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云服务的大小Sizes for Cloud Services

本主题介绍云服务角色实例(Web 角色和辅助角色)的可用大小和选项。This topic describes the available sizes and options for Cloud Service role instances (web roles and worker roles). 此外,还提供了在计划使用这些资源时要考虑的部署注意事项。It also provides deployment considerations to be aware of when planning to use these resources. 每个大小都具有会放入服务定义文件中的 ID。Each size has an ID that you put in your service definition file. 云服务定价页提供每种大小的价格。Prices for each size are available on the Cloud Services Pricing page.

备注

若要查看相关的 Azure 限制,请参阅 Azure 订阅和服务限制、配额与约束To see related Azure limits, see Azure Subscription and Service Limits, Quotas, and Constraints

Web 角色实例和辅助角色实例的大小Sizes for web and worker role instances

Azure 上有多个标准大小可供选择。There are multiple standard sizes to choose from on Azure. 其中某些大小的注意事项包括:Considerations for some of these sizes include:

  • D 系列的 VM 旨在运行需要更高计算能力和临时磁盘性能的应用程序。D-series VMs are designed to run applications that demand higher compute power and temporary disk performance. D 系列 VM 为临时磁盘提供更快的处理器、更高的内存内核比和固态驱动器 (SSD)。D-series VMs provide faster processors, a higher memory-to-core ratio, and a solid-state drive (SSD) for the temporary disk. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 博客新的 D 系列虚拟机大小上的公告。For details, see the announcement on the Azure blog, New D-Series Virtual Machine Sizes.
  • Dv3 系列、Dv2 系列是原 D 系列的后续系列,其特点是 CPU 功能更强大。Dv3-series, Dv2-series, a follow-on to the original D-series, features a more powerful CPU. Dv2 系列 CPU 比 D 系列 CPU 快大约 35%。The Dv2-series CPU is about 35% faster than the D-series CPU. 该系列基于最新一代的 2.4 GHz Intel Xeon® E5-2673 v3 (Haswell) 处理器,通过 Intel Turbo Boost Technology 2.0 可以达到 3.1 GHz。It is based on the latest generation 2.4 GHz Intel Xeon® E5-2673 v3 (Haswell) processor, and with the Intel Turbo Boost Technology 2.0, can go up to 3.1 GHz. Dv2 系列的内存和磁盘配置与 D 系列相同。The Dv2-series has the same memory and disk configurations as the D-series.
  • G 系列的 VM 可提供最大的内存,并在配备 Intel Xeon E5 V3 系列处理器的主机上运行。G-series VMs offer the most memory and run on hosts that have Intel Xeon E5 V3 family processors.
  • A 系列 VM 可以部署在各种不同的硬件类型和处理器上。The A-series VMs can be deployed on various hardware types and processors. 根据硬件限制大小,为运行中的实例提供一致的处理器性能,而不考虑硬件部署的位置。The size is throttled, based on the hardware, to offer consistent processor performance for the running instance, regardless of the hardware it is deployed on. 若要判断此大小部署所在的物理硬件,请从虚拟机中查询虚拟硬件。To determine the physical hardware on which this size is deployed, query the virtual hardware from within the Virtual Machine.
  • A0 大小在物理硬件上过度订阅。The A0 size is over-subscribed on the physical hardware. 仅针对此特定大小,其他客户部署可能影响正在运行的工作负荷的性能。For this specific size only, other customer deployments may impact the performance of your running workload. 以下概述的相对性能为预期的基准,受限于近似变化性的 15%。The relative performance is outlined below as the expected baseline, subject to an approximate variability of 15 percent.

虚拟机的大小会影响定价。The size of the virtual machine affects the pricing. 此外,大小还会影响虚拟机的处理能力、内存和存储容量。The size also affects the processing, memory, and storage capacity of the virtual machine. 存储成本根据存储帐户中的已使用页数进行单独计算。Storage costs are calculated separately based on used pages in the storage account. 有关详细信息,请参阅云服务定价详细信息Azure 存储定价For details, see Cloud Services Pricing Details and Azure Storage Pricing.

以下注意事项可能会帮助你决定大小:The following considerations might help you decide on a size:

  • A8-A11 和 H 系列大小也称为“计算密集型实例”。The A8-A11 and H-series sizes are also known as compute-intensive instances. 运行这些大小的硬件专为计算密集型和网络密集型应用程序而设计和优化,包括高性能计算 (HPC) 群集应用程序、建模和模拟。The hardware that runs these sizes is designed and optimized for compute-intensive and network-intensive applications, including high-performance computing (HPC) cluster applications, modeling, and simulations. A8-A11 系列使用 Intel Xeon E5-2670 @ 2.6 GHZ,H 系列使用 Intel Xeon E5-2667 v3 @ 3.2 GHz。The A8-A11 series uses Intel Xeon E5-2670 @ 2.6 GHZ and the H-series uses Intel Xeon E5-2667 v3 @ 3.2 GHz. 有关如何使用这些大小的详细信息和注意事项,请参阅高性能计算 VM 大小For detailed information and considerations about using these sizes, see High performance compute VM sizes.
  • Dv3 系列、Dv2 系列、D 系列和 G 系列是要求有更快速的 CPU、更好的本地磁盘性能,或更高内存的应用程序的理想选择。Dv3-series, Dv2-series, D-series, G-series, are ideal for applications that demand faster CPUs, better local disk performance, or have higher memory demands. 它们为许多企业级应用程序提供强大的组合。They offer a powerful combination for many enterprise-grade applications.
  • Azure 数据中心内的一些物理主机可能不支持更大的虚拟机大小,例如 A5 – A11。Some of the physical hosts in Azure data centers may not support larger virtual machine sizes, such as A5 – A11. 因此,在以下情况下,可能会显示错误消息“未能配置虚拟机 {虚拟机名称}”或“未能创建虚拟机 {虚拟机名称}”:将现有虚拟机的大小调整为新的大小时;在 2013 年 4 月 16 日之前创建的虚拟网络中创建新的虚拟机时;或者向现有的云服务中添加新的虚拟机时。As a result, you may see the error message Failed to configure virtual machine {machine name} or Failed to create virtual machine {machine name} when resizing an existing virtual machine to a new size; creating a new virtual machine in a virtual network created before April 16, 2013; or adding a new virtual machine to an existing cloud service. 有关每个部署方案的解决方法,请参阅支持论坛上的错误:“无法配置虚拟机”See Error: “Failed to configure virtual machine” on the support forum for workarounds for each deployment scenario.
  • 订阅也可能会限制某些大小系列中可部署的核心数。Your subscription might also limit the number of cores you can deploy in certain size families. 若要增加配额,请联系 Azure 支持。To increase a quota, contact Azure Support.

性能注意事项Performance considerations

我们已创建 Azure 计算单位 (ACU) 概念,提供一种方法来比较各 Azure SKU 的计算 (CPU) 性能并识别哪个 SKU 最能满足用户的性能需求。We have created the concept of the Azure Compute Unit (ACU) to provide a way of comparing compute (CPU) performance across Azure SKUs and to identify which SKU is most likely to satisfy your performance needs. ACU 目前在小型 (Standard_A1) VM 上标准为 100,而所有其他 SKU 表示 SKU 在运行标准基准测试时大约可以有多快。ACU is currently standardized on a Small (Standard_A1) VM being 100 and all other SKUs then represent approximately how much faster that SKU can run a standard benchmark.

重要

ACU 只是一种规则。The ACU is only a guideline. 工作负荷的结果可能会有所不同。The results for your workload may vary.


SKU 系列SKU Family ACU/核心ACU/Core
ExtraSmallExtraSmall 5050
Small-ExtraLargeSmall-ExtraLarge 100100
A5-7A5-7 100100
A8-A11A8-A11 225*225*
A v2A v2 100100
DD 160160
D v2D v2 160 - 190*160 - 190*
D v3D v3 160 - 190*160 - 190*
E v3E v3 160 - 190*160 - 190*
GG 180 - 240*180 - 240*
HH 290 - 300*290 - 300*

ACU 标有 *使用 Intel® Turbo 技术来增加 CPU 频率,并提升性能。ACUs marked with a * use Intel® Turbo technology to increase CPU frequency and provide a performance boost. 提升量可能因 VM 大小、工作负荷和同一主机上运行的其他工作负荷而有所不同。The amount of the boost can vary based on the VM size, workload, and other workloads running on the same host.

大小表Size tables

下表显示这些虚拟机提供的大小和容量。The following tables show the sizes and the capacities they provide.

  • 存储容量的单位为 GiB 或 1024^3 字节。Storage capacity is shown in units of GiB or 1024^3 bytes. 比较以 GB(1000^3 字节)为单位的磁盘和以 GiB(1024^3 字节)为单位的磁盘时,请记住以 GiB 为单位的容量数显得更小。When comparing disks measured in GB (1000^3 bytes) to disks measured in GiB (1024^3) remember that capacity numbers given in GiB may appear smaller. 例如,1023 GiB = 1098.4 GBFor example, 1023 GiB = 1098.4 GB
  • 磁盘吞吐量的单位为每秒输入/输出操作数 (IOPS) 和 MBps,其中 MBps = 10^6 字节/秒。Disk throughput is measured in input/output operations per second (IOPS) and MBps where MBps = 10^6 bytes/sec.
  • 数据磁盘可以在缓存或非缓存模式下运行。Data disks can operate in cached or uncached modes. 对于缓存数据磁盘操作,主机缓存模式设置为 ReadOnlyReadWriteFor cached data disk operation, the host cache mode is set to ReadOnly or ReadWrite. 对于非缓存数据磁盘操作,主机缓存模式设置为 NoneFor uncached data disk operation, the host cache mode is set to None.
  • 最大网络带宽是每个 VM 类型分配并分配的最大聚合带宽。Maximum network bandwidth is the maximum aggregated bandwidth allocated and assigned per VM type. 最大带宽提供选择正确 VM 类型的指导原则,以确保有适当的网络容量可用。The maximum bandwidth provides guidance for selecting the right VM type to ensure adequate network capacity is available. 在低、中、高和极高之间切换时,吞吐量将随之增加。When moving between Low, Moderate, High and Very High, the throughput increases accordingly. 实际的网络性能将取决于许多因素,包括网络和应用程序负载,以及应用程序的网络设置。Actual network performance will depend on many factors including network and application loads, and application network settings.

A 系列A-series

大小Size CPU 核心数CPU cores 内存:GiBMemory: GiB 本地 HDD:GiBLocal HDD: GiB 最大网卡数/网络带宽等级Max NICs / Network bandwidth
特小型ExtraSmall 11 0.7680.768 2020 1/低1 / low
小型Small 11 1.751.75 225225 1/中1 / moderate
中型Medium 22 3.5 GB3.5 GB 490490 1/中1 / moderate
大型Large 44 77 10001000 2/高2 / high
超大型ExtraLarge 88 1414 20402040 4/高4 / high
A5A5 22 1414 490490 1/中1 / moderate
A6A6 44 2828 10001000 2/高2 / high
A7A7 88 5656 20402040 4/高4 / high

A 系列 - 计算密集型实例A-series - compute-intensive instances

有关如何使用这些大小的信息和注意事项,请参阅高性能计算 VM 大小For information and considerations about using these sizes, see High performance compute VM sizes.

大小Size CPU 核心数CPU cores 内存:GiBMemory: GiB 本地 HDD:GiBLocal HDD: GiB 最大网卡数/网络带宽等级Max NICs / Network bandwidth
A8*A8* 88 5656 18171817 2/高2 / high
A9*A9* 1616 112112 18171817 4/非常高4 / very high
A10A10 88 5656 18171817 2/高2 / high
A11A11 1616 112112 18171817 4/非常高4 / very high

*支持 RDMA*RDMA capable

Av2 系列Av2-series

大小Size CPU 核心数CPU cores 内存:GiBMemory: GiB 本地 SSD:GiBLocal SSD: GiB 最大网卡数/网络带宽等级Max NICs / Network bandwidth
Standard_A1_v2Standard_A1_v2 11 22 1010 1/中1 / moderate
Standard_A2_v2Standard_A2_v2 22 44 2020 2/中2 / moderate
Standard_A4_v2Standard_A4_v2 44 88 4040 4/高4 / high
Standard_A8_v2Standard_A8_v2 88 1616 8080 8/高8 / high
Standard_A2m_v2Standard_A2m_v2 22 1616 2020 2/中2 / moderate
Standard_A4m_v2Standard_A4m_v2 44 3232 4040 4/高4 / high
Standard_A8m_v2Standard_A8m_v2 88 6464 8080 8/高8 / high

D 系列D-series

大小Size CPU 核心数CPU cores 内存:GiBMemory: GiB 本地 SSD:GiBLocal SSD: GiB 最大网卡数/网络带宽等级Max NICs / Network bandwidth
Standard_D1Standard_D1 11 3.53.5 5050 1/中1 / moderate
Standard_D2Standard_D2 22 77 100100 2/高2 / high
Standard_D3Standard_D3 44 1414 200200 4/高4 / high
Standard_D4Standard_D4 88 2828 400400 8/高8 / high
Standard_D11Standard_D11 22 1414 100100 2/高2 / high
Standard_D12Standard_D12 44 2828 200200 4/高4 / high
Standard_D13Standard_D13 88 5656 400400 8/高8 / high
Standard_D14Standard_D14 1616 112112 800800 8/非常高8 / very high

Dv2 系列Dv2-series

大小Size CPU 核心数CPU cores 内存:GiBMemory: GiB 本地 SSD:GiBLocal SSD: GiB 最大网卡数/网络带宽等级Max NICs / Network bandwidth
Standard_D1_v2Standard_D1_v2 11 3.53.5 5050 1/中1 / moderate
Standard_D2_v2Standard_D2_v2 22 77 100100 2/高2 / high
Standard_D3_v2Standard_D3_v2 44 1414 200200 4/高4 / high
Standard_D4_v2Standard_D4_v2 88 2828 400400 8/高8 / high
Standard_D5_v2Standard_D5_v2 1616 5656 800800 8/极高8 / extremely high
Standard_D11_v2Standard_D11_v2 22 1414 100100 2/高2 / high
Standard_D12_v2Standard_D12_v2 44 2828 200200 4/高4 / high
Standard_D13_v2Standard_D13_v2 88 5656 400400 8/高8 / high
Standard_D14_v2Standard_D14_v2 1616 112112 800800 8/极高8 / extremely high
Standard_D15_v2Standard_D15_v2 2020 140140 1,0001,000 8/极高8 / extremely high

Dv3 系列Dv3-series

大小Size CPU 核心数CPU cores 内存:GiBMemory: GiB 本地 SSD:GiBLocal SSD: GiB 最大网卡数/网络带宽等级Max NICs / Network bandwidth
Standard_D2_v3Standard_D2_v3 22 88 1616 2/中2 / moderate
Standard_D4_v3Standard_D4_v3 44 1616 3232 2/高2 / high
Standard_D8_v3Standard_D8_v3 88 3232 6464 4/高4 / high
Standard_D16_v3Standard_D16_v3 1616 6464 128128 8/极高8 / extremely high
Standard_D32_v3Standard_D32_v3 3232 128128 256256 8/极高8 / extremely high
Standard_D64_v3Standard_D64_v3 6464 256256 512512 8/极高8 / extremely high

Ev3 系列Ev3-series

大小Size CPU 核心数CPU cores 内存:GiBMemory: GiB 本地 SSD:GiBLocal SSD: GiB 最大网卡数/网络带宽等级Max NICs / Network bandwidth
Standard_E2_v3Standard_E2_v3 22 1616 3232 2/中2 / moderate
Standard_E4_v3Standard_E4_v3 44 3232 6464 2/高2 / high
Standard_E8_v3Standard_E8_v3 88 6464 128128 4/高4 / high
Standard_E16_v3Standard_E16_v3 1616 128128 256256 8/极高8 / extremely high
Standard_E32_v3Standard_E32_v3 3232 256256 512512 8/极高8 / extremely high
Standard_E64_v3Standard_E64_v3 6464 432432 864864 8/极高8 / extremely high

G 系列G-series

大小Size CPU 核心数CPU cores 内存:GiBMemory: GiB 本地 SSD:GiBLocal SSD: GiB 最大网卡数/网络带宽等级Max NICs / Network bandwidth
Standard_G1Standard_G1 22 2828 384384 1/高1 / high
Standard_G2Standard_G2 44 5656 768768 2/高2 / high
Standard_G3Standard_G3 88 112112 1,5361,536 4/非常高4 / very high
Standard_G4Standard_G4 1616 224224 3,0723,072 8/极高8 / extremely high
Standard_G5Standard_G5 3232 448448 6,1446,144 8/极高8 / extremely high

H 系列H-series

Azure H 系列虚拟机是下一代高性能计算 VM,旨在满足高端计算需求,例如分子建模和计算流体动力学。Azure H-series virtual machines are the next generation high performance computing VMs aimed at high end computational needs, like molecular modeling, and computational fluid dynamics. 这些 8 核和 16 核的 VM 基于采用 DDR4 内存和本地 SSD 存储的 Intel Haswell E5-2667 V3 处理器技术构建。These 8 and 16 core VMs are built on the Intel Haswell E5-2667 V3 processor technology featuring DDR4 memory and local SSD-based storage.

除强大的 CPU 功能外,H 系列还提供支持使用 InfiniBand 的低延迟 RDMA 网络的各种选项,以及支持内存密集型计算要求的多项内存配置。In addition to the substantial CPU power, the H-series offers diverse options for low latency RDMA networking using FDR InfiniBand and several memory configurations to support memory intensive computational requirements.

大小Size CPU 核心数CPU cores 内存:GiBMemory: GiB 本地 SSD:GiBLocal SSD: GiB 最大网卡数/网络带宽等级Max NICs / Network bandwidth
Standard_H8Standard_H8 88 5656 10001000 8/高8 / high
Standard_H16Standard_H16 1616 112112 20002000 8/非常高8 / very high
Standard_H8mStandard_H8m 88 112112 10001000 8/高8 / high
Standard_H16mStandard_H16m 1616 224224 20002000 8/非常高8 / very high
Standard_H16r*Standard_H16r* 1616 112112 20002000 8/非常高8 / very high
Standard_H16mr*Standard_H16mr* 1616 224224 20002000 8/非常高8 / very high

*支持 RDMA*RDMA capable

配置云服务的大小Configure sizes for Cloud Services

可以指定角色实例的虚拟机大小作为服务定义文件描述的服务模型的一部分。You can specify the Virtual Machine size of a role instance as part of the service model described by the service definition file. 角色大小确定了 CPU 核心数目、内存容量,以及分配给正在运行的实例的本地文件系统大小。The size of the role determines the number of CPU cores, the memory capacity, and the local file system size that is allocated to a running instance. 根据应用程序的资源要求选择角色大小。Choose the role size based on your application's resource requirement.

下面是一个将 Web 角色实例的角色大小设置为 Standard_D2 的示例:Here is an example for setting the role size to be Standard_D2 for a Web Role instance:

<WorkerRole name="Worker1" vmsize="Standard_D2">
...
</WorkerRole>

更改现有角色的大小Changing the size of an existing role

工作负荷性质更改或有新的 VM 大小可用时,可能需要更改角色的大小。As the nature of your workload changes or new VM sizes become available, you may want to change the size of your role. 为此,必须在服务定义文件中更改 VM 大小(如上所示),并重新打包云服务并进行部署。To do so, you must change the VM size in your service definition file (as shown above), repackage your Cloud Service, and deploy it. 不能直接从门户或 PowerShell 更改 VM 大小。It is not possible to change VM sizes directly from the portal or PowerShell.

提示

用户可能希望在不同的环境(例如You may want to use different VM sizes for your role in different environments (eg. 测试和生产)中为角色使用不同的 VM 大小。test vs production). 一种办法是在项目中创建多个服务定义文件 (.csdef),并使用 CSPack 工具在自动生成期间为每个环境创建不同的云服务包。One way to do this is to create multiple service definition (.csdef) files in your project, then create different cloud service packages per environment during your automated build using the CSPack tool. 若要了解云服务包的元素以及如何创建云服务包,请参阅什么是云服务模型以及如何打包?To learn more about the elements of a cloud services package and how to create them, see What is the cloud services model and how do I package it?

获取大小列表Get a list of sizes

可以使用 PowerShell 或 REST API 获取大小列表。You can use PowerShell or the REST API to get a list of sizes. 此处介绍了 REST API。The REST API is documented here. 以下代码是一个 PowerShell 命令,用于列出可用于云服务的所有大小。The following code is a PowerShell command that will list all the sizes avaialble for Cloud Services.

Get-AzureRoleSize | where SupportedByWebWorkerRoles -eq $true | select InstanceSize, RoleSizeLabel

后续步骤Next steps