UM IP 网关UM IP gateways

统一消息 (UM) IP 网关表示物理 IP 语音 (VoIP) 网关、IP 专用交换机 (PBX) 或会话边界控制器 (SBC) 硬件设备。必须先在目录服务中创建 UM IP 网关,才能使用 VoIP 网关、IP PBX 或 SBC 应答语音邮件用户的传入呼叫和发送其传出呼叫。A Unified Messaging (UM) IP gateway represents a physical Voice over IP (VoIP) gateway, IP Private Branch eXchange (PBX), or session border controller (SBC) hardware device. Before a VoIP gateway, IP PBX, or SBC can be used to answer incoming calls and send outgoing calls for voice mail users, a UM IP gateway must be created in the directory service.

UM IP 网关概述Overview of UM IP gateways

通常,网关一词用于表示连接两个不兼容网络的物理设备。通过 Exchange 统一消息和其他统一消息解决方案,可以使用 VoIP 网关在基于公用电话交换网 (PSTN)/时分多路复用 (TDM) 或基于电路交换的电话网络与 IP 或分组交换的数据网络之间进行转换。IP PBX 也可以在 PSTN 网络和分组交换的网络之间进行转换,因此使用 IP PBX 时,不需要 VoIP 网关。只有将旧有 PBX 硬件设备连接到 UM 部署时才需要 VoIP 网关。Traditionally, gateway is a term that describes a physical device that connects two incompatible networks. With Exchange Unified Messaging and other unified messaging solutions, the VoIP gateway is used to translate between the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)/Time Division Multiplex (TDM) or circuit-switched based telephony network and an IP or packet-switched data network. An IP PBX also translates between the PSTN network and a packet-switched network, so when an IP PBX is used, a VoIP gateway isn't required. A VoIP gateway is only required if you are connecting a legacy PBX hardware device to your UM deployment.

备注

分组交换网络中的数据包(邮件或邮件片段)分别在路由器、交换机、VoIP 网关、IP PBX 和 SBC 等设备之间路由。与电路交换网相比,后者在两个节点之间建立专用连接,在通信期间独占使用。A packet-switched network is a network in which packets (messages or fragments of messages) are individually routed between devices such as routers, switches, VoIP gateway, IP PBXs and SBCs. This contrasts with a circuit-switched network that sets up a dedicated connection between the two nodes for their exclusive use for the duration of the communication.

Exchange 统一消息依靠 VoIP 网关的以下能力:将 PBX 中基于 TDM 或电话电路交换的协议(例如综合业务数字网络 (ISDN) 或 QSIG)转换为基于 VoIP 或 IP 的协议(例如会话初始协议 (SIP)、实时传输协议 (RTP) 或用于实时传真传输的 T.38)。Exchange Unified Messaging relies on the ability of the VoIP gateway to translate TDM or telephony circuit-switched based protocols, such as Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) or QSIG, from a PBX to protocols based on VoIP or IP, such as Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), Realtime Transport Protocol (RTP), or T.38 for real-time facsimile transport.

IP PBX 也可用于将电路交换的电话网络连接到数据网络或分组交换的网络。它们还可用于将电路交换协议转换为基于 VoIP 或 IP 的协议,如 SIP、RTP 和安全 RTPC (SRTP)。IP PBXs are also used when connecting a circuit-switched telephony network to a data or packet-switched network. They are also used to translate circuit-switched protocols to protocols based on VoIP or IP, such as SIP, RTP, and Secure RTPC (SRTP).

会话边界控制器 (SBC) 与 VoIP 网关和 IP PBX 存在些微差别。它们用于连接公用网络(如 Internet)或私有 WAN 连接的两个数据网络,而不是将电路交换的网络连接到分组交换的网络。在统一消息中,SBC 可用于 UM 混合部署,其中 UM 使用某些内部部署组件以及其他位于云环境中的组件,如邮箱。Session Border Controllers (SBCs) are somewhat different than VoIP gateways and IP PBXs. Instead of connecting a circuit-switched network to a packet-switched network, they're used to connect two data networks over a public network like the Internet or over a private WAN connection. In Unified Messaging, SBCs are used in a hybrid deployment of UM in which UM uses some components that are located on-premises and others, such as mailboxes, that are located in the cloud.

VoIP 设备配置VoIP device configurations

尽管 PBX、VoIP 网关、IP PBX 和 SBC 有许多类型和制造商,但 VoIP 设备配置基本上有三种类型:Although there are many types and manufacturers of PBXs, VoIP gateways, IP PBXs, and SBCs, there are basically three types of VoIP device configurations:

  • IP PBX 一个在 PSTN/TDM 或基于电路交换的电话网络与 IP 或分组交换的数据网络之间进行转换的设备IP PBX A single device that translates between the PSTN/TDM or circuit-switched based telephony network and an IP or packet-switched data network

  • PBX(旧版)和 VoIP 网关 两个一起在 PSTN/TDM 或基于电路交换的电话网络与 IP 或分组交换的数据网络之间进行转换的单独组件PBX (legacy) and a VoIP gateway Two separate components that together translate between the PSTN/TDM or circuit-switched telephony network and an IP or packet-switched data network

  • SBC 连接两种基于 IP 的网络(如局域网和数据中心)的一个或多个设备。SBC Single or multiple devices that connect two types of IP-based networks such as a LAN and a datacenter.

为了支持统一消息,将电话网络基础结构连接到数据网络基础结构或连接内部部署与云环境中的 UM 部署时,会使用一种或两种 IP/ VoIP 设备配置。To support Unified Messaging, one or both types of IP/VoIP device configurations are used when connecting a telephony network infrastructure to a data network infrastructure or connecting an on-premises deployment with a UM deployment in the cloud.

UM IP 网关UM IP gateways

UM IP 网关包含一个或多个 UM 智能寻线和配置设置。UM 智能寻线用于将 UM IP 网关链接到 UM 拨号计划。结合使用 UM IP 网关与 UM 智能寻线功能,可以在 VoIP 网关、IP PBX 或 SBC 与 UM 拨号计划之间建立链接。通过创建多个 UM 智能寻线,可以将一个 UM IP 网关与多个 UM 拨号计划关联。The UM IP gateway contains one or more UM hunt groups and configuration settings. UM hunt groups are used to link a UM IP gateway to a UM dial plan. The combination of the UM IP gateway and a UM hunt group establishes a link between a VoIP gateway, IP PBX, or SBC and a UM dial plan. By creating multiple UM hunt groups, you can associate a single UM IP gateway with multiple UM dial plans.

创建 UM IP 网关后,链接到 UM IP 网关的 Exchange 服务器会向 VoIP 网关、IP PBX 或 SBC 发送 SIP OPTIONS 请求,以确保设备具有响应能力。如果 VoIP 网关、IP PBX 或 SBC 未响应该请求,Exchange 服务器将记录一个 ID 为 1400 的事件,表明请求失败。如果发生这种情况,请确保 VoIP 网关、IP PBX 或 SBC 可用并且联机,以及统一消息配置正确。After you create a UM IP gateway, the Exchange servers linked to the UM IP gateway will send a SIP OPTIONS request to the VoIP gateway, IP PBX, or SBC to ensure that the device is responsive. If the VoIP gateway, IP PBX, or SBC doesn't respond to the request, an Exchange server will log an event with ID 1400 stating that the request failed. If this happens, make sure that the VoIP gateway, IP PBX, or SBC is available and online and that the Unified Messaging configuration is correct.

邮箱服务器只与作为受信任 SIP 对等项列出的 VoIP 网关、IP PBX 或 SBC 通信。在某些情况下,如果将两个 VoIP 网关、IP PBX 或 SBC 配置为使用相同的 IP 地址,将记录一个 ID 为 1175 的事件。统一消息通过检索统一消息 Web 服务虚拟目录的内部 URL 防止未经授权的请求,然后使用 URL 生成受信任 SIP 对等项的 FQDN 列表。当两个 FQDN 解析为同一个 IP 地址时,将记录此事件。A Mailbox server communicates only with VoIP gateways, IP PBXs, or SBCs listed as trusted SIP peers. In some cases, if two VoIP gateways, IP PBXs, or SBCs are configured to use the same IP address, an event with ID 1175 will be logged. Unified Messaging protects against unauthorized requests by retrieving the internal URL of the Unified Messaging Web services virtual directory and then uses the URL to build the list of FQDNs for the trusted SIP peers. When two FQDNs are resolved to the same IP address, this event is logged.

UM IP 网关的 IPv6 支持IPv6 support for UM IP gateways

Internet 协议版本 6 (IPv6) 是 Internet 协议 (IP) 的最新版本。IPv6 旨在修正上一版本 IP 协议 IPv4 中的许多不足之处。在 Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 内部部署和混合部署中,仅在也使用 IPv4 时才支持 IPv6。Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol (IP). IPv6 is intended to correct many of the shortcomings of IPv4, which was the previous version of the IP. In Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 on-premises and hybrid deployments, IPv6 was supported only when IPv4 was also used.

在 Exchange Server 内部部署和混合部署、 UM 相关的组件和语音服务仅在客户端访问和邮箱服务器上运行。因为 UM 体系结构已更改,现在要求以支持同时 IPv4 和 IPv6,以及其他 Exchange 功能,客户端访问和邮箱服务器的完全具有统一消息组件和服务的统一通信托管 API (UCMA) v4.0支持 IPv6 网络,并不需要 IPv4。In Exchange Server on-premises and hybrid deployments, UM-related components and speech services run only on Client Access and Mailbox servers. Because the UM architecture has changed and now requires Unified Communications Managed API (UCMA) v4.0 to support both IPv4 and IPv6 as well as other Exchange features, the Client Access and Mailbox servers that have Unified Messaging components and services fully support IPv6 networks and doesn't require IPv4.

在内部部署、混合部署和 Exchange Online 部署中,企业和 Exchange Online UM 管理员可以使用 IPv6 将 UM 连接到支持 IPv6 的设备,包括路由器、IP 网关、IP PBX 以及 Microsoft Office Communications Server 2007 R2 和 Microsoft Lync Server。但是,如果 UM IP 网关上的 IPAddressFamily 参数设置为 Any,则可以改用 IPv4,而无需进行其他配置更改,以便实现互操作和向后兼容。In on-premises, hybrid, and Exchange Online deployments, both enterprise and Exchange Online UM administrators can use IPv6 when they connect UM to IPv6-capable devices, including devices such as routers, IP gateways, IP PBXs, and Microsoft Office Communications Server 2007 R2 and Microsoft Lync servers. However, for interoperability and backward compatibility, IPv4 can be used instead without additional configuration changes if the IPAddressFamily parameter is set to Any on UM IP gateways.

Exchange UM 必须仍然直接与在其软件或固件中不能支持 IPv6 的 SIP 对等项(VoIP 网关、IP PBX 和 SBC)通信。如果它们不支持 IPv6,则 UM 必须能够直接与使用 IPv4 的 SIP 对等项通信。对于托管语音邮件,UM 通过 SBC、Lync Server 2010 或 Lync Server 2013 与客户设备通信。在托管环境中,可以部署 IPv6 SIP 感知客户端(如 SBC 和 Lync Server)以处理 IPv6 到 IPv4 的转换过程。Exchange UM must still communicate directly with SIP peers (VoIP gateways, IP PBXs, and SBCs) that may not support IPv6 in their software or firmware. If they don't support IPv6, UM must be able to communicate directly with SIP peers that use IPv4. For hosted voice mail, UM communicates with customer equipment through SBCs, Lync Server 2010, or Lync Server 2013. In hosted environments, IPv6 SIP-aware clients such as SBCs and Lync servers can be deployed to handle the IPv6-to-IPv4 conversion process.

对于安装客户端访问服务器和邮箱服务器后的内部部署和云部署,以及对于 Exchange Online UM 部署,需要创建 UM IP 网关。如果需要 UM IP 网关支持 IPv6,还必须执行下列操作:For on-premises and hybrid deployments after you install your Client Access and Mailbox servers, and for Exchange Online UM deployments, you need to create UM IP gateways. If you need your UM IP gateways to support IPv6, you must also:

  1. 为网络上的每个 IP 网关、IP PBX 或 SBC 创建新的 UM IP 网关或配置现有的具有 IPv6 地址的 UM IP 网关。在创建和配置所需 UM IP 网关时,必须为 UM IP 网关添加 IPv6 地址或完全限定域名 (FQDN)。如果将 FQDN 添加到 UM IP 网关,则必须创建正确的 DNS 记录才能将 UM IP 网关 FQDN 解析为 IPv6 地址。如果存在现有 UM IP 网关,则可以使用 Set-UMIPgateway cmdlet 配置 IPv6 地址或 FQDN。Create a new UM IP gateway or configure an existing UM IP gateway with an IPv6 address for each of the IP gateways, IP PBXs, or SBCs on your network. When you're creating and configuring the required UM IP gateways, you must add the IPv6 address or the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) for the UM IP gateway. If you're adding the FQDN to the UM IP gateway, you must have created the correct DNS records to resolve the UM IP gateway FQDN to the IPv6 address. If you have an existing UM IP gateway, you can use the Set-UMIPgateway cmdlet to configure the IPv6 address or FQDN.

  2. 在每个 UM IP 网关上配置 IPAddressFamily 参数。要启用 VoIP 网关以接受 IPv6 数据包,必须使用 Set-UMIPgateway cmdlet 将 UM IP 网关设置为同时接受 IPv4 和 IPv6 连接,或仅接受 IPv6 连接。Configure the IPAddressFamily parameter on each UM IP gateway. To enable the VoIP gateway to accept IPv6 packets, you must set the UM IP gateway to either accept both IPv4 and IPv6 connections, or accept only IPv6 connections, by using the Set-UMIPgateway cmdlet.

  3. 在配置了 UM IP 网关之后,还必须在网络上将 VoIP 网络、IP PBX 和 SBC 配置为支持 IPv6。有关详细信息,请联系硬件供应商以了解支持 IPv6 的设备列表以及如何正确配置它们。After you've configured your UM IP gateways, you must also configure the VoIP gateways, IP PBXs, and SBCs on your network to support IPv6. For details, see your hardware vendor for a list of devices that support IPv6 and how to correctly configure them.

备注

每个拨号计划的 UM IP 网关的最大值为 200,。如果您创建了多于 200 个网关,则 UM 服务将不会启动。The maximum number of UM IP gateways per dial plan is 200. If you create more than 200 the UM service won't start.

启用和禁用 UM IP 网关Enabling and disabling a UM IP gateway

默认情况下,UM IP 网关在创建后处于启用状态。但是,可以启用或禁用 UM IP 网关。如果禁用 UM IP 网关,您可以将其设置为强制所有 Exchange 服务器删除现有呼叫。您可以将其设置为强制与 UM IP 关联的 Exchange 服务器停止处理 VoIP 网关、IP PBX 或 SBC 提供的任何新呼叫。By default, a UM IP gateway is left in an enabled state after it's created. However, the UM IP gateway can be enabled or disabled. If you disable a UM IP gateway, you can set it to force all Exchange servers to drop existing calls. Alternatively, you can set it to force the Exchange servers associated with the UM IP gateway to stop handling any new calls presented by the VoIP gateway, IP PBX, or SBC.

如果正在集成统一消息和 Office Communications Server R2 或 Microsoft Lync Server,则只能允许一个 UM IP 网关发出用户的传出呼叫,并禁用所有其他与 SIP URI 拨号计划关联的 UM IP 网关上的出站呼叫。使用命令行管理程序或 EAC 禁用出站呼叫。If you're integrating Unified Messaging with Office Communications Server R2 or Microsoft Lync Server, you must allow only one UM IP gateway to make outgoing calls for users, and disable outbound calling on all other UM IP gateways associated with your SIP URI dial plans. Use either the Shell or the EAC to disable outbound calling.

为内部部署和混合部署选择允许出站呼叫通过的 UM IP 网关时,选择可能会处理大部分通信的网关。不允许传出的流量通过连接到 Lync Server Director 池的 UM IP 网关。必须确保运行 Microsoft Exchange 统一消息服务的邮箱服务器(例如,在"在电话上播放"方案中)向外部用户发出的出站呼叫能够可靠地遍历企业防火墙。When selecting the UM IP gateway through which to allow outgoing calls for on-premises and hybrid deployments, choose the one that's likely to handle the most traffic. Don't allow outgoing traffic through a UM IP gateway that connects to a pool of Lync Server Directors. This is necessary to ensure that outbound calls to external users placed by a Mailbox server running the Microsoft Exchange Unified Messaging service (for example, in Play-on-Phone scenarios) reliably traverse the corporate firewall.