Exchange 2013 虚拟化Exchange 2013 virtualization

适用于: Exchange Server 2013Applies to: Exchange Server 2013

您可以在虚拟化环境中部署 Microsoft Exchange Server 2013。You can deploy Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 in a virtualized environment. 本主题概述了在硬件虚拟化软件上部署 Exchange 2013 时支持的方案。This topic provides an overview of the scenarios that are supported for deploying Exchange 2013 on hardware virtualization software.

  • 冷启动: 将系统从电源关闭状态进入操作系统的干净启动时, 该操作是冷启动Cold boot: When bringing a system from a power-off state into a clean start of the operating system, the action is a cold boot. 在这种情况下,不会持续任何操作系统状态。No operating system state has been persisted in this case.

  • 已保存状态: 当虚拟机断电时, 虚拟机监控程序通常能够保存虚拟机的状态, 因此当计算机重新启动时, 它会返回到该保存的状态, 而不是通过冷启动启动。Saved state: When a virtual machine is powered off, hypervisors typically have the ability to save the state of the virtual machine, so when the machine is powered back on, it returns to that saved state rather than going through a cold boot startup.

  • 计划迁移: 当系统管理员启动从一个虚拟机管理程序主机到另一个虚拟机主机的移动时, 该操作是计划的迁移Planned migration: When a system administrator initiates the move of a virtual machine from one hypervisor host to another, the action is a planned migration. 该操作可以是单次迁移;系统管理员也可以配置自动操作在既定的时间移动虚拟机。The action could be a single migration, or a system administrator could configure automation to move the virtual machine on a timed basis. 计划的迁移也可能是系统中发生的其他某个事件(非硬件或软件故障)的结果。A planned migration could also be the result of some other event that occurs in the system, other than hardware or software failure. 关键点在于:Exchange 虚拟机是在正常运行,由于某个原因需要重定位。The key point is the Exchange virtual machine is operating normally and needs to be relocated for some reason. 这种重定位可通过技术完成,如 Live Migration 或 vMotion。This relocation can be done via technology, like Live Migration or vMotion. 但是,如果 Exchange 虚拟机或虚拟机所在的虚拟机管理程序主机遇到了某种故障情况,则结果不具备计划的迁移的特征。However, if the Exchange virtual machine or the hypervisor host where the virtual machine is located experiences some sort of failure condition, the outcome isn't characterized as a planned migration.

硬件虚拟化要求Requirements for hardware virtualization

仅当满足以下所有条件时, Microsoft 才支持在硬件虚拟化软件上生产 Exchange 2013:Microsoft supports Exchange 2013 in production on hardware virtualization software only when all the following conditions are true:

  • 硬件虚拟化软件正在运行下列软件之一:The hardware virtualization software is running one of the following:

    备注

    如果满足所有可支持性要求, 则支持在基础结构即服务 (IaaS) 提供程序上部署 Exchange 2013。Deployment of Exchange 2013 on Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) providers is supported if all supportability requirements are met. 如果提供程序要设置虚拟机,则这些要求包括确保要用于 Exchange 虚拟机的虚拟机监控程序完全受支持,并且 Exchange 使用的基础结构满足大小调整过程中我们确定的性能要求。In the case of providers who are provisioning virtual machines, these requirements include ensuring that the hypervisor being used for Exchange virtual machines is fully supported, and that the infrastructure to be utilized by Exchange meets the performance requirements that were determined during the sizing process. 如果用于 Exchange 数据库和数据库事务日志(包括传输数据库)的所有存储卷都针对 Azure 高级存储进行了配置,则支持在 Microsoft Azure 虚拟机上进行部署。Deployment on Microsoft Azure virtual machines is supported if all storage volumes used for Exchange databases and database transaction logs (including transport databases) are configured for Azure Premium Storage.

  • Exchange 来宾虚拟机具有以下条件:The Exchange guest virtual machine has the following conditions:

    • 它运行的是 Exchange 2013。It's running Exchange 2013.

    • 它部署在 Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 (或更高版本)、Windows Server 2012 或 Windows Server 2012 R2 上。It's deployed on Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 (or later versions), Windows Server 2012, or on Windows Server 2012 R2.

对于 Exchange 2013 的部署:For deployments of Exchange 2013:

  • 虚拟机支持所有 Exchange 2013 服务器角色。All Exchange 2013 server roles are supported in a virtual machine.

  • Exchange server 虚拟机 (包括作为数据库可用性组一部分的 Exchange 邮箱虚拟机, 或 DAG) 可能会与基于主机的故障转移群集和迁移技术结合使用, 前提是已配置虚拟机这样, 它们在移动或脱机时不会在磁盘上保存和还原状态。Exchange server virtual machines (including Exchange Mailbox virtual machines that are part of a database availability group, or DAG), may be combined with host-based failover clustering and migration technology, as long as the virtual machines are configured such that they won't save and restore state on disk when moved or taken offline. 如果在目标节点上激活了虚拟机,则所有在虚拟机管理程序级别发生的故障转移活动必然导致冷启动。All failover activity occurring at the hypervisor level must result in a cold boot when the virtual machine is activated on the target node. 所有计划的迁移必然导致关机和冷启动,或者导致使用 Hyper-V Live 迁移之类技术的联机迁移。All planned migration must either result in shutdown and cold boot, or an online migration that makes use of a technology like Hyper-V Live Migration. 虚拟机的管理程序迁移由管理程序供应商提供支持;因此,必须确保管理程序供应商已经测试并支持 Exchange 虚拟机的迁移。Hypervisor migration of virtual machines is supported by the hypervisor vendor; therefore, you must ensure that your hypervisor vendor has tested and supports migration of Exchange virtual machines. Microsoft 支持这些虚拟机的 Hyper-V Live 迁移。Microsoft supports Hyper-V Live Migration of these virtual machines.

  • 物理主机上仅可部署管理软件(例如,防病毒软件、备份软件或虚拟机管理软件)。主机上不应安装其他基于服务器的应用程序(例如,Exchange、SQL Server、Active Directory 或 SAP)。主机应专门用来运行来宾虚拟机。Only management software (for example, antivirus software, backup software, or virtual machine management software) can be deployed on the physical host machine. No other server-based applications (for example, Exchange, SQL Server, Active Directory, or SAP) should be installed on the host machine. The host machine should be dedicated to running guest virtual machines.

  • 有些管理程序具有为虚拟机拍摄快照的功能。虚拟机快照可捕获虚拟机运行时的状态。使用此功能,您可为虚拟机拍摄多张快照,然后通过将快照应用到虚拟机将虚拟机还原到先前任一状态。但是,应用程序无法识别虚拟机快照,使用这些快照可能会导致维护状态数据的服务器应用程序(例如 Exchange)出现意外结果。因此,不支持为 Exchange 来宾虚拟机拍摄虚拟机快照。Some hypervisors include features for taking snapshots of virtual machines. Virtual machine snapshots capture the state of a virtual machine while it's running. This feature enables you to take multiple snapshots of a virtual machine and then revert the virtual machine to any of the previous states by applying a snapshot to the virtual machine. However, virtual machine snapshots aren't application aware, and using them can have unintended and unexpected consequences for a server application that maintains state data, such as Exchange. As a result, making virtual machine snapshots of an Exchange guest virtual machine isn't supported.

  • 使用许多硬件虚拟化产品,都可以指定应分配给每个来宾虚拟机的虚拟处理器数量。来宾虚拟机中的虚拟处理器共用物理系统中固定数量的物理处理器核心。Exchange 支持的虚拟处理器与物理处理器核心之比不得超过 2:1,但建议的比例为 1:1。例如,如果某个双处理器系统使用的是四核处理器,主机系统中总共有 8 个物理处理器核心。在使用此配置的系统中,分配给所有来宾虚拟机的虚拟处理器总数不得超过 16 个。Many hardware virtualization products allow you to specify the number of virtual processors that should be allocated to each guest virtual machine. The virtual processors located in the guest virtual machine share a fixed number of physical processor cores in the physical system. Exchange supports a virtual processor-to-physical processor core ratio no greater than 2:1, although we recommend a ratio of 1:1. For example, a dual processor system using quad core processors contains a total of 8 physical processor cores in the host system. On a system with this configuration, don't allocate more than a total of 16 virtual processors to all guest virtual machines combined.

  • 计算主机所需的虚拟处理器总数时,还必须同时考虑 I/O 和操作系统的要求。在大多数情况下,对于托管 Exchange 虚拟机的系统而言,主机操作系统中所需虚拟处理器数量为 2。在计算物理内核与虚拟处理器的总比率时,此值应用作主机操作系统虚拟处理器数的基准。如果主机操作系统的性能监控指出,您的处理器利用率已超过两个处理器,则应相应减少分配给来宾虚拟机的虚拟处理器计数,并验证虚拟处理器总数与物理内核之比是否不超过 2:1。When calculating the total number of virtual processors required by the host machine, you must also account for both I/O and operating system requirements. In most cases, the equivalent number of virtual processors required in the host operating system for a system hosting Exchange virtual machines is 2. This value should be used as a baseline for the host operating system virtual processor when calculating the overall ratio of physical cores to virtual processors. If performance monitoring of the host operating system indicates you're consuming more processor utilization than the equivalent of 2 processors, you should reduce the count of virtual processors assigned to guest virtual machines accordingly and verify that the overall virtual processor-to-physical core ratio is no greater than 2:1.

  • Exchange 来宾计算机的操作系统必须使用大小等于或小于15千兆字节 (GB) 的磁盘, 以及分配给来宾计算机的虚拟内存大小。The operating system for an Exchange guest machine must use a disk that has a size equal to at least 15 gigabytes (GB) plus the size of the virtual memory that's allocated to the guest machine. 必须满足此要求, 才能考虑操作系统和页面文件磁盘要求。This requirement is necessary to account for the operating system and paging file disk requirements. 例如, 如果为来宾计算机分配了 16 GB 的内存, 则来宾操作系统磁盘所需的最小磁盘空间为 31 GB。For example, if the guest machine is allocated 16 GB of memory, the minimum disk space needed for the guest operating system disk is 31 GB.

    此外, 还可能会阻止来宾虚拟机与主机计算机中安装的光纤通道或 SCSI 主机总线适配器 (Hba) 直接通信。In addition, it's possible that guest virtual machines may be prevented from directly communicating with Fibre Channel or SCSI host bus adapters (HBAs) installed in the host machine. 在这种情况下,你必须在主机的操作系统中配置适配器,并向来宾虚拟机提供逻辑单元号 (LUN) 作为虚拟磁盘或传递磁盘。In this event, you must configure the adapters in the host machine's operating system and present the logical unit numbers (LUNs) to guest virtual machines as either a virtual disk or a pass-through disk.

  • 将电子邮件从 Azure 计算资源发送到外部域的唯一受支持方法是通过 SMTP 中继 (也称为 SMTP 智能主机)。The only supported way to send emails to external domains from Azure compute resources is via an SMTP relay (otherwise known as an SMTP smart host). Azure 计算资源将电子邮件发送到 SMTP 中继,然后 SMTP 中继提供程序将电子邮件传送到外部域。The Azure compute resource sends the email to the SMTP relay and then the SMTP relay provider delivers the email to the external domain. Microsoft Exchange Online Protection 是 SMTP 中继的一个提供程序,但也有很多第三方提供程序。Microsoft Exchange Online Protection is one provider of an SMTP relay, but there are a number of third party providers as well. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Microsoft Azure 支持团队博客文章 Sending E-mail from Azure Compute Resource to External Domains(将电子邮件从 Azure 计算资源发送到外部域)。For more information, see the Microsoft Azure Support Team Blog post Sending E-mail from Azure Compute Resource to External Domains.

主机的存储要求Host machine storage requirements

每个主机的最低磁盘空间要求如下所示:The minimum disk space requirements for each host machine are as follows:

  • 一些硬件虚拟化应用程序中的主机需要用于操作系统及其组件的存储空间。Host machines in some hardware virtualization applications may require storage space for an operating system and its components. 例如, 在使用 Hyper-v 运行 Windows Server 2008 R2 时, 至少需要 10 GB 来满足 Windows Server 2008 的要求。For example, when running Windows Server 2008 R2 with Hyper-V, you will need a minimum of 10 GB to meet the requirements for Windows Server 2008. 有关更多详细信息, 请参阅Windows Server 2008 R2 系统要求For more details, see Windows Server 2008 R2 System Requirements. 同时需要额外的存储空间来支持操作系统的分页文件、管理软件和崩溃恢复(转储)文件。Additional storage space is also required to support the operating system's paging file, management software, and crash recovery (dump) files.

  • 有些管理程序将维护主机中每个来宾虚拟机所特有的文件。例如,在 Hyper-V 环境中,系统将为每个来宾计算机创建并维护临时内存存储文件 (BIN 文件)。每个 BIN 文件的大小等于分配给该来宾计算机的内存量。此外,系统还会在主机中为每个来宾计算机创建并维护其他文件。Some hypervisors maintain files on the host machine that are unique to each guest virtual machine. For example, in a Hyper-V environment, a temporary memory storage file (BIN file) is created and maintained for each guest machine. The size of each BIN file is equal to the amount of memory allocated to the guest machine. In addition, other files may also be created and maintained on the host machine for each guest machine.

  • 如果你的主机运行 Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V 或 Hyper-V 2012,而且你要配置将在数据库可用性组中托管 Exchange 邮箱服务器的基于主机的故障转移群集,那么我们建议你遵照 Microsoft 知识库文章 2872325 Hyper-V 中的来宾群集节点可能无法创建或加入中描述的指南。If your host machine is running Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V or Hyper-V 2012, and you are configuring a host-based failover cluster that will host Exchange Mailbox servers in a database availability group, then we recommend following the guidance documented in Microsoft Knowledge Base article, 2872325, Guest Cluster nodes in Hyper-V may not be able to create or join.

Exchange 存储要求Exchange storage requirements

对连接到虚拟 Exchange 服务器的存储的要求如下:Requirements for storage connected to a virtualized Exchange server are as follows:

  • 如果固定磁盘包含来宾的操作系统、任何正在使用的临时内存存储文件以及主机中托管的相关虚拟机文件,则必须在主机上为每个 Exchange 来宾计算机分配足够的存储空间。此外,对于每个 Exchange 来宾计算机,您还必须为邮件队列分配足够的存储空间,并为邮箱服务器中的数据库和日志文件分配足够的存储空间。Each Exchange guest machine must be allocated sufficient storage space on the host machine for the fixed disk that contains the guest's operating system, any temporary memory storage files in use, and related virtual machine files that are hosted on the host machine. In addition, for each Exchange guest machine, you must also allocate sufficient storage for the message queues and sufficient storage for the databases and log files on Mailbox servers.

  • Exchange 来宾计算机用于存储 Exchange 数据(例如,邮箱数据库和传输队列)的存储空间可以为固定大小的虚拟存储空间(例如,Hyper-V 环境中的固定虚拟硬盘(VHD 或 VHDX))、动态虚拟存储(结合使用 VHDX 文件和 Hyper-V 时)、SCSI 通过存储或 Internet SCSI (iSCSI) 存储。The storage used by the Exchange guest machine for storage of Exchange data (for example, mailbox databases and transport queues) can be virtual storage of a fixed size (for example, fixed virtual hard disks (VHD or VHDX) in a Hyper-V environment), dynamic virtual storage when using VHDX files with Hyper-V, SCSI pass-through storage, or Internet SCSI (iSCSI) storage. 通过存储是指在主机级别中配置的、专用于某一来宾计算机的存储。Pass-through storage is storage that's configured at the host level and dedicated to one guest machine. Exchange 来宾计算机用于存储 Exchange 数据的所有存储都必须是块级存储, 因为 Exchange 2013 不支持使用网络附加存储 (NAS) 卷, 而不支持在本主题后面概述的 SMB 3.0 方案中使用。All storage used by an Exchange guest machine for storage of Exchange data must be block-level storage because Exchange 2013 doesn't support the use of network attached storage (NAS) volumes, other than in the SMB 3.0 scenario outlined later in this topic. 此外,不支持通过虚拟机监控程序以块级存储形式向来宾提供的 NAS 存储。Also, NAS storage that's presented to the guest as block-level storage via the hypervisor isn't supported.

  • 如果来宾计算机运行在 Windows Server 2012 Hyper-v (或更高版本的 Hyper-v) 上, 则可以将固定或动态虚拟磁盘存储在由块级存储支持的 SMB 3.0 文件上。Fixed or dynamic virtual disks may be stored on SMB 3.0 files that are backed by block-level storage if the guest machine is running on Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V (or a later version of Hyper-V). SMB 3.0 文件共享的唯一支持用法是用于存储固定或动态虚拟磁盘。The only supported usage of SMB 3.0 file shares is for storage of fixed or dynamic virtual disks. 这类文件共享不能用于直接存储 Exchange 数据。Such file shares can't be used for direct storage of Exchange data. 当使用 SMB 3.0 文件共享来存储固定或动态的虚拟磁盘时, 应为文件共享的存储配置高可用性, 以确保 Exchange 服务尽可能实现最佳可用性。When using SMB 3.0 file shares to store fixed or dynamic virtual disks, the storage backing the file share should be configured for high availability to ensure the best possible availability of the Exchange service.

  • Exchange 所使用的存储应在磁盘心轴中加以托管,且磁盘心轴应与托管来宾虚拟机操作系统的存储分开。Storage used by Exchange should be hosted in disk spindles that are separate from the storage that's hosting the guest virtual machine's operating system.

  • 支持将 iSCSI 存储配置为使用 Exchange 来宾虚拟机内部的 iSCSI Initiator。但是,如果虚拟机内的网络堆栈功能不完整(例如,并非所有虚拟网络堆栈都支持巨帧),则此配置的性能将有所降低。Configuring iSCSI storage to use an iSCSI initiator inside an Exchange guest virtual machine is supported. However, there is reduced performance in this configuration if the network stack inside a virtual machine isn't full-featured (for example, not all virtual network stacks support jumbo frames).

Exchange 的内存要求和建议Exchange memory requirements and recommendations

有些管理程序能够根据在来宾计算机中使用的内存的感知使用情况, 以及与通过相同方式管理的其他来宾计算机的需求相比, 对特定来宾计算机的可用内存量进行过度订阅或动态调整。管理.Some hypervisors have the ability to oversubscribe or dynamically adjust the amount of memory available to a specific guest machine based on the perceived usage of memory in the guest machine as compared to the needs of other guest machines managed by the same hypervisor. 此技术适用于短时间内需要内存,随后可以向其他用户交出内存的工作负载。This technology makes sense for workloads in which memory is needed for brief periods of time and then can be surrendered for other uses. 但是不适用于旨在持续使用内存的工作负载。However, it doesn't make sense for workloads that are designed to use memory on an ongoing basis. 与具有涉及在内存中缓存数据的性能优化的许多服务器应用程序一样,Exchange 在无法完全控制分配给运行它的物理计算机或虚拟机的内存时,容易形成糟糕的系统性能和不可接受的客户端体验。Exchange, like many server applications with optimizations for performance that involve caching of data in memory, is susceptible to poor system performance and an unacceptable client experience if it doesn't have full control over the memory allocated to the physical or virtual machine on which it's running. 因此, 不支持对 Exchange 使用动态内存功能。As a result, using dynamic memory features for Exchange isn't supported.

Exchange 基于主机的故障转移群集和迁移Host-based failover clustering and migration for Exchange

以下是有关 Exchange 2013 Dag 中基于主机的故障转移群集和迁移技术的一些常见问题的解答:The following are answers to some frequently asked questions about host-based failover clustering and migration technology with Exchange 2013 DAGs:

  • Microsoft 支持第三方迁移技术吗?Does Microsoft support third-party migration technology?

    Microsoft 不能为使用这些技术的第三方虚拟机管理程序产品与 Exchange 的集成做出支持声明,因为这些技术不属于服务器虚拟化验证计划(Server Virtualization Validation Program,SVVP)。SVVP 涵盖了 Microsoft 对第三方虚拟机管理程序支持的其他方面。您需要确保您的虚拟机管理程序供应商支持将其迁移和群集技术与 Exchange 结合。如果您的虚拟机管理程序供应商支持将其迁移技术与 Exchange 结合,则 Microsoft 也支持 Exchange 与其迁移技术结合。Microsoft can't make support statements for the integration of third party hypervisor products using these technologies with Exchange, because these technologies aren't part of the Server Virtualization Validation Program (SVVP). The SVVP covers the other aspects of Microsoft support for third-party hypervisors. You need to ensure that your hypervisor vendor supports the combination of their migration and clustering technology with Exchange. If your hypervisor vendor supports their migration technology with Exchange, Microsoft supports Exchange with their migration technology.

  • Microsoft 如何定义基于主机的故障转移群集?How does Microsoft define host-based failover clustering?

    基于主机的故障转移群集是指可以自动响应主机级别故障并在备用服务器上启动受影响虚拟机的任何技术。支持使用此技术的前提是:在发生故障的情况下,虚拟机通过冷启动在备用主机上启动。此技术可帮助确保虚拟机绝不会从磁盘上持续的保存状态启动,因为虚拟机将会比其余的 DAG 成员陈旧。Host-based failover clustering refers to any technology that provides the automatic ability to react to host-level failures and start affected virtual machines on alternate servers. Use of this technology is supported given that, in a failure scenario, the virtual machine is coming up from a cold boot on the alternate host. This technology helps to make sure that the virtual machine never comes up from a saved state that's persisted on disk because it will be stale relative to the rest of the DAG members.

  • Microsoft 的迁移支持意味着什么?What does Microsoft mean by migration support?

    迁移技术是指允许按计划将虚拟机从一台主机计算机移到另一台主机计算机的任何技术。这种移动也可能是在资源负载平衡中发生的自动移动,但与系统中的故障无关。只要虚拟机从不通过在磁盘上持续的保存状态启动,那么支持就会受迁移。也就是说,通过在网络上传输状态和虚拟机内存移动虚拟机并且不会有感觉得到的停机时间的技术都可以与 Exchange 一起使用。第三方虚拟机管理程序供应商必须提供迁移技术支持,同时 Microsoft 也会提供对在此配置中使用的 Exchange 的支持。Migration technology refers to any technology that allows a planned move of a virtual machine from one host machine to another host machine. This move could also be an automated move that occurs as part of resource load balancing, but it isn't related to a failure in the system. Migrations are supported as long as the virtual machines never come up from a saved state that's persisted on disk. This means that technology that moves a virtual machine by transporting the state and virtual machine memory over the network with no perceived downtime is supported for use with Exchange. A third-party hypervisor vendor must provide support for the migration technology, while Microsoft provides support for Exchange when used in this configuration.