自动发现服务Autodiscover service

适用于: Exchange Server 2013Applies to: Exchange Server 2013

了解 Microsoft Exchange 2013 的 Exchange 自动发现服务。Learn about the Exchange Autodiscover service for Microsoft Exchange 2013. 你将了解 Exchange 自动发现服务的用途及其工作方式, 以及部署选项。You'll learn what the Exchange Autodiscover service does and how it works as well as what the deployment options are.

Microsoft Exchange 2013 包含一个名为 "自动发现服务" 的服务。Microsoft Exchange 2013 includes a service named the Autodiscover service. 本主题概述了服务, 并说明了该服务的工作方式、如何配置 Outlook 客户端以及在邮件环境中部署自动发现服务所使用的选项。This topic gives an overview of the service and explains how it works, how it configures Outlook clients, and what options there are for deploying the Autodiscover service in your messaging environment.

自动发现服务执行以下操作:The Autodiscover service does the following:

  • 为运行 Microsoft Office Outlook 2007、Outlook 2010 或 Outlook 2013 的客户端自动配置用户配置文件设置, 并为其提供支持的移动电话。Automatically configures user profile settings for clients running Microsoft Office Outlook 2007, Outlook 2010, or Outlook 2013, as well as supported mobile phones. 支持运行 Windows Mobile 6.1 或更高版本的电话。Phones running Windows Mobile 6.1 or a later version are supported. 如果你的电话不是 Windows 移动电话, 请查看你的移动电话文档以查看是否受支持。If your phone isn't a Windows Mobile phone, check your mobile phone documentation to see if it's supported.

  • 提供对连接到您的 Exchange 邮件环境的 Outlook 2007、Outlook 2010 或 Outlook 2013 客户端的 Exchange 功能的访问。Provides access to Exchange features for Outlook 2007, Outlook 2010, or Outlook 2013 clients that are connected to your Exchange messaging environment.

  • 使用用户的电子邮件地址和密码为 Outlook 2007、Outlook 2010 或 Outlook 2013 客户端和受支持的移动电话提供配置文件设置。Uses a user's email address and password to provide profile settings to Outlook 2007, Outlook 2010, or Outlook 2013 clients and supported mobile phones. 如果 Outlook 客户端已加入域, 则使用用户的域帐户。If the Outlook client is joined to a domain, the user's domain account is used.

自动发现服务概述Overview of the Autodiscover service

自动发现服务使您更轻松地配置 Outlook 2007、Outlook 2010 或 Outlook 2013 和一些移动电话。The Autodiscover service makes it easier to configure Outlook 2007, Outlook 2010, or Outlook 2013 and some mobile phones. 您不能在早于 Office Outlook 2007 的 Outlook 版本中使用自动发现服务。You can't use the Autodiscover service with versions of Outlook earlier than Office Outlook 2007. 在早期版本的 Microsoft Exchange (Exchange 2003 SP2 或更早版本) 和 Outlook (Outlook 2003 或更早版本) 中, 必须手动配置所有用户配置文件以访问 Exchange。In earlier versions of Microsoft Exchange (Exchange 2003 SP2 or earlier) and Outlook (Outlook 2003 or earlier), you had to configure all user profiles manually to access Exchange. 如果邮件环境发生更改, 则需要额外的工作来管理这些配置文件。Extra work was required to manage these profiles if changes occurred to the messaging environment. 否则, Outlook 客户端将停止正常运行。Otherwise, the Outlook clients would stop functioning correctly.

通过自动发现服务, Outlook 查找一个新连接点, 该连接点由用户的邮箱 GUID + @ + 用户的主 SMTP 地址的域部分组成。Through the Autodiscover service, Outlook finds a new connection point made up of the user's mailbox GUID + @ + the domain portion of the user's primary SMTP address. 自动发现 服务向客户端返回以下信息:The Autodiscover service returns the following information to the client:

  • 用户的显示名称The user's display name

  • 内部和外部连接的单独连接设置Separate connection settings for internal and external connectivity

  • 用户邮箱服务器的位置The location of the user's Mailbox server

  • 各种 Outlook 功能的 Url, 这些功能管理忙/闲信息、统一消息和脱机通讯簿等功能The URLs for various Outlook features that govern functionality such as free/busy information, Unified Messaging, and the offline address book

  • Outlook 无处不在 服务器设置Outlook Anywhere server settings

当用户的 Exchange 信息发生更改时, Outlook 将使用自动发现服务自动重新配置用户的配置文件。When a user's Exchange information is changed, Outlook automatically reconfigures the user's profile using the Autodiscover service. 例如, 如果用户的邮箱被移动或客户端无法连接到用户的邮箱或可用 Exchange 功能, Outlook 将会联系自动发现服务, 并自动更新用户的配置文件, 以包含需要的信息。连接到邮箱和 Exchange 功能。For example, if a user's mailbox is moved or the client can't connect to the user's mailbox or to available Exchange features, Outlook will contact the Autodiscover service and automatically update the user's profile to include the information that's required to connect to the mailbox and Exchange features.

自动发现服务的工作方式How the Autodiscover service works

在 Exchange 2013 中安装客户端访问服务器时, 会在 Internet Information Services (IIS) 中的默认网站下创建一个名为 "自动发现" 的默认虚拟目录。When you install a Client Access server in Exchange 2013, a default virtual directory named Autodiscover is created under the default website in Internet Information Services (IIS). 在以下情况下, 此虚拟目录处理来自 Outlook 2007、Outlook 2010 和 Outlook 2013 客户端和支持的移动电话的自动发现服务请求:This virtual directory handles Autodiscover service requests from Outlook 2007, Outlook 2010, and Outlook 2013 clients and supported mobile phones under the following circumstances:

  • 配置或更新用户帐户时When a user account is configured or updated

  • 当 Outlook 客户端定期检查对 Exchange Web 服务 Url 的更改时When an Outlook client periodically checks for changes to the Exchange Web Services URLs

  • 当 Exchange 邮件环境中发生基础网络连接更改时When underlying network connection changes occur in your Exchange messaging environment

此外, 将在安装客户端访问服务器的服务器上创建一个名为 "服务连接点 (SCP)" 的新 Active Directory 对象。Additionally, a new Active Directory object named the service connection point (SCP) is created on the server where you install the Client Access server.

SCP 对象包含林的 自动发现 服务 URL 的权威列表。The SCP object contains the authoritative list of Autodiscover service URLs for the forest. 您可以使用set-clientaccessserver CMDLET 更新 SCP 对象。You can use the Set-ClientAccessServer cmdlet to update the SCP object. 有关详细信息, 请参阅set-clientaccessserverFor more information, see Set-ClientAccessServer.

重要

在运行set-clientaccessserver cmdlet 之前, 请确保客户端访问服务器上的经过身份验证的用户帐户具有对 SCP 对象的读取权限。Before you run the Set-ClientAccessServer cmdlet, make sure the Authenticated Users account on the Client Access server has Read permissions for the SCP object. 如果用户没有正确的权限, 他们将无法搜索和阅读项目。If users don't have the correct permissions, they can't search for and read items.

有关 SCP 对象的详细信息, 请参阅使用服务连接点发布For more information about SCP objects, see Publishing with Service Connection Points.

对于外部访问,或在使用 DNS 时,客户端通过使用用户电子邮件地址中的主 SMTP 域地址找到 Internet 上的 自动发现 服务。For external access, or using DNS, the client locates the Autodiscover service on the Internet by using the primary SMTP domain address from the user's email address.

备注

您必须在 DNS 中为 Outlook 客户端提供记录, 才能使用 DNS 发现自动发现服务。You must provide a record in DNS for Outlook clients to discover the Autodiscover service by using DNS. 有关详细信息, 请参阅 Windows 文档以配置 DNS, 还请参阅白皮书: Exchange 2007 自动发现服务For more information, see your Windows documentation for configuring DNS and also see the White Paper: Exchange 2007 Autodiscover Service.

根据您是否已在单独的站点上配置自动发现服务, 自动发现服务 URL 将为 https://<smtp 地址域>/autodiscover/autodiscover.xml 或https://autodiscover.< smtp 地址域>/autodiscover/autodiscover.xml, 其中://<smtp 地址-域>是主 smtp 域地址。Depending on whether you've configured the Autodiscover service on a separate site, the Autodiscover service URL will be either https://<smtp-address-domain>/autodiscover/autodiscover.xml or https://autodiscover.<smtp-address-domain>/autodiscover/autodiscover.xml, where ://<smtp-address-domain> is the primary SMTP domain address. 例如,如果用户的电子邮件地址是 tony@contoso.com,则主 SMTP 域地址是 contoso.com。For example, if the user's email address is tony@contoso.com, the primary SMTP domain address is contoso.com. 当客户端连接到 Active Directory 时, 客户端会查找在安装过程中创建的 SCP 对象。When the client connects to Active Directory, the client looks for the SCP object created during Setup. 在包含多个客户端访问服务器的部署中, 会为每个客户端访问服务器创建一个自动发现 SCP 对象。In deployments that include multiple Client Access servers, an Autodiscover SCP object is created for each Client Access server. SCP 对象包含表单https://CAS01/autodiscover/autodiscover.xml中客户端访问服务器的完全限定域名 (FQDN) 的ServiceBindingInfo属性, 其中 CAS01 是客户端访问服务器的 FQDN。The SCP object contains the ServiceBindingInfo attribute with the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the Client Access server in the form https://CAS01/autodiscover/autodiscover.xml, where CAS01 is the FQDN for the Client Access server. 使用用户凭据, Outlook 2007、Outlook 2010 或 Outlook 2013 客户端对 Active Directory 进行身份验证并搜索自动发现 SCP 对象。Using the user credentials, the Outlook 2007, Outlook 2010, or Outlook 2013 client authenticates to Active Directory and searches for the Autodiscover SCP objects. 客户端获取并枚举自动发现服务的实例后, 客户端将连接到枚举列表中的第一个客户端访问服务器, 并以连接到用户邮箱所需的 XML 数据形式获取配置文件信息。和可用的 Exchange 功能。After the client obtains and enumerates the instances of the Autodiscover service, the client connects to the first Client Access server in the enumerated list and obtains the profile information in the form of XML data that's needed to connect to the user's mailbox and available Exchange features.

自动发现服务的部署选项Deployment options for the Autodiscover service

必须为 Outlook 2007、Outlook 2010 和 Outlook 2013 客户端正确部署和配置自动发现服务, 以自动连接到 Exchange 功能, 如脱机通讯簿、可用性服务和统一消息 (UM)。The Autodiscover service must be deployed and configured correctly for Outlook 2007, Outlook 2010, and Outlook 2013 clients to automatically connect to Exchange features such as the offline address book, the Availability service, and Unified Messaging (UM). 部署自动发现服务只是确保 Outlook 2007、Outlook 2010 或 Outlook 2013 客户端可以访问您的 Exchange 服务 (如可用性服务) 的一个步骤。Deploying the Autodiscover service is only one step in making sure your Exchange services, such as the Availability service, can be accessed by Outlook 2007, Outlook 2010, or Outlook 2013 clients.

为跨林移动配置自动发现Configuring Autodiscover for cross-forest moves

自动发现服务可提供用户配置文件信息, 以便将已从一个 Exchange 林移动的邮箱的 Outlook 客户端连接到另一个林。The Autodiscover service can provide user profile information to connecting Outlook clients for mailboxes that have been moved from one Exchange forest to another. 为此, 必须在使用MailUser cmdlet 的用户邮箱驻留在目标林中的原始林中配置启用邮件的用户。For this to happen, you must configure a mail-enabled user in both the original forest where the user's mailbox resided and in the target forest using the New-MailUser cmdlet. 在源林中, 应使用 cmdlet 中的ExternalEmailAddress参数指定目标林中邮箱的新电子邮件地址。In the source forest, you should use the ExternalEmailAddress parameter in the cmdlet to specify the new email address of the mailbox in the target forest. 有关详细信息, 请参阅MailUserFor more information, see New-MailUser.

当您配置启用邮件的用户时, 原始林中的自动发现服务会将身份验证用户重定向到目标林中的新电子邮件地址。When you configure a mail-enabled user, the Autodiscover service in the original forest will redirect the authenticating user to the new email address in the target forest. 随后, 连接的 Outlook 客户端将被重定向到邮箱已移动到的目标林中的客户端访问服务器。The connecting Outlook client will then be redirected to the Client Access server in the target forest where the mailbox has been moved.