。An Availability Zone in an Azure region is a combination of a fault domain and an update domain. 例如,如果在 Azure 区域的三个区域中创建三个或更多 VM,则 VM 将有效分布在三个容错域和三个更新域中。For example, if you create three or more VMs across three zones in an Azure region, your VMs are effectively distributed across three fault domains and three update domains. Azure 平台可识别更新域中的此分发,以确保不会计划同时更新不同区域中的 Vm。The Azure platform recognizes this distribution across update domains to make sure that VMs in different zones are not scheduled to be updated at the same time.

通过将计算、存储、网络和数据资源共置在一个区域并将其复制到其他区域,在应用程序体系结构中内置高可用性。Build high-availability into your application architecture by co-locating your compute, storage, networking, and data resources within a zone and replicating in other zones. 支持可用性区域的 Azure 服务划分为两类:Azure services that support Availability Zones fall into two categories:

  • 区域性服务 –将资源固定到特定区域的位置 (例如,虚拟机、托管磁盘、标准 IP 地址) 或Zonal services – where a resource is pinned to a specific zone (for example, virtual machines, managed disks, Standard IP addresses), or
  • 区域冗余服务 –当 Azure 平台跨区域自动复制时 (例如,区域冗余存储、SQL Database) 。Zone-redundant services – when the Azure platform replicates automatically across zones (for example, zone-redundant storage, SQL Database).

若要在 Azure 上实现全面的业务连续性,可结合使用可用性区域和 Azure 区域对来构建应用程序体系结构。To achieve comprehensive business continuity on Azure, build your application architecture using the combination of Availability Zones with Azure region pairs. 可以使用 Azure 区域中的可用性区域以同步方式复制应用程序和数据以实现高可用性,并以异步方式跨 Azure 区域复制以实现灾难恢复保护。You can synchronously replicate your applications and data using Availability Zones within an Azure region for high-availability and asynchronously replicate across Azure regions for disaster recovery protection.

地区中发生故障的一个区域的概念视图

重要

() 上图中的数字1、2和3的可用性区域标识符在逻辑上分别映射到每个订阅的实际物理区域。The Availability Zone identifiers (the numbers 1, 2 and 3 in the picture above) are logically mapped to the actual physical zones for each subscription independently. 这意味着,给定订阅中的可用性区域1可能引用不同订阅中不同于可用性区域1的物理区域。That means that Availability Zone 1 in a given subscription might refer to a different physical zone than Availability Zone 1 in a different subscription. 因此,建议不要在虚拟机放置的不同订阅之间依赖于可用性区域 Id。As a consequence, it's recommended to not rely on Availability Zone IDs across different subscriptions for virtual machine placement.

区域和服务类别Region and service categories

Azure 上跨区域提供 Azure 服务可用性的最佳方法是通过表达在建议区域和备用区域中提供的服务来对其进行说明。Azure's approach on availability of Azure services across regions is best described by expressing services made available in recommended regions and alternate regions.

  • 推荐的区域 -一种提供范围最广的服务功能并设计为支持可用性区域现在或将来的服务的区域。Recommended region - A region that provides the broadest range of service capabilities and is designed to support Availability Zones now, or in the future. 根据 建议 在 Azure 门户中指定这些项。These are designated in the Azure portal as Recommended.
  • 备用 (其他) 区域 -一个区域,该区域在一个推荐的区域也存在的数据派驻边界内扩展 Azure 占用空间。Alternate (other) region - A region that extends Azure's footprint within a data residency boundary where a recommended region also exists. 备用区域有助于优化延迟,并为灾难恢复需要提供另一个区域。Alternate regions help to optimize latency and provide a second region for disaster recovery needs. 它们不是为了支持可用性区域 (,不过 Azure 会定期评估这些区域,以确定它们是否应该成为推荐的区域) 。They are not designed to support Availability Zones (although Azure conducts regular assessment of these regions to determine if they should become recommended regions). 它们在 Azure 门户中指定为 " 其他"。These are designated in the Azure portal as Other.

比较区域类型Comparing region types

Azure 服务分为三个类别:基本、主流和专用服务。Azure services are grouped into three categories: foundational, mainstream, and specialized services. 将服务部署到任何给定区域的 Azure 一般策略主要由区域类型、服务类别和客户需求驱动:Azure's general policy on deploying services into any given region is primarily driven by region type, service categories, and customer demand:

  • 基础 –当区域公开上市时,或在新的基础服务公开上市后的12个月内提供。Foundational – Available in all recommended and alternate regions when the region is generally available, or within 12 months of a new foundational service becoming generally available.
  • 主流 –在区域/服务正式发布后12个月内的所有推荐区域提供;备用区域中的按需驱动 (许多已部署到) 的一大部分备用区域中。Mainstream – Available in all recommended regions within 12 months of the region/service general availability; demand-driven in alternate regions (many are already deployed into a large subset of alternate regions).
  • 专门 面向行业的服务产品,通常由自定义/专用硬件集中或支持。Specialized – Targeted service offerings, often industry-focused or backed by customized/specialized hardware. 跨区域的需求驱动可用性 (许多都已部署到) 的建议区域的一小部分。Demand-driven availability across regions (many are already deployed into a large subset of recommended regions).

若要查看给定区域中部署了哪些服务,以及区域中服务的预览或公开服务的未来发展路线图,请参阅 按区域提供的产品To see which services are deployed in a given region, as well as the future roadmap for preview or general availability of services in a region, see Products available by region.

如果某个服务产品在特定区域中不可用,你可以通过联系 Microsoft 销售代表来分享你的兴趣。If a service offering is not available in a specific region, you can share your interest by contacting your Microsoft sales representative.

区域类型Region type 非区域Non-regional 基础Foundational 主要支持Mainstream 专用Specialized 可用性区域Availability Zones 数据驻留Data residency
建议Recommended ✔️ ✔️ ✔️ 需求驱动Demand-driven ✔️ ✔️
备用Alternate ✔️ ✔️ 需求驱动Demand-driven 需求驱动Demand-driven 空值N/A ✔️

按类别分类的服务Services by category

如前所述,Azure 将服务分为三个类别:基础、主流和专用化。As mentioned previously, Azure classifies services into three categories: foundational, mainstream, and specialized. 服务类别在正式发布时分配。Service categories are assigned at general availability. 通常,服务会将其生命周期作为专用服务启动,并按需求和利用率增加,从而提升为主流或基础。Often, services start their lifecycle as a specialized service and as demand and utilization increases may be promoted to mainstream or foundational. 下表列出了 "基本"、"主流" 或 "专用" 服务的类别。The following table lists the category for services as foundational, mainstream, or specialized. 应注意以下有关表的信息:You should note the following about the table:

基础Foundational 主要支持Mainstream 专用Specialized
帐户存储Account Storage API 管理API Management 适用于 FHIR 的 Azure APIAzure API for FHIR
应用程序网关Application Gateway 应用程序配置App Configuration Azure Analysis ServicesAzure Analysis Services
Azure 备份Azure Backup 应用服务App Service Azure 区块链服务Azure Blockchain Service
Azure Cosmos DBAzure Cosmos DB 自动化Automation Azure 蓝图Azure Blueprints
Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 Azure Active Directory 域服务Azure Active Directory Domain Services Azure Database for MariaDBAzure Database for MariaDB
Azure ExpressRouteAzure ExpressRoute Azure BastionAzure Bastion Azure 专用 HSMAzure Dedicated HSM
Azure SQL DatabaseAzure SQL Database 用于 Redis 的 Azure 缓存Azure Cache for Redis Azure Dev SpacesAzure Dev Spaces
云服务Cloud Services Azure 认知搜索Azure Cognitive Search Azure 数字孪生Azure Digital Twins
云服务: Av2-SeriesCloud Services: Av2-Series Azure 数据资源管理器Azure Data Explorer Azure 实验室服务Azure Lab Services
云服务: Dv2-SeriesCloud Services: Dv2-Series Azure Data ShareAzure Data Share Azure NetApp 文件Azure NetApp Files
云服务: Dv3-SeriesCloud Services: Dv3-Series Azure Database for MySQLAzure Database for MySQL Azure 量程Azure Quantum
云服务: Ev3-SeriesCloud Services: Ev3-Series Azure Database for PostgreSQLAzure Database for PostgreSQL Azure 春季云服务Azure Spring Cloud Service
云服务:实例级别 IpCloud Services: Instance Level IPs Azure 数据库迁移服务Azure Database Migration Service Azure 时序见解Azure Time Series Insights
云服务:保留 IPCloud Services: Reserved IP Azure DatabricksAzure Databricks Azure VMware Solution by CloudSimpleAzure VMware Solution by CloudSimple
磁盘存储Disk Storage Azure DDoS 防护Azure DDoS Protection 云服务: G 系列Cloud Services: G-Series
事件中心Event Hubs Azure 开发测试实验室Azure DevTest Labs 云服务: H 系列Cloud Services: H-Series
Key VaultKey Vault Azure 防火墙Azure Firewall 认知服务:自定义视觉Cognitive Services : Custom Vision
负载均衡器Load balancer Azure 防火墙管理器Azure Firewall Manager 认知服务:演讲者识别Cognitive Services : Speaker Recognition
服务总线Service Bus Azure FunctionsAzure Functions Data Box HeavyData Box Heavy
Service FabricService Fabric Azure HPC 缓存Azure HPC Cache 数据目录Data Catalog
虚拟机规模集Virtual Machine Scale Sets Azure IoT 中心Azure IoT Hub 数据工厂:数据工厂 V1Data Factory : Data Factory V1
虚拟机Virtual Machines Azure Kubernetes 服务 (AKS)Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) Data Lake AnalyticsData Lake Analytics
虚拟机: Av2-SeriesVirtual Machines: Av2-Series Azure 机器学习Azure Machine Learning Azure 机器学习工作室(经典)Azure Machine Learning Studio (classic)
虚拟机: Bs-SeriesVirtual Machines: Bs-Series Azure 专用链接Azure Private Link Microsoft 基因组学Microsoft Genomics
虚拟机: DSv2-SeriesVirtual Machines: DSv2-Series Azure Red Hat OpenShiftAzure Red Hat OpenShift 远程渲染Remote Rendering
虚拟机: DSv3-SeriesVirtual Machines: DSv3-Series Azure SignalR 服务Azure SignalR Service 空间定位点Spatial Anchors
虚拟机: Dv2-SeriesVirtual Machines: Dv2-Series Azure Site RecoveryAzure Site Recovery StorSimpleStorSimple
虚拟机: Dv3-SeriesVirtual Machines: Dv3-Series Azure Stack HubAzure Stack Hub 视频索引器Video Indexer
虚拟机: ESv3-SeriesVirtual Machines: ESv3-Series Azure 流分析Azure Stream Analytics 虚拟机: DASv4-SeriesVirtual Machines: DASv4-Series
虚拟机: Ev3-SeriesVirtual Machines: Ev3-Series Azure Synapse AnalyticsAzure Synapse Analytics 虚拟机: DAv4-SeriesVirtual Machines: DAv4-Series
虚拟机: F 系列Virtual Machines: F-Series BatchBatch 虚拟机: DCsv2 系列Virtual Machines: DCsv2-series
虚拟机: FS-SeriesVirtual Machines: FS-Series 云服务: M 系列Cloud Services: M-series 虚拟机: EASv4-SeriesVirtual Machines: EASv4-Series
虚拟机:实例级别 IpVirtual Machines: Instance Level IPs 认知服务Cognitive Services 虚拟机: EAv4-SeriesVirtual Machines: EAv4-Series
虚拟机:保留 IPVirtual Machines: Reserved IP 认知服务:计算机视觉Cognitive Services: Computer Vision 虚拟机: G 系列Virtual Machines: G-Series
虚拟网络Virtual Network 认知服务:内容审查器Cognitive Services: Content Moderator 虚拟机: GS-SeriesVirtual Machines: GS-Series
VPN 网关VPN Gateway 认知服务:面部Cognitive Services: Face 虚拟机: HBv1-SeriesVirtual Machines: HBv1-Series
认知服务:窗体识别器Cognitive Services: Form Recognizer 虚拟机: HBv2-SeriesVirtual Machines: HBv2-Series
认知服务:语言理解Cognitive Services: Language Understanding 虚拟机: HCv1-SeriesVirtual Machines: HCv1-Series
认知服务:QnA MakerCognitive Services: QnA Maker 虚拟机: H 系列Virtual Machines: H-Series
认知服务:语音服务Cognitive Services: Speech Services 虚拟机: LS-SeriesVirtual Machines: LS-Series
容器实例Container Instances 虚拟机: LSv2-SeriesVirtual Machines: LSv2-Series
容器注册表Container Registry 虚拟机: Mv2-SeriesVirtual Machines: Mv2-Series
数据工厂Data Factory 虚拟机: NC-SeriesVirtual Machines: NC-Series
事件网格Event Grid 虚拟机: NCv2-SeriesVirtual Machines: NCv2-Series
HDInsightHDInsight 虚拟机: NCv3-SeriesVirtual Machines: NCv3-Series
逻辑应用Logic Apps 虚拟机: NDs-SeriesVirtual Machines: NDs-Series
媒体服务Media Services 虚拟机: NDv2-SeriesVirtual Machines: NDv2-Series
网络观察程序Network Watcher 虚拟机: NV-SeriesVirtual Machines: NV-Series
通知中心Notification Hubs 虚拟机: NVv3-SeriesVirtual Machines: NVv3-Series
Power BI EmbeddedPower BI Embedded 虚拟机: NVv4-SeriesVirtual Machines: NVv4-Series
高级 Blob 存储Premium Blob Storage 虚拟机: Azure SAP HANA 大型实例Virtual Machines: SAP HANA on Azure Large Instances
高级文件存储Premium Files Storage Visual Studio App CenterVisual Studio App Center
存储:存档存储Storage: Archive Storage
超级磁盘存储Ultra Disk Storage
虚拟机: Ddsv4-SeriesVirtual Machines: Ddsv4-Series
虚拟机: Ddv4-SeriesVirtual Machines: Ddv4-Series
虚拟机: Dsv4-SeriesVirtual Machines: Dsv4-Series
虚拟机: Dv4-SeriesVirtual Machines: Dv4-Series
虚拟机: Edsv4-SeriesVirtual Machines: Edsv4-Series
虚拟机: Edv4-SeriesVirtual Machines: Edv4-Series
虚拟机: Esv4-SeriesVirtual Machines: Esv4-Series
虚拟机: Ev4-SeriesVirtual Machines: Ev4-Series
虚拟机: Fsv2-SeriesVirtual Machines: Fsv2-Series
虚拟机: M 系列Virtual Machines: M-Series
虚拟 WANVirtual WAN

服务复原Services resiliency

所有 Azure 管理服务都设计为可从区域级故障中复原。All Azure management services are architected to be resilient from region-level failures. 在故障范围内,区域中的一个或多个可用性区域故障与整个区域发生故障相比具有更小的故障半径。In the spectrum of failures, one or more Availability Zone failures within a region have a smaller failure radius compared to an entire region failure. Azure 可以从区域内或其他 Azure 区域内的管理服务的区域级故障中恢复。Azure can recover from a zone-level failure of management services within the region or from another Azure region. Azure 会在区域中一次执行关键维护,以防止任何影响在区域内的可用性区域部署的客户资源的故障。Azure performs critical maintenance one zone at a time within a region, to prevent any failures impacting customer resources deployed across Availability Zones within a region.

可用性区域中 Vm 的定价Pricing for VMs in Availability Zones

在可用性区域中部署虚拟机不会产生额外的费用。There is no additional cost for virtual machines deployed in an Availability Zone. 当两个或更多个 VM 部署在一个 Azure 区域中的两个或更多个可用性区域时,可获得 99.99% VM 运行时间 SLA。99.99% VM uptime SLA is offered when two or more VMs are deployed across two or more Availability Zones within an Azure region. 会产生可用性区域间 VM 到 VM 的数据传输费用。There will be additional inter-Availability Zone VM-to-VM data transfer charges. 有关详细信息,请查看带宽定价页。For more information, review the Bandwidth pricing page.

可用性区域入门Get started with Availability Zones

后续步骤Next steps