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Microsoft Azure 词汇表:Azure 平台上的云术语字典Microsoft Azure glossary: A dictionary of cloud terminology on the Azure platform

Microsoft Azure 词汇表是适用于 Azure 平台的简短云术语字典。The Microsoft Azure glossary is a short dictionary of cloud terminology for the Azure platform. 另请参阅:See also:

帐户account

用于访问和管理 Azure 订阅的帐户。An account that's used to access and manage an Azure subscription. 它通常被称为 Azure 帐户,尽管帐户可以是以下任何一个:现有的工作、学校或个人 Microsoft 帐户,或 Office 365 用户名和密码。It's often referred to as an Azure account although an account can be any of these: an existing work, school, or personal Microsoft account, or an Office 365 user name and password. 当注册免费试用版时,还可以创建一个帐户来管理 Azure 订阅。You can also create an account to manage an Azure subscription when you sign up for the free trial.
请参阅使用 Office 365 帐户注册 Azure 订阅可用于登录的帐户See Sign up for an Azure subscription with your Office 365 account and Accounts you can use to sign in.

API 应用API app

又叫应用服务应用Another name for App Service app.

应用服务应用App Service app

Azure 应用服务提供的用于托管网站或 Web 应用程序、Web API 或移动应用后端的计算资源。The compute resources that Azure App Service provides for hosting a website or web application, web API, or mobile app backend. 应用服务应用也称为“应用服务”、“Web 应用”、“API 应用”和“移动应用”。App Service apps are also referred to as App Services, web apps, API apps, and mobile apps.

可用性集availability set

可一起管理的、用于提供应用程序冗余和可靠性的虚拟机集合。A collection of virtual machines that are managed together to provide application redundancy and reliability. 使用可用性集可确保在计划内或计划外维护事件期间,至少有一个虚拟机可用。The use of an availability set ensures that during either a planned or unplanned maintenance event at least one virtual machine is available.
请参阅管理 Windows 虚拟机的可用性管理 Linux 虚拟机的可用性See Manage the availability of Windows virtual machines and Manage the availability of Linux virtual machines

Azure 经典部署模型Azure classic deployment model

用于在 Azure 中部署资源的两个部署模型中的一个(新模型是 Azure 资源管理器)。One of two deployment models used to deploy resources in Azure (the new model is Azure Resource Manager). 有些 Azure 服务仅支持资源管理器部署模型,有些仅支持经典部署模型,而有些则两种模型都支持。Some Azure services support only the Resource Manager deployment model, some support only the classic deployment model, and some support both. 每个 Azure 服务的文档中指定了其支持的模型。The documentation for each Azure service specifies which model(s) they support.

Azure 命令行接口 (CLI)Azure command-line interface (CLI)

一个命令行接口,可用于从 Windows、macOS 和 Linux 管理 Azure 服务。A command-line interface that can be used to manage Azure services from Windows, macOS, and Linux. 某些服务或服务功能只能通过 PowerShell 或 CLI 来管理。Some services or service features can be managed only via PowerShell or the CLI. 请参阅 Azure CLISee Azure CLI

Azure PowerShellAzure PowerShell

一个命令行接口,可用于从 Windows 电脑通过命令行管理 Azure 服务。A command-line interface to manage Azure services via a command line from Windows PCs. 某些服务或服务功能只能通过 PowerShell 或 CLI 来管理。Some services or service features can be managed only via PowerShell or the CLI. 请参阅如何安装和配置 Azure PowerShellSee How to install and configure Azure PowerShell

Azure 资源管理器部署模型Azure Resource Manager deployment model

用于在 Microsoft Azure 中部署资源的两个部署模型中的一个(另一个是经典部署模型)。One of two deployment models used to deploy resources in Microsoft Azure (the other is the classic deployment model). 有些 Azure 服务仅支持 Resource Manager 部署模型,有些仅支持经典部署模型,而有些则两种模型都支持。Some Azure services support only the Resource Manager deployment model, some support only the classic deployment model, and some support both. 每个 Azure 服务的文档中指定了其支持的模型。The documentation for each Azure service specifies which model(s) they support.

容错域fault domain

可用性集中可能会同时发生故障的虚拟机集合。The collection of virtual machines in an availability set that can possibly fail at the same time. 一个例子是机架中共用一个电源和网络交换机的计算机组。An example is a group of machines in a rack that share a common power source and network switch. 在 Azure 中,可用性集内的虚拟机会自动分布在多个容错域中。In Azure, the virtual machines in an availability set are automatically separated across multiple fault domains.
请参阅管理 Windows 虚拟机的可用性管理 Linux 虚拟机的可用性See Manage the availability of Windows virtual machines or Manage the availability of Linux virtual machines

地区geo

针对数据驻留位置定义的边界,通常包含两个或更多个区域。A defined boundary for data residency that typically contains two or more regions. 边界可能在国界内或超出国界,并受到税法影响。The boundaries may be within or beyond national borders and are influenced by tax regulation. 每个地区至少有一个区域。Every geo has at least one region. 地区的示例包括亚太区和日本。Examples of geos are Asia Pacific and Japan. 也称为地理位置Also called geography.
请参阅 Azure 区域See Azure Regions

异地复制geo-replication

在区域对中自动复制内容(例如 Blob、表和队列)的过程。The process of automatically replicating content such as blobs, tables, and queues within a regional pair.
请参阅 Azure SQL 数据库的活动异地复制See Active Geo-Replication for Azure SQL Database

imageimage

包含操作系统和应用程序配置的文件,可用于创建任意数目的虚拟机。A file that contains the operating system and application configuration that can be used to create any number of virtual machines. Azure 中有两种类型的映像:VM 映像和 OS 映像。In Azure there are two types of images: VM image and OS image. VM 映像包括在创建该映像时附加到虚拟机的操作系统和所有磁盘。A VM image includes an operating system and all disks attached to a virtual machine when the image is created. OS 映像仅包含通用化操作系统,而不包含任何数据磁盘配置。An OS image contains only a generalized operating system with no data disk configurations.
请参阅使用 PowerShell 或 CLI 在 Azure 中导航和选择 Windows 虚拟机映像See Navigate and select Windows virtual machine images in Azure with PowerShell or the CLI

限制limits

可以创建的资源数目或可实现的性能基准。The number of resources that can be created or the performance benchmark that can be achieved. 限制通常与订阅、服务和产品关联。Limits are typically associated with subscriptions, services, and offerings.
请参阅 Azure 订阅和服务限制、配额和约束See Azure subscription and service limits, quotas, and constraints

负载均衡器load balancer

在网络中的计算机之间分散传入流量的资源。A resource that distributes incoming traffic among computers in a network. 在 Azure 中,负载均衡器将流量分散到负载均衡器集内定义的虚拟机。In Azure, a load balancer distributes traffic to virtual machines defined in a load-balancer set. 负载均衡器可以面向 Internet,也可以是内部的。A load balancer can be internet-facing, or it can be internal.

移动应用mobile app

又叫应用服务应用Another name for App Service App.

offeroffer

适用于 Azure 订阅的定价、信用额度和相关条款。The pricing, credits, and related terms applicable to an Azure subscription.
请参阅 Azure 产品/服务详细信息页See the Azure offer details page

portalportal

用于部署和管理 Azure 服务的安全 Web 门户。The secure web portal used to deploy and manage Azure services.

regionregion

某个地区内不跨国界且包含一个或多个数据中心的区域。An area within a geo that does not cross national borders and contains one or more datacenters. 定价、区域性服务和套餐类型在区域级别公开。Pricing, regional services, and offer types are exposed at the region level. 一个区域通常与另一个区域配对,两者距离最多可达数百英里。A region is typically paired with another region, which can be up to several hundred miles away. 区域对可用作灾难恢复和高可用性方案的机制。Regional pairs can be used as a mechanism for disaster recovery and high availability scenarios. 也称为位置。Also referred to as location.
请参阅 Azure 区域See Azure Regions

resourceresource

属于 Azure 解决方案的一部分的项。An item that is part of your Azure solution. 每个 Azure 服务允许部署不同类型的资源,例如数据库或虚拟机。Each Azure service enables you to deploy different types of resources, such as databases or virtual machines.
请参阅 Azure 资源管理器概述See Azure Resource Manager overview

资源组resource group

Resource Manager 中的容器,用于保存应用程序的相关资源。A container in Resource Manager that holds related resources for an application. 资源组可以包含应用程序的所有资源,也可以只包含逻辑分组在一起的资源。The resource group can include all of the resources for an application, or only those resources that are logically grouped together. 可以根据对组织有利的原则,决定如何将资源分配到资源组。You can decide how you want to allocate resources to resource groups based on what makes the most sense for your organization.
请参阅 Azure 资源管理器概述See Azure Resource Manager overview

资源管理器模板Resource Manager template

一个 JSON 文件,它以声明方式定义一个或多个 Azure 资源,并定义所部署资源之间的依赖关系。A JSON file that declaratively defines one or more Azure resources and that defines dependencies between the deployed resources. 使用模板能够以一致方式反复部署资源。The template can be used to deploy the resources consistently and repeatedly.
请参阅创作 Azure 资源管理器模板See Authoring Azure Resource Manager templates

资源提供程序resource provider

一种服务,提供可以通过 Resource Manager 进行部署和管理的资源。A service that supplies the resources you can deploy and manage through Resource Manager. 每个资源提供程序提供用于处理所部署资源的操作。Each resource provider offers operations for working with the resources that are deployed. 可以通过 Azure 门户、Azure PowerShell 和多个编程 SDK 来访问资源提供程序。Resource providers can be accessed through the Azure portal, Azure PowerShell, and several programming SDKs.
请参阅 Azure 资源管理器概述See Azure Resource Manager overview

rolerole

用于控制可分配给用户、组和服务的访问权限的方式。A means for controlling access that can be assigned to users, groups, and services. 角色能够对 Azure 资源执行创建、管理和读取等操作。Roles are able to perform actions such as create, manage, and read on Azure resources.
请参阅 RBAC:内置角色See RBAC: Built-in roles

服务级别协议 (SLA)service level agreement (SLA)

用于描述 Microsoft 在运行时间和连接性方面所做承诺的协议。The agreement that describes Microsoft’s commitments for uptime and connectivity. 每个 Azure 服务都有具体的 SLA。Each Azure service has a specific SLA.
请参阅服务级别协议See Service Level Agreements

共享访问签名 (SAS)shared access signature (SAS)

使用该签名能够在不公开帐户密钥的情况下,授予对资源的有限访问权限。A signature that enables you to grant limited access to a resource, without exposing your account key. 例如,Azure 存储使用 SAS 授予客户端对 Blob 等对象的访问权限。For example, Azure Storage uses SAS to grant client access to objects such as blobs. IoT 中心使用 SAS 授予设备发送遥测数据的权限。IoT Hub uses SAS to grant devices permission to send telemetry.

存储帐户storage account

该帐户可授予对 Azure 存储中的 Azure Blob、队列、表和文件服务的访问权限。An account that gives you access to the Azure Blob, Queue, Table, and File services in Azure Storage. 存储帐户名称定义 Azure 存储数据对象的唯一命名空间。The storage account name defines the unique namespace for Azure Storage data objects.
请参阅关于 Azure 存储帐户See About Azure storage accounts

订阅subscription

客户与 Microsoft 之间的协议,可让客户获取 Azure 服务。A customer's agreement with Microsoft that enables them to obtain Azure services. 订阅的定价和相关条款由为订阅选择的套餐控制。The subscription pricing and related terms are governed by the offer chosen for the subscription. 请参阅 Microsoft 在线订阅协议Azure 订阅与 Azure Active Directory 的关联方式See Microsoft Online Subscription Agreement and How Azure subscriptions are associated with Azure Active Directory

标记tag

一个索引编制术语,让你根据管理或计费要求为资源分类。An indexing term that enables you to categorize resources according to your requirements for managing or billing. 如果有一系列复杂的资源,则可以使用标记以最有利的方式可视化这些资产。When you have a complex collection of resources, you can use tags to visualize those assets in the way that makes the most sense. 例如,可以标记组织中充当类似角色或者属于同一部门的资源。For example, you could tag resources that serve a similar role in your organization or belong to the same department.
请参阅使用标记整理 Azure 资源See Using tags to organize your Azure resources

更新域update domain

可用性集中可同时更新的虚拟机集合。The collection of virtual machines in an availability set that are updated at the same time. 同一个更新域中的虚拟机会在计划维护期间一起重新启动。Virtual machines in the same update domain are restarted together during planned maintenance. Azure 永远不会一次性重新启动多个更新域。Azure never restarts more than one update domain at a time. 也称为升级域。Also referred to as an upgrade domain.
请参阅管理 Windows 虚拟机的可用性管理 Linux 虚拟机的可用性See Manage the availability of Windows virtual machines and Manage the availability of Linux virtual machines

虚拟机virtual machine

运行操作系统的物理计算机的软件实现。The software implementation of a physical computer that runs an operating system. 多个虚拟机可以在同一个硬件上同时运行。Multiple virtual machines can run simultaneously on the same hardware. 在 Azure 中,虚拟机具有不同的大小。In Azure, virtual machines are available in a variety of sizes.
请参阅虚拟机文档See Virtual Machines documentation

虚拟机扩展virtual machine extension

一个实现行为或功能的资源,可帮助其他程序正常工作,或提供与运行中计算机交互的能力。A resource that implements behaviors or features that either help other programs work or provide the ability for you to interact with a running computer. 例如,可以使用 VM 访问扩展来重置或修改 Azure 虚拟机上的远程访问值。For example, you could use the VM Access extension to reset or modify remote access values on an Azure virtual machine.

请参阅关于虚拟机扩展和功能 (Windows)关于虚拟机扩展和功能 (Linux)See About virtual machine extensions and features (Windows) or About virtual machine extensions and features (Linux)

虚拟网络virtual network

在 Azure 资源之间提供连接并与其他所有 Azure 租户隔离的网络。A network that provides connectivity between your Azure resources that is isolated from all other Azure tenants. Azure VPN 网关,便可以建立虚拟网络之间以及虚拟网络与本地网络之间的连接。An Azure VPN Gateway lets you establish connections between virtual networks and between a virtual network and an on-premises network. 可以完全控制虚拟网络中的 IP 地址块、DNS 设置、安全策略和路由表。You can fully control the IP address blocks, DNS settings, security policies, and route tables within a virtual network.
请参阅虚拟网络概述See Virtual Network Overview

Web 应用Web app

又叫应用服务应用Another name for App Service App.

另请参阅See also