BindingFlags 枚举

定义

指定控制绑定以及通过反射执行成员和类型搜索的方式的标记。Specifies flags that control binding and the way in which the search for members and types is conducted by reflection.

此枚举有一个 FlagsAttribute 属性,允许按位组合成员值。

public enum class BindingFlags
[System.Flags]
[System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(true)]
[System.Serializable]
public enum BindingFlags
type BindingFlags = 
Public Enum BindingFlags
继承
BindingFlags
属性

字段

CreateInstance 512

指定反射应创建指定类型的实例。Specifies that reflection should create an instance of the specified type. 调用与给定参数匹配的构造函数。Calls the constructor that matches the given arguments. 忽略提供的成员名称。The supplied member name is ignored. 如果未指定查找的类型,则应用“(实例 | 公共)”。If the type of lookup is not specified, (Instance | Public) will apply. 不能调用类型初始值设定项。It is not possible to call a type initializer.

此标志会传递给 InvokeMember 方法以调用构造函数。This flag is passed to an InvokeMember method to invoke a constructor.

DeclaredOnly 2

指定只应考虑在所提供类型的层次结构级别上声明的成员。Specifies that only members declared at the level of the supplied type's hierarchy should be considered. 不考虑继承的成员。Inherited members are not considered.

Default 0

指定未定义任何绑定标志。Specifies that no binding flags are defined.

DoNotWrapExceptions 33554432
ExactBinding 65536

指定提供的参数的类型必须与对应形参的类型完全匹配。Specifies that types of the supplied arguments must exactly match the types of the corresponding formal parameters. 如果调用方提供非 null Binder 对象,则反射会引发异常,因为这意味着调用方在提供将选取适当方法的 BindToXXX 实现。Reflection throws an exception if the caller supplies a non-null Binder object, since that implies that the caller is supplying BindToXXX implementations that will pick the appropriate method. 当自定义绑定器可实现此标志的语义时,默认绑定器会忽略此标志。The default binder ignores this flag, while custom binders can implement the semantics of this flag.

FlattenHierarchy 64

指定应返回层次结构往上的公共成员和受保护静态成员。Specifies that public and protected static members up the hierarchy should be returned. 不返回继承类中的私有静态成员。Private static members in inherited classes are not returned. 静态成员包括字段、方法、事件和属性。Static members include fields, methods, events, and properties. 不支持嵌套类型。Nested types are not returned.

GetField 1024

指定应返回指定字段的值。Specifies that the value of the specified field should be returned.

此标志会传递给 InvokeMember 方法以获取字段值。This flag is passed to an InvokeMember method to get a field value.

GetProperty 4096

指定应返回指定属性的值。Specifies that the value of the specified property should be returned.

此标志会传递给 InvokeMember 方法以调用属性 getter。This flag is passed to an InvokeMember method to invoke a property getter.

IgnoreCase 1

指定在绑定时不应考虑成员名称的大小写。Specifies that the case of the member name should not be considered when binding.

IgnoreReturn 16777216

在 COM 互操作中用于指定可以忽略成员的返回值。Used in COM interop to specify that the return value of the member can be ignored.

Instance 4

指定实例成员要包括在搜索中。Specifies that instance members are to be included in the search.

InvokeMethod 256

指定要调用的方法。Specifies that a method is to be invoked. 这不必是构造函数或类型初始值设定项。This must not be a constructor or a type initializer.

此标志会传递给 InvokeMember 方法以调用方法。This flag is passed to an InvokeMember method to invoke a method.

NonPublic 32

指定非公共成员要包括在搜索中。Specifies that non-public members are to be included in the search.

OptionalParamBinding 262144

返回其参数计数与提供的参数数量匹配的成员集。Returns the set of members whose parameter count matches the number of supplied arguments. 此绑定标志用于参数具有默认值的方法和使用变量参数 (varargs) 的方法。This binding flag is used for methods with parameters that have default values and methods with variable arguments (varargs). 此标志只应与 InvokeMember(String, BindingFlags, Binder, Object, Object[], ParameterModifier[], CultureInfo, String[]) 结合使用。This flag should only be used with InvokeMember(String, BindingFlags, Binder, Object, Object[], ParameterModifier[], CultureInfo, String[]).

使用默认值的参数仅在省略了尾随参数的调用中使用。Parameters with default values are used only in calls where trailing arguments are omitted. 它们必须是位于最后面的参数。They must be the last arguments.

Public 16

指定公共成员要包括在搜索中。Specifies that public members are to be included in the search.

PutDispProperty 16384

指定应调用 COM 对象上的 PROPPUT 成员。Specifies that the PROPPUT member on a COM object should be invoked. PROPPUT 指定使用值的属性设置函数。PROPPUT specifies a property-setting function that uses a value. 如果属性同时具有 PROPPUTPROPPUTREF 并且你需要区分调用哪一个,请使用 PutDispPropertyUse PutDispProperty if a property has both PROPPUT and PROPPUTREF and you need to distinguish which one is called.

PutRefDispProperty 32768

指定应调用 COM 对象上的 PROPPUTREF 成员。Specifies that the PROPPUTREF member on a COM object should be invoked. PROPPUTREF 指定使用引用而不是值的属性设置函数。PROPPUTREF specifies a property-setting function that uses a reference instead of a value. 如果属性同时具有 PROPPUTPROPPUTREF 并且你需要区分调用哪一个,请使用 PutRefDispPropertyUse PutRefDispProperty if a property has both PROPPUT and PROPPUTREF and you need to distinguish which one is called.

SetField 2048

指定应设置指定字段的值。Specifies that the value of the specified field should be set.

此标志会传递给 InvokeMember 方法以设置字段值。This flag is passed to an InvokeMember method to set a field value.

SetProperty 8192

指定应设置指定属性的值。Specifies that the value of the specified property should be set. 对于 COM 属性,指定此绑定标志等效于指定 PutDispPropertyPutRefDispPropertyFor COM properties, specifying this binding flag is equivalent to specifying PutDispProperty and PutRefDispProperty.

此标志会传递给 InvokeMember 方法以调用属性 setter。This flag is passed to an InvokeMember method to invoke a property setter.

Static 8

指定静态成员要包括在搜索中。Specifies that static members are to be included in the search.

SuppressChangeType 131072

未实现。Not implemented.

示例

下面的示例演示了许多绑定标志。The following example demonstrates many of the binding flags.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;
using namespace System::Reflection;
using namespace System::IO;

//namespace BindingFlagsSnippet {
public ref class TestClass
{
public:
   String^ Name;

private:
   array<Object^>^ values;
   int methodCalled;

public:

   property Object^ Item [int]
   {
      Object^ get( int index )
      {
         return values[ index ];
      }

      void set( int index, Object^ value )
      {
         values[ index ] = value;
      }
   }

   property Object^ Value
   {
      Object^ get()
      {
         return "the value";
      }
   }

   TestClass() 
   {
      Name = "initialName";
      values = gcnew array<Object^> {(int^)0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9};
      methodCalled = 0;
   }
   
   TestClass(String^ initName)
   {
      Name = initName;
      values = gcnew array<Object^> {(int^)0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9};
      methodCalled = 0;
   }

   static void SayHello()
   {
      Console::WriteLine( "Hello" );
   }

   void AddUp()
   {
      methodCalled++;
      Console::WriteLine( "AddUp Called {0} times", methodCalled );
   }

   static double ComputeSum( double d1, double d2 )
   {
      return d1 + d2;
   }

   static void PrintName( String^ firstName, String^ lastName )
   {
      Console::WriteLine( "{0},{1}", lastName, firstName );
   }

   void PrintTime()
   {
      Console::WriteLine( DateTime::Now );
   }

   void Swap( interior_ptr<int> a, interior_ptr<int> b )
   {
      int x =  *a;
       *a =  *b;
       *b = x;
   }
};


[DefaultMemberAttribute("PrintTime")]
public ref class TestClass2
{
public:
   void PrintTime()
   {
      Console::WriteLine( DateTime::Now );
   }

};

public ref class Base
{
private:
    static int BaseOnlyPrivate = 0;
protected:
    static int BaseOnly = 0;
};

public ref class Derived : Base
{
public:
    static int DerivedOnly = 0;
};

public ref class MostDerived : Derived {};

void main()
{
   array<Object^>^ noArguments;

   // BindingFlags::InvokeMethod
   // Call a static method.
   Type^ t = TestClass::typeid;
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking a static method." );
   Console::WriteLine( "-------------------------" );
   t->InvokeMember( "SayHello", BindingFlags::InvokeMethod | BindingFlags::Public | BindingFlags::Static, 
         nullptr, nullptr, noArguments );

   // BindingFlags::InvokeMethod
   // Call an instance method.
   TestClass^ c = gcnew TestClass;
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking an instance method." );
   Console::WriteLine( "----------------------------" );
   c->GetType()->InvokeMember( "AddUp", BindingFlags::InvokeMethod, nullptr, c, noArguments );
   c->GetType()->InvokeMember( "AddUp", BindingFlags::InvokeMethod, nullptr, c, noArguments );

   // BindingFlags::InvokeMethod
   // Call a method with parameters.
   array<Object^>^args = {100.09,184.45};
   Object^ result;
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking a method with parameters." );
   Console::WriteLine( "---------------------------------" );
   result = t->InvokeMember( "ComputeSum", BindingFlags::InvokeMethod, nullptr, nullptr, args );
   Console::WriteLine( " {0} + {1} = {2}", args[ 0 ], args[ 1 ], result );

   // BindingFlags::GetField, SetField
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking a field (getting and setting.)" );
   Console::WriteLine( "--------------------------------------" );

   // Get a field value.
   result = t->InvokeMember( "Name", BindingFlags::GetField, nullptr, c, noArguments );
   Console::WriteLine( "Name == {0}", result );

   // Set a field.
   array<Object^>^obj2 = {"NewName"};
   t->InvokeMember( "Name", BindingFlags::SetField, nullptr, c, obj2 );
   result = t->InvokeMember( "Name", BindingFlags::GetField, nullptr, c, noArguments );
   Console::WriteLine( "Name == {0}", result );
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking an indexed property (getting and setting.)" );
   Console::WriteLine( "--------------------------------------------------" );

   // BindingFlags::GetProperty
   // Get an indexed property value.
   int index = 3;
   array<Object^>^obj3 = {index};
   result = t->InvokeMember( "Item", BindingFlags::GetProperty, nullptr, c, obj3 );
   Console::WriteLine( "Item->Item[ {0}] == {1}", index, result );

   // BindingFlags::SetProperty
   // Set an indexed property value.
   index = 3;
   array<Object^>^obj4 = {index,"NewValue"};
   t->InvokeMember( "Item", BindingFlags::SetProperty, nullptr, c, obj4 );
   result = t->InvokeMember( "Item", BindingFlags::GetProperty, nullptr, c, obj3 );
   Console::WriteLine( "Item->Item[ {0}] == {1}", index, result );
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Getting a field or property." );
   Console::WriteLine( "----------------------------" );

   // BindingFlags::GetField
   // Get a field or property.
   result = t->InvokeMember( "Name", static_cast<BindingFlags>(BindingFlags::GetField | 
       BindingFlags::GetProperty), nullptr, c, noArguments );
   Console::WriteLine( "Name == {0}", result );

   // BindingFlags::GetProperty
   result = t->InvokeMember( "Value", static_cast<BindingFlags>(BindingFlags::GetField | 
       BindingFlags::GetProperty), nullptr, c, noArguments );
   Console::WriteLine( "Value == {0}", result );
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking a method with named parameters." );
   Console::WriteLine( "---------------------------------------" );

   // BindingFlags::InvokeMethod
   // Call a method using named parameters.
   array<Object^>^argValues = {"Mouse","Micky"};
   array<String^>^argNames = {"lastName","firstName"};
   t->InvokeMember( "PrintName", BindingFlags::InvokeMethod, nullptr, nullptr, argValues, nullptr, 
       nullptr, argNames );
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking a default member of a type." );
   Console::WriteLine( "------------------------------------" );

   // BindingFlags::Default
   // Call the default member of a type.
   Type^ t3 = TestClass2::typeid;
   t3->InvokeMember( "", static_cast<BindingFlags>(BindingFlags::InvokeMethod | BindingFlags::Default), 
        nullptr, gcnew TestClass2, noArguments );

   // BindingFlags::Static, NonPublic, and Public
   // Invoking a member with ref parameters.
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking a method with ref parameters." );
   Console::WriteLine( "--------------------------------------" );
   MethodInfo^ m = t->GetMethod( "Swap" );
   args = gcnew array<Object^>(2);
   args[ 0 ] = 1;
   args[ 1 ] = 2;
   m->Invoke( gcnew TestClass, args );
   Console::WriteLine( "{0}, {1}", args[ 0 ], args[ 1 ] );

   // BindingFlags::CreateInstance
   // Creating an instance with a parameterless constructor.
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Creating an instance with a parameterless constructor." );
   Console::WriteLine( "------------------------------------------------------" );
   Object^ obj = t->InvokeMember( "TestClass", static_cast<BindingFlags>(BindingFlags::Public | 
       BindingFlags::Instance | BindingFlags::CreateInstance), nullptr, nullptr, noArguments );
   Console::WriteLine("Instance of {0} created.", obj->GetType()->Name);

   // Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters.
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters." );
   Console::WriteLine( "------------------------------------------------------------" );
   obj = t->InvokeMember( "TestClass", static_cast<BindingFlags>(BindingFlags::Public | 
       BindingFlags::Instance | BindingFlags::CreateInstance), nullptr, nullptr, 
       gcnew array<Object^> { "Hello, World!" } );
   Console::WriteLine("Instance of {0} created with initial value '{1}'.", obj->GetType()->Name, 
       obj->GetType()->InvokeMember("Name", BindingFlags::GetField, nullptr, obj, noArguments));

   // BindingFlags::DeclaredOnly
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "DeclaredOnly instance members." );
   Console::WriteLine( "------------------------------" );
   array<System::Reflection::MemberInfo^>^memInfo = t->GetMembers( BindingFlags::DeclaredOnly | 
       BindingFlags::Instance | BindingFlags::Public);
   for ( int i = 0; i < memInfo->Length; i++ )
   {
      Console::WriteLine( memInfo[ i ]->Name );

   }

   // BindingFlags::IgnoreCase
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Using IgnoreCase and invoking the PrintName method." );
   Console::WriteLine( "---------------------------------------------------" );
   t->InvokeMember( "printname", static_cast<BindingFlags>(BindingFlags::IgnoreCase | 
                BindingFlags::Static | BindingFlags::Public | BindingFlags::InvokeMethod), 
                nullptr, nullptr, gcnew array<Object^> {"Brad","Smith"});

   // BindingFlags::FlattenHierarchy
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Using FlattenHierarchy to get inherited static protected and public members." );
   Console::WriteLine( "----------------------------------------------------------------------------" );
   array<FieldInfo^>^ finfos = MostDerived::typeid->GetFields(BindingFlags::NonPublic | 
         BindingFlags::Public | BindingFlags::Static | BindingFlags::FlattenHierarchy);
   for each (FieldInfo^ finfo in finfos)
   {
       Console::WriteLine("{0} defined in {1}.", finfo->Name, finfo->DeclaringType->Name);
   }

   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine("Without FlattenHierarchy." );
   Console::WriteLine("-------------------------");
   finfos = MostDerived::typeid->GetFields(BindingFlags::NonPublic | BindingFlags::Public |
         BindingFlags::Static);
   for each (FieldInfo^ finfo in finfos)
   {
       Console::WriteLine("{0} defined in {1}.", finfo->Name, finfo->DeclaringType->Name);
   }
};

/* This example produces output similar to the following:

Invoking a static method.
-------------------------
Hello

Invoking an instance method.
----------------------------
AddUp Called 1 times
AddUp Called 2 times

Invoking a method with parameters.
---------------------------------
 100.09 + 184.45 = 284.54

Invoking a field (getting and setting.)
--------------------------------------
Name == initialName
Name == NewName

Invoking an indexed property (getting and setting.)
--------------------------------------------------
Item->Item[ 3] == 3
Item->Item[ 3] == NewValue

Getting a field or property.
----------------------------
Name == NewName
Value == the value

Invoking a method with named parameters.
---------------------------------------
Mouse,Micky

Invoking a default member of a type.
------------------------------------
12/23/2009 4:19:06 PM

Invoking a method with ref parameters.
--------------------------------------
2, 1

Creating an instance with a parameterless constructor.
------------------------------------------------------
Instance of TestClass created.

Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters.
------------------------------------------------------------
Instance of TestClass created with initial value 'Hello, World!'.

DeclaredOnly instance members.
------------------------------
get_Item
set_Item
get_Value
AddUp
PrintTime
Swap
.ctor
.ctor
Value
Item
Name
methodCalled

Using IgnoreCase and invoking the PrintName method.
---------------------------------------------------
Smith,Brad

Using FlattenHierarchy to get inherited static protected and public members.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
DerivedOnly defined in Derived.
BaseOnly defined in Base.

Without FlattenHierarchy.
-------------------------

 */
using System;
using System.Reflection;
using System.IO;

namespace BindingFlagsSnippet
{
    class Example
    {
        static void Main()
        {
            // BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
            // Call a static method.
            Type t = typeof (TestClass);

            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking a static method.");
            Console.WriteLine("-------------------------");
            t.InvokeMember ("SayHello", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod | BindingFlags.Public | 
                BindingFlags.Static, null, null, new object [] {});

            // BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
            // Call an instance method.
            TestClass c = new TestClass ();
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking an instance method.");
            Console.WriteLine("----------------------------");
            c.GetType().InvokeMember ("AddUp", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, null, c, new object [] {});
            c.GetType().InvokeMember ("AddUp", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, null, c, new object [] {});

            // BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
            // Call a method with parameters.
            object [] args = new object [] {100.09, 184.45};
            object result;
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking a method with parameters.");
            Console.WriteLine("---------------------------------");
            result = t.InvokeMember ("ComputeSum", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, null, null, args);
            Console.WriteLine ("{0} + {1} = {2}", args[0], args[1], result);

            // BindingFlags.GetField, SetField
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking a field (getting and setting.)");
            Console.WriteLine("--------------------------------------");
            // Get a field value.
            result = t.InvokeMember ("Name", BindingFlags.GetField, null, c, new object [] {});
            Console.WriteLine ("Name == {0}", result);
            // Set a field.
            t.InvokeMember ("Name", BindingFlags.SetField, null, c, new object [] {"NewName"});
            result = t.InvokeMember ("Name", BindingFlags.GetField, null, c, new object [] {});
            Console.WriteLine ("Name == {0}", result);

            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking an indexed property (getting and setting.)");
            Console.WriteLine("--------------------------------------------------");
            // BindingFlags.GetProperty
            // Get an indexed property value.
            int  index = 3;
            result = t.InvokeMember ("Item", BindingFlags.GetProperty, null, c, new object [] {index});
            Console.WriteLine ("Item[{0}] == {1}", index, result);
            // BindingFlags.SetProperty
            // Set an indexed property value.
            index = 3;
            t.InvokeMember ("Item", BindingFlags.SetProperty, null, c, new object [] {index, "NewValue"});
            result = t.InvokeMember ("Item", BindingFlags.GetProperty , null, c, new object [] {index});
            Console.WriteLine ("Item[{0}] == {1}", index, result);

            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Getting a field or property.");
            Console.WriteLine("----------------------------");
            // BindingFlags.GetField
            // Get a field or property.
            result = t.InvokeMember ("Name", BindingFlags.GetField | BindingFlags.GetProperty, null, c, 
                new object [] {});
            Console.WriteLine ("Name == {0}", result);
            // BindingFlags.GetProperty
            result = t.InvokeMember ("Value", BindingFlags.GetField | BindingFlags.GetProperty, null, c, 
                new object [] {});
            Console.WriteLine ("Value == {0}", result);

            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking a method with named parameters.");
            Console.WriteLine("---------------------------------------");
            // BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
            // Call a method using named parameters.
            object[] argValues = new object [] {"Mouse", "Micky"};
            String [] argNames = new String [] {"lastName", "firstName"};
            t.InvokeMember ("PrintName", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, null, null, argValues, null, null, 
                argNames);

            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking a default member of a type.");
            Console.WriteLine("------------------------------------");
            // BindingFlags.Default
            // Call the default member of a type.
            Type t3 = typeof (TestClass2);
            t3.InvokeMember ("", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod | BindingFlags.Default, null, new TestClass2(), 
                new object [] {});

            // BindingFlags.Static, NonPublic, and Public
            // Invoking a member with ref parameters.
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking a method with ref parameters.");
            Console.WriteLine("--------------------------------------");
            MethodInfo m = t.GetMethod("Swap");
            args = new object[2];
            args[0] = 1;
            args[1] = 2;
            m.Invoke(new TestClass(),args);
            Console.WriteLine ("{0}, {1}", args[0], args[1]);

            // BindingFlags.CreateInstance
            // Creating an instance with a parameterless constructor.
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Creating an instance with a parameterless constructor.");
            Console.WriteLine("------------------------------------------------------");
            object cobj = t.InvokeMember ("TestClass", BindingFlags.Public |
                BindingFlags.Instance | BindingFlags.CreateInstance,
                null, null, new object [] {});
            Console.WriteLine("Instance of {0} created.", cobj.GetType().Name);

            // Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters.
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters.");
            Console.WriteLine("------------------------------------------------------------");
            cobj = t.InvokeMember ("TestClass", BindingFlags.Public |
                BindingFlags.Instance | BindingFlags.CreateInstance,
                null, null, new object [] { "Hello, World!" });
            Console.WriteLine("Instance of {0} created with initial value '{1}'.", cobj.GetType().Name,
                cobj.GetType().InvokeMember("Name", BindingFlags.GetField, null, cobj, null));

            // BindingFlags.DeclaredOnly
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("DeclaredOnly instance members.");
            Console.WriteLine("------------------------------");
            System.Reflection.MemberInfo[] memInfo =
                t.GetMembers(BindingFlags.DeclaredOnly | BindingFlags.Instance | 
                BindingFlags.Public);
            for(int i=0;i<memInfo.Length;i++)
            {
                Console.WriteLine(memInfo[i].Name);
            }

            // BindingFlags.IgnoreCase
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Using IgnoreCase and invoking the PrintName method.");
            Console.WriteLine("---------------------------------------------------");
            t.InvokeMember("printname", BindingFlags.IgnoreCase | BindingFlags.Static | 
                BindingFlags.Public | BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, null, null, new object[]
                {"Brad","Smith"});

            // BindingFlags.FlattenHierarchy
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Using FlattenHierarchy to get inherited static protected and public members." );
            Console.WriteLine("----------------------------------------------------------------------------");
            FieldInfo[] finfos = typeof(MostDerived).GetFields(BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Public |
                  BindingFlags.Static | BindingFlags.FlattenHierarchy);
            foreach (FieldInfo finfo in finfos)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("{0} defined in {1}.", finfo.Name, finfo.DeclaringType.Name);
            }

            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Without FlattenHierarchy." );
            Console.WriteLine("-------------------------");
            finfos = typeof(MostDerived).GetFields(BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Public |
                  BindingFlags.Static);
            foreach (FieldInfo finfo in finfos)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("{0} defined in {1}.", finfo.Name, finfo.DeclaringType.Name);
            }
        }
    }

    public class TestClass
    {
        public String Name;
        private Object [] values = new Object [] {0, 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9};

        public Object this [int index]
        {
            get
            {
                return values[index];
            }
            set
            {
                values[index] = value;
            }
        }

        public Object Value
        {
            get
            {
                return "the value";
            }
        }

        public TestClass () : this("initialName") {}
        public TestClass (string initName)
        {
            Name = initName;
        }

        int methodCalled = 0;

        public static void SayHello ()
        {
            Console.WriteLine ("Hello");
        }

        public void AddUp ()
        {
            methodCalled++;
            Console.WriteLine ("AddUp Called {0} times", methodCalled);
        }

        public static double ComputeSum (double d1, double d2)
        {
            return d1 + d2;
        }

        public static void PrintName (String firstName, String lastName)
        {
            Console.WriteLine ("{0},{1}", lastName,firstName);
        }

        public void PrintTime ()
        {
            Console.WriteLine (DateTime.Now);
        }

        public void Swap(ref int a, ref int b)
        {
            int x = a;
            a = b;
            b = x;
        }
    }

    [DefaultMemberAttribute ("PrintTime")]
    public class TestClass2
    {
        public void PrintTime ()
        {
            Console.WriteLine (DateTime.Now);
        }
    }

    public class Base
    {
        static int BaseOnlyPrivate = 0;
        protected static int BaseOnly = 0;
    }
    public class Derived : Base
    {
        public static int DerivedOnly = 0;
    }
    public class MostDerived : Derived {}
}

/* This example produces output similar to the following:

Invoking a static method.
-------------------------
Hello

Invoking an instance method.
----------------------------
AddUp Called 1 times
AddUp Called 2 times

Invoking a method with parameters.
---------------------------------
100.09 + 184.45 = 284.54

Invoking a field (getting and setting.)
--------------------------------------
Name == initialName
Name == NewName

Invoking an indexed property (getting and setting.)
--------------------------------------------------
Item[3] == 3
Item[3] == NewValue

Getting a field or property.
----------------------------
Name == NewName
Value == the value

Invoking a method with named parameters.
---------------------------------------
Mouse,Micky

Invoking a default member of a type.
------------------------------------
12/23/2009 4:29:21 PM

Invoking a method with ref parameters.
--------------------------------------
2, 1

Creating an instance with a parameterless constructor.
------------------------------------------------------
Instance of TestClass created.

Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters.
------------------------------------------------------------
Instance of TestClass created with initial value 'Hello, World!'.

DeclaredOnly instance members.
------------------------------
get_Item
set_Item
get_Value
AddUp
PrintTime
Swap
.ctor
.ctor
Item
Value
Name

Using IgnoreCase and invoking the PrintName method.
---------------------------------------------------
Smith,Brad

Using FlattenHierarchy to get inherited static protected and public members.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
DerivedOnly defined in Derived.
BaseOnly defined in Base.

Without FlattenHierarchy.
-------------------------

 */
Imports System.Reflection
Imports System.IO

Class Invoke

    Public Shared Sub Main()
        ' BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
        ' Call a static method.
        Dim t As Type = GetType(TestClass)

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking a static method.")
        Console.WriteLine("-------------------------")
        t.InvokeMember("SayHello", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod Or BindingFlags.Public _
            Or BindingFlags.Static, Nothing, Nothing, New Object() {})

        ' BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
        ' Call an instance method.
        Dim c As New TestClass()
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking an instance method.")
        Console.WriteLine("----------------------------")
        c.GetType().InvokeMember("AddUp", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, Nothing, c, New Object() {})
        c.GetType().InvokeMember("AddUp", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, Nothing, c, New Object() {})

        ' BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
        ' Call a method with parameters.
        Dim args() As Object = {100.09, 184.45}
        Dim result As Object
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking a method with parameters.")
        Console.WriteLine("---------------------------------")
        result = t.InvokeMember("ComputeSum", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, Nothing, Nothing, args)
        Console.WriteLine("{0} + {1} = {2}", args(0), args(1), result)

        ' BindingFlags.GetField, SetField
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking a field (getting and setting.)")
        Console.WriteLine("--------------------------------------")
        ' Get a field value.
        result = t.InvokeMember("Name", BindingFlags.GetField, Nothing, c, New Object() {})
        Console.WriteLine("Name == {0}", result)
        ' Set a field.
        t.InvokeMember("Name", BindingFlags.SetField, Nothing, c, New Object() {"NewName"})
        result = t.InvokeMember("Name", BindingFlags.GetField, Nothing, c, New Object() {})
        Console.WriteLine("Name == {0}", result)

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking an indexed property (getting and setting.)")
        Console.WriteLine("--------------------------------------------------")
        ' BindingFlags.GetProperty 
        ' Get an indexed property value.
        Dim index As Integer = 3
        result = t.InvokeMember("Item", BindingFlags.GetProperty, Nothing, c, New Object() {index})
        Console.WriteLine("Item[{0}] == {1}", index, result)
        ' BindingFlags.SetProperty
        ' Set an indexed property value.
        index = 3
        t.InvokeMember("Item", BindingFlags.SetProperty, Nothing, c, New Object() {index, "NewValue"})
        result = t.InvokeMember("Item", BindingFlags.GetProperty, Nothing, c, New Object() {index})
        Console.WriteLine("Item[{0}] == {1}", index, result)

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Getting a field or property.")
        Console.WriteLine("----------------------------")
        ' BindingFlags.GetField
        ' Get a field or property.
        result = t.InvokeMember("Name", BindingFlags.GetField Or BindingFlags.GetProperty, Nothing, _
            c, New Object() {})
        Console.WriteLine("Name == {0}", result)
        ' BindingFlags.GetProperty
        result = t.InvokeMember("Value", BindingFlags.GetField Or BindingFlags.GetProperty, Nothing, _
            c, New Object() {})
        Console.WriteLine("Value == {0}", result)

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking a method with named parameters.")
        Console.WriteLine("---------------------------------------")
        ' BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
        ' Call a method using named parameters.
        Dim argValues() As Object = {"Mouse", "Micky"}
        Dim argNames() As [String] = {"lastName", "firstName"}
        t.InvokeMember("PrintName", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, Nothing, Nothing, argValues, Nothing, _
            Nothing, argNames)

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking a default member of a type.")
        Console.WriteLine("------------------------------------")
        ' BindingFlags.Default
        ' Call the default member of a type.
        Dim t3 As Type = GetType(TestClass2)
        t3.InvokeMember("", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod Or BindingFlags.Default, Nothing, _
            New TestClass2(), New Object() {})

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking a method with ByRef parameters.")
        Console.WriteLine("----------------------------------------")
        ' BindingFlags.Static, NonPublic, and Public
        ' Invoking a member by reference.
        Dim m As MethodInfo = t.GetMethod("Swap")
        args = New Object(1) {}
        args(0) = 1
        args(1) = 2
        m.Invoke(New TestClass(), args)
        Console.WriteLine("{0}, {1}", args(0), args(1))

        ' BindingFlags.CreateInstance
        ' Creating an instance.
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Creating an instance with parameterless constructor.")
        Console.WriteLine("----------------------------------------------------")
        Dim obj As Object = GetType(TestClass).InvokeMember("TestClass", BindingFlags.CreateInstance, _
            Nothing, Nothing, New Object() {})
        Console.WriteLine("Instance of {0} created.", obj.GetType().Name)

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters.")
        Console.WriteLine("------------------------------------------------------------")
        obj = GetType(TestClass).InvokeMember("TestClass", BindingFlags.CreateInstance, Nothing, _
            Nothing, New Object() { "Hello, World!" })
        Console.WriteLine("Instance of {0} created with initial value '{1}'.", obj.GetType().Name, _
            obj.GetType().InvokeMember("Name", BindingFlags.GetField, Nothing, obj, Nothing))

        ' BindingFlags.DeclaredOnly
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("DeclaredOnly instance members.")
        Console.WriteLine("------------------------------")
        Dim memInfo As System.Reflection.MemberInfo() = t.GetMembers(BindingFlags.DeclaredOnly Or _
            BindingFlags.Public Or BindingFlags.Instance)
        Dim i As Integer
        For i = 0 To memInfo.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine(memInfo(i).Name)
        Next i

        ' BindingFlags.IgnoreCase
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Using IgnoreCase and invoking the PrintName method.")
        Console.WriteLine("---------------------------------------------------")
        t.InvokeMember("printname", BindingFlags.IgnoreCase Or BindingFlags.Public Or _
            BindingFlags.Static Or BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, Nothing, Nothing, _
            New Object() {"Brad", "Smith"})

        ' BindingFlags.FlattenHierarchy
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Using FlattenHierarchy to get inherited static protected and public members." )
        Console.WriteLine("----------------------------------------------------------------------------")
        Dim finfos() As FieldInfo = GetType(MostDerived).GetFields(BindingFlags.NonPublic Or _
              BindingFlags.Public Or BindingFlags.Static Or BindingFlags.FlattenHierarchy)
        For Each finfo As FieldInfo In finfos
            Console.WriteLine("{0} defined in {1}.", finfo.Name, finfo.DeclaringType.Name)
        Next

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Without FlattenHierarchy." )
        Console.WriteLine("-------------------------")
        finfos = GetType(MostDerived).GetFields(BindingFlags.NonPublic Or BindingFlags.Public Or _
              BindingFlags.Static)
        For Each finfo As FieldInfo In finfos
            Console.WriteLine("{0} defined in {1}.", finfo.Name, finfo.DeclaringType.Name)
        Next
    End Sub
End Class

Public Class TestClass
    Public Name As String
    Private values() As [Object] = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}

    Default Public Property Item(ByVal index As Integer) As [Object]
        Get
            Return values(index)
        End Get
        Set(ByVal Value As [Object])
            values(index) = Value
        End Set
    End Property

    Public ReadOnly Property Value() As [Object]
        Get
            Return "the value"
        End Get
    End Property

    Public Sub New(ByVal initName As String)
        Name = initName
    End Sub 

    Public Sub New()
        MyClass.New("initialName")
    End Sub 

    Private methodCalled As Integer = 0

    Public Shared Sub SayHello()
        Console.WriteLine("Hello")
    End Sub 

    Public Sub AddUp()
        methodCalled += 1
        Console.WriteLine("AddUp Called {0} times", methodCalled)
    End Sub 

    Public Shared Function ComputeSum(ByVal d1 As Double, ByVal d2 As Double) As Double
        Return d1 + d2
    End Function 

    Public Shared Sub PrintName(ByVal firstName As [String], ByVal lastName As [String])
        Console.WriteLine("{0},{1}", lastName, firstName)
    End Sub 

    Public Sub PrintTime()
        Console.WriteLine(DateTime.Now)
    End Sub 

    Public Sub Swap(ByRef a As Integer, ByRef b As Integer)
        Dim x As Integer = a
        a = b
        b = x
    End Sub
End Class

<DefaultMemberAttribute("PrintTime")> _
Public Class TestClass2

    Public Sub PrintTime()
        Console.WriteLine(DateTime.Now)
    End Sub 
End Class

Public Class Base
    Shared BaseOnlyPrivate As Integer = 0
    Protected Shared BaseOnly As Integer = 0
End Class

Public Class Derived 
    Inherits Base
    Public Shared DerivedOnly As Integer = 0
End Class

Public Class MostDerived 
    Inherits Derived
End Class

' This example produces output similar to the following:
'
'Invoking a static method.
'-------------------------
'Hello
'
'Invoking an instance method.
'----------------------------
'AddUp Called 1 times
'AddUp Called 2 times
'
'Invoking a method with parameters.
'---------------------------------
'100.09 + 184.45 = 284.54
'
'Invoking a field (getting and setting.)
'--------------------------------------
'Name == initialName
'Name == NewName
'
'Invoking an indexed property (getting and setting.)
'--------------------------------------------------
'Item[3] == 3
'Item[3] == NewValue
'
'Getting a field or property.
'----------------------------
'Name == NewName
'Value == the value
'
'Invoking a method with named parameters.
'---------------------------------------
'Mouse,Micky
'
'Invoking a default member of a type.
'------------------------------------
'12/23/2009 4:34:22 PM
'
'Invoking a method with ByRef parameters.
'----------------------------------------
'2, 1
'
'Creating an instance with parameterless constructor.
'----------------------------------------------------
'Instance of TestClass created.
'
'Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters.
'------------------------------------------------------------
'Instance of TestClass created with initial value 'Hello, World!'.
'
'DeclaredOnly instance members.
'------------------------------
'get_Item
'set_Item
'get_Value
'AddUp
'PrintTime
'Swap
'.ctor
'.ctor
'Item
'Value
'Name
'
'Using IgnoreCase and invoking the PrintName method.
'---------------------------------------------------
'Smith,Brad
'
'Using FlattenHierarchy to get inherited static protected and public members.
'----------------------------------------------------------------------------
'DerivedOnly defined in Derived.
'BaseOnly defined in Base.
'
'Without FlattenHierarchy.
'-------------------------
'

注解

这些BindingFlags控件绑定用于SystemSystem.ReflectionSystem.Runtime命名空间中很多类, 这些类用于调用、创建、获取、设置和查找成员和类型。These BindingFlags control binding for a great many classes in the System, System.Reflection, and System.Runtime namespaces that invoke, create, get, set, and find members and types.

BindingFlags在下面Type的方法和其他位置 (如) MethodBase.Invoke中使用:BindingFlags are used in the following Type methods and other places such as MethodBase.Invoke:

InvokeMemberGetMethod尤其重要。InvokeMember and GetMethod are especially important.

绑定标志可以按其标识类型成员的方式进行分类, 如下表所示。The binding flags can be categorized by how they identify a type member, as listed in the following table.

由辅助功能标识Identified by Accessibility 由绑定参数标识Identified by Binding Argument 由操作标识Identified by Operation
DeclaredOnlyDeclaredOnly

FlattenHierarchyFlattenHierarchy

IgnoreCaseIgnoreCase

IgnoreReturnIgnoreReturn

实例Instance

重要NonPublic

PublicPublic

StaticStatic
ExactBindingExactBinding

OptionalParamBindingOptionalParamBinding
CreateInstanceCreateInstance

GetFieldGetField

SetFieldSetField

GetPropertyGetProperty

SetPropertySetProperty

InvokeMethodInvokeMethod

PutDispPropertyPutDispProperty

PutRefDispPropertyPutRefDispProperty

备注

您必须指定InstanceStatic以及或Public NonPublic , 否则不会返回任何成员。You must specify Instance or Static along with Public or NonPublic or no members will be returned.

下表列出了默认Binder.ChangeType执行的强制转换。The following table lists the coercions performed by the default Binder.ChangeType. 此表特别适用于BindingFlags.ExactBinding绑定标志。This table applies especially to the BindingFlags.ExactBinding binding flag. 一般原则是ChangeType只应执行不会丢失数据的扩大强制。The general principle is that ChangeType should perform only widening coercions, which never lose data. 扩大强制的一个示例是将一个值为32位有符号整数的值强制为64位有符号整数值。An example of a widening coercion is coercing a value that is a 32-bit signed integer to a value that is a 64-bit signed integer. 这与收缩强制不同, 后者可能会丢失数据。This is distinguished from a narrowing coercion, which may lose data. 收缩强制的一个示例是将64位有符号整数强制转换为32位有符号整数。An example of a narrowing coercion is coercing a 64-bit signed integer to a 32-bit signed integer.

源类型Source Type 目标类型Target Type
任何类型Any type 其基类型。Its base type.
任何类型Any type 它实现的接口。The interface it implements.
Char UInt16, UInt32, Int32, UInt64, Int64, Single, DoubleUInt16, UInt32, Int32, UInt64, Int64, Single, Double
Byte CharUInt16Int16UInt32Int32UInt64Int64SingleDoubleChar, UInt16, Int16, UInt32, Int32, UInt64, Int64, Single, Double
SByte Int16, Int32, Int64, Single, DoubleInt16, Int32, Int64, Single, Double
UInt16 UInt32, Int32, UInt64, Int64, Single, DoubleUInt32, Int32, UInt64, Int64, Single, Double
Int16 Int32, Int64, Single, DoubleInt32, Int64, Single, Double
UInt32 UInt64, Int64, Single, DoubleUInt64, Int64, Single, Double
Int32 Int64, Single, DoubleInt64, Single, Double
UInt64 SingleDoubleSingle, Double
Int64 SingleDoubleSingle, Double
Single Double
非引用Non-reference 按引用。By-reference.

BindingFlags.ExactBinding使用绑定标志时, 反射会对通用类型系统的可访问性规则建模。When the BindingFlags.ExactBinding binding flag is used, reflection models the accessibility rules of the common type system. 例如, 如果调用方在同一程序集中, 则调用方不需要内部成员的特殊权限。For example, if the caller is in the same assembly, the caller does not need special permissions for internal members. 否则, 调用方需要ReflectionPermissionOtherwise, the caller needs ReflectionPermission. 这与查找受保护的、私有的成员等的成员一致。This is consistent with the lookup of members that are protected, private, and so on.

适用于