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Azure 如何工作?How does Azure work?

Azure 是 Microsoft 的公有云平台。Azure is Microsoft's public cloud platform. Azure 提供大量服务,包括平台即服务 (PaaS) 、基础结构即服务 (IaaS) 和托管数据库服务功能。Azure offers a large collection of services including platform as a service (PaaS), infrastructure as a service (IaaS), and managed database service capabilities. 但是,确切而言,什么是 Azure,它如何工作?But what exactly is Azure, and how does it work?

与其他云平台一样,Azure 依赖于称为 虚拟化 的技术。Azure, like other cloud platforms, relies on a technology known as virtualization. 可以在软件中仿真大多数计算机硬件,因为大多数计算机硬件只是在硅片中永久或半永久编码的一组指令。Most computer hardware can be emulated in software, because most computer hardware is simply a set of instructions permanently or semi-permanently encoded in silicon. 使用将软件指令映射为硬件指令的仿真层,虚拟化的硬件可以在软件中执行,就像它是实际硬件本身一样。Using an emulation layer that maps software instructions to hardware instructions, virtualized hardware can execute in software as if it were the actual hardware itself.

本质上来说,云是位于一个或多个数据中心内的一组物理服务器,它们代表客户执行虚拟化硬件。Essentially, the cloud is a set of physical servers in one or more datacenters that execute virtualized hardware on behalf of customers. 那么,云如何同时为数百万客户创建、启动、停止和删除虚拟化硬件的数百万实例?So how does the cloud create, start, stop, and delete millions of instances of virtualized hardware for millions of customers simultaneously?

为了理解这一点,让我们看一下数据中心内硬件的体系结构。To understand this, let's look at the architecture of the hardware in the datacenter. 每个数据中心内都是服务器机架中的服务器集合。Inside each datacenter is a collection of servers sitting in server racks. 每个服务器机架包含许多服务器 刀片 和一个提供网络连接的网络交换机,以及一个用于供电的配电单元 (PDU)。Each server rack contains many server blades as well as a network switch providing network connectivity and a power distribution unit (PDU) providing power. 机架有时组合到一起形成更大的单元,称为 群集Racks are sometimes grouped together in larger units known as clusters.

在每个机架或群集中,大多数服务器设计为代表用户运行这些虚拟化硬件实例。Within each rack or cluster, most of the servers are designated to run these virtualized hardware instances on behalf of the user. 但有些服务器运行称为结构控制器的云管理软件。But some of the servers run cloud management software known as a fabric controller. 结构控制器 是一个有许多职责的分布式应用程序。The fabric controller is a distributed application with many responsibilities. 它分配服务,监视服务器和在其上运行的服务的运行状况,并且在服务器发生故障时将其修复。It allocates services, monitors the health of the server and the services running on it, and heals servers when they fail.

结构控制器的每个实例连接到运行云业务流程软件的另一组服务器,通常称为 前端Each instance of the fabric controller is connected to another set of servers running cloud orchestration software, typically known as a front end. 前端托管着用于云执行的所有功能的 Web 服务、RESTful API 和内部 Azure 数据库。The front end hosts the web services, RESTful APIs, and internal Azure databases used for all functions the cloud performs.

例如,前端托管处理客户请求的服务,以分配 虚拟机等 Azure 资源和服务,如 Azure Cosmos DBFor example, the front end hosts the services that handle customer requests to allocate Azure resources such as virtual machines, and services like Azure Cosmos DB. 首先,前端对用户进行校验并验证用户是否有权分配所请求的资源。First, the front end validates the user and verifies the user is authorized to allocate the requested resources. 如果是这样,前端会检查数据库以找到具有足够容量的服务器机架,然后指示该机架上的结构控制器分配资源。If so, the front end checks a database to locate a server rack with sufficient capacity and then instructs the fabric controller on that rack to allocate the resource.

从根本上讲,Azure 是大量服务器和网络硬件,它们运行一组复杂的分布式应用程序,用于协调这些服务器上虚拟化硬件和软件的配置和操作。So fundamentally, Azure is a huge collection of servers and networking hardware running a complex set of distributed applications to orchestrate the configuration and operation of the virtualized hardware and software on those servers. 此业务流程使 Azure 如此强大,因为用户不再负责维护和升级硬件,因为 Azure 会在后台执行所有这些操作。It is this orchestration that makes Azure so powerful, because users are no longer responsible for maintaining and upgrading hardware because Azure does all this behind the scenes.

后续步骤Next steps

通过适用于 Azure 的 Microsoft 云采用框架,详细了解云采用情况。Learn more about cloud adoption with the Microsoft Cloud Adoption Framework for Azure.