Internet 协议版本 6Internet Protocol Version 6

Internet 协议版本 6 (IPv6) 是 Internet 的网络层的标准协议新套件。The Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a new suite of standard protocols for the network layer of the Internet. IPv6 旨在解决当前版本的 Internet 协议套件(称作 IPv4)存在的许多问题,包括地址消耗、安全性、自动配置和扩展性等问题。IPv6 is designed to solve many of the problems of the current version of the Internet Protocol suite (known as IPv4) with regard to address depletion, security, auto-configuration, extensibility, and so on. IPv6 扩展了 Internet 的功能以启用新型应用程序,包括对等和移动应用程序。IPv6 expands the capabilities of the Internet to enable new kinds of applications, including peer-to-peer and mobile applications. 以下是当前 IPv4 协议的主要问题:The following are the main issues of the current IPv4 protocol:

  • 地址空间快速消耗。Rapid depletion of the address space.

    这导致使用网络地址转换器 (NAT) 将多个专用地址映射到一个公共 IP 地址。This has led to the use of Network Address Translators (NATs) that map multiple private addresses to a single public IP address. 此机制造成的主要问题是处理开销和端对端连接性的缺失。The main problems created by this mechanism are processing overhead and lack of end-to-end connectivity.

  • 层次结构支持缺失。Lack of hierarchy support.

    因其固有的预定义类组织,IPv4 缺乏真正的层次结构支持。Because of its inherent predefined class organization, IPv4 lacks true hierarchical support. 无法通过真正地映射网络拓扑的方式构成 IP 地址。It is impossible to structure the IP addresses in a way that truly maps the network topology. 由于存在这种重大的设计缺陷,所以需要通过大型路由表将 IPv4 数据包传送至 Internet 上的任何位置。This crucial design flaw creates the need for large routing tables to deliver IPv4 packets to any location on the Internet.

  • 复杂的网络配置。Complex network configuration.

    对于 IPv4,地址必须以静态方式分配,或使用配置协议,如 DHCP。With IPv4, addresses must be assigned statically or using a configuration protocol such as DHCP. 在理想情况下,主机不需要依靠 DHCP 基础结构的管理。In an ideal situation, hosts would not have to rely on the administration of a DHCP infrastructure. 主机可基于其所在的网络段自行配置。Instead, they would be able to configure themselves based on the network segment in which they are located.

  • 缺乏内置身份验证和保密性。Lack of built-in authentication and confidentiality.

    IPv4 不需要针对提供交换数据的身份验证或加密的机制的支持。IPv4 does not require the support for any mechanism that provides authentication or encryption of the exchanged data. IPv6 在这一方面作出更改。This changes with IPv6. Internet 协议安全 (IPSec)是 IPv6 支持要求。Internet Protocol security (IPSec) is an IPv6 support requirement.

新协议套件必须满足以下基本需求:A new protocol suite must satisfy the following basic requirements:

  • 低开销的大规模路由和寻址。Large-scale routing and addressing with low overhead.

  • 针对各种连接情况进行自动配置。Auto-configuration for various connecting situations.

  • 内置身份验证和保密性。Built-in authentication and confidentiality.

有关详细信息,请参阅 IPv6 寻址IPv6 路由IPv6 自动配置启用和禁用 IPv6 以及如何:修改计算机配置文件以启用 IPv6 支持For more information, see IPv6 Addressing, IPv6 Routing, IPv6 Auto-Configuration, Enabling and Disabling IPv6, and How to: Modify the Computer Configuration File to Enable IPv6 Support.

referenceReferences

以下是可以在 Internet 工程任务组 (IETF) 找到的精选 RFC 文档:The following are selected RFC documents that you can find at the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) website:

  • RFC 1287,面向未来的 Internet 体系结构。RFC 1287, Towards the Future Internet Architecture.

  • RFC 1454,下一 IP 版本的建议的比较。RFC 1454, Comparison of Proposals for Next Version of IP.

  • RFC 2373,IP 版本 6 寻址体系结构。RFC 2373, IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture.

  • RFC 2374,IPv6 可聚合全局单播地址格式。RFC 2374, An IPv6 Aggregatable Global Unicast Address Format.

还可以在 IP 版本 6 (IPv6) 中找到 IPv6 相关信息。You can also find IPv6-related information on the IP Version 6 (IPv6).

请参阅See also