评估环境Evaluate my environment

本文概述了正确评估当前环境使用云语音服务的要求。This article gives an overview of the requirements for properly evaluating your current environment for using cloud voice services. 通过评估你的环境,确定将影响你的整体云语音部署的风险和要求。By evaluating your environment, you identify risks and requirements that will influence your overall cloud voice deployment. 通过预先确定这些项目,您可以调整计划以推动成功。By identifying these items beforehand, you can adjust your planning to drive success.

评估环境简介Introduction to evaluating your environment

为了实现客观的关键结果(OKRs),您以前已做出关键服务决策。To achieve your objective key results (OKRs), you previously made key service decisions. 下一步是执行环境发现以评估与你的 IT 和电话基础结构、网络和操作相关的所有方面,以确认你的组织已准备好实施解决方案。The next step is to perform environmental discovery to evaluate all aspects relating to your IT and telephony infrastructure, networking, and operations to confirm that your organization is ready to implement the solution.

环境发现必须包含网络准备情况评估,以确保你的网络能够支持通过呼叫计划服务实现音频会议或电话系统。Environmental discovery must include network readiness assessment to ensure your network can support the implementation of the Audio Conferencing or Phone System with Calling Plan services.

你可以将技术风险标识为环境评估和采纳准备情况评估的一部分,并针对每个确定的风险制定一个缓解计划。You identify technical risks as part of an environmental assessment and adoption readiness evaluation, and develop a mitigation plan for each identified risk. 您应将此信息合并到风险注册中。You should incorporate this information in the risk register.

当前环境Current environment

作为环境发现的一部分,请包括与最终用户计算相关的所有事宜,如电脑和移动设备的准备情况评估,以支持音频会议和手机系统,支持使用呼叫计划的业务使用案例(从硬件要求到软件要求)。As part of your environmental discovery, include all matters related to end-user computing, such as a readiness assessment of PCs and mobile devices to support Audio Conferencing and Phone System with Calling Plan business use cases, from hardware requirements to software requirements.

环境发现还可以揭示是否需要将电话号码转移到 MicrosoftEnvironmental discovery can also uncover whether you need to transfer phone numbers to Microsoft. 了解此操作将帮助你的组织相应调整其项目计划,并为数字移植准备必要的信息。Knowing this will help your organization adjust its project plan accordingly and prepare the necessary information for number porting. 你可以使用Microsoft 团队推出的环境发现来执行环境发现。You can use the Environmental discovery for Microsoft Teams rollout to perform environmental discovery.

An icon depicting decision points
决策点Decision points
  • 谁将负责完成环境评估?Who will be responsible for completing an environment assessment?
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后续步骤Next steps
  • 记录环境评估的结果。Document the results of the environment assessment.

采纳和更改管理评估功能Adoption and change management assessment capabilities

部署为用户提供了一种新的技术,但仅在用户真正将该解决方案视为自己的情况后才会实现业务结果。Deployment puts a new technology at a user's fingertips, but business results are only realized after users truly adopt that solution as their own. 为了帮助确保持续接受新的解决方案,你需要将精力集中在用户准备工作和更改管理上。To help ensure sustained adoption of a new solution, you'll need to focus your efforts on user readiness and change management. 为获得最佳结果,请将用户准备工作计划作为并行工作流提供给你的技术准备活动,并合并以下活动:For optimal results, conduct user readiness planning as a parallel workstream to your technical readiness activities and incorporate the following activities:

  • 组织和用户分析: 对组织 receptiveness 的分析,以在使用案例和角色分析之外进行更改Organizational and user profiling: Analysis of organizational receptiveness to change in addition to use case and persona analysis

  • 准备情况和资源准备: 创建目标范围和广泛关注的感知、培训和支持资源,包括专注的价值消息传递以加速用户购买Readiness and resource preparation: Creation of targeted and broad-reach awareness, training, and support resources, including focused value messaging to accelerate user buy-in

使用以下注意事项评估组织的准备情况以解决用户更改管理问题。Use the following considerations to assess your organization's preparedness to address user change management.

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决策点Decision points
  • 您是否曾对使用软件或服务的用户进行了以前的成功?Have you had previous success with user adoption of software or services?
  • 是否可以跟踪使用 uptake?Can you track usage uptake?
  • 您是否有用于设计和管理初始 — 和正在进行的 — 采纳活动(意识、培训和支持)的资源?Do you have the resources to design and manage an initial—and ongoing—adoption campaign (awareness, training, and support)?
  • 您是否有专门的用户采纳/更改管理团队,是否可以购买这些资源以确保业务成果?Do you have a dedicated user adoption/change management team, or can you invest in those resources to ensure business outcomes?
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后续步骤Next steps
  • 如果 " " 对上述全部项回答 "是",请确定合适的用户变更管理利益干系人并开始准备用户规划。If you answered "yes" to all of the above, identify the right user change management stakeholders and begin your user readiness planning.
  • 如果您回答 " " 的不是上述部分或全部,请考虑向外部资源提供帮助,帮助您组织的变更管理和与采纳相关的活动。If you answered "no" to some or all of the above, consider engaging outside resources to assist with driving change management and adoption-related activities for your organization.

网络准备情况Network readiness

团队使用音频和视频技术(编解码器),它可以在大多数网络条件下适应,从而性能更好。Teams uses audio and video technology (codecs) that can adapt to—and therefore perform better under—most network conditions. 为确保最佳性能,应为团队准备网络。To ensure optimal and consistent performance, you should prepare your network for Teams.

描述三个质量组件的图表Diagram describing the three components of quality

关键优势Key takeaways

这是本指南的主要优点。These are the main takeaways from this guidance. 您必须:You must:

  • 打开从将使用团队的客户端传出的 TCP 端口80和443。Open TCP ports 80 and 443 outgoing from clients that will use Teams.

  • 打开从将使用团队的客户端传出的 UDP 端口3478到3481。Open UDP ports 3478 through 3481 outgoing from clients that will use Teams.

  • 确保您有足够的带宽来部署团队。Ensure that you have sufficient bandwidth for deploying Teams.

  • 运行网络评估工具,确保满足从边缘段和客户端段的媒体质量和网络连接性能中所述的要求。Run the Network Assessment Tool and ensure that you meet the requirements described in Media quality and network connectivity performance from both the edge segment and the client segment.

为什么要准备网络?Why should you prepare your network?

在查看要采取的步骤之前,请务必了解哪些内容会影响团队的性能,从而提高用户的幸福和满意度。Before we look at the steps to be taken, it's important to understand what can affect the performance of Teams and thereby user happiness and satisfaction. 三个主要风险领域会影响用户对网络质量的理解:Three major risk areas can affect how users perceive network quality:

  • 可用带宽不足Insufficient bandwidth available

  • 防火墙和代理阻止程序Firewall and proxy blockers

  • 网络障碍,如抖动和数据包丢失Network impairments such as jitter and packet loss

下面介绍的步骤将帮助你确定你的部署是否受这些因素的影响,并将帮助你转向解决方案。The steps described below will help you determine whether your deployment might be affected by any of these factors and will help you move toward a resolution. 无法准备网络可能会导致不满意的用户和非常昂贵的临时修补程序。Failing to prepare your network will likely lead to dissatisfied users and costly, ad-hoc fixes. 通过为团队准备网络和你的组织,你可以大大增加成功的可能性。By preparing your network—and your organization—for Teams, you can dramatically increase your chance of success.

带宽规划Bandwidth planning

网络准备情况的第一步是确保你的网络有足够的带宽可供形式团队提供给用户。The first step toward network readiness is ensuring your network has enough bandwidth available for the modalities Teams will provide to users. 规划足够的带宽是一个非常简单的任务和一个非常低廉的起点,可确保你的用户具有高质量的团队体验。Planning for sufficient bandwidth is a fairly straightforward task and a very low-barrier start to ensure your users will have a high-quality Teams experience.

本地 Internet 出口Local internet egress

许多网络设计为使用中心和辐射型拓扑。Many networks were designed to use a hub and spoke topology. 在此拓扑中,Internet 流量通常先穿过 WAN 到达中心数据库,然后再向外传输(流出)到 Internet。In this topology, internet traffic typically traverses the WAN to a central datacenter before it emerges (egresses) to the internet. 通常,这么做事为了集中网络安全设备,目的是降低总成本。Often, this is done to centralize network security devices with the goal of reducing overall cost.

经过 WAN 的回程流量会造成延迟增加,并对质量和用户体验产生负面影响。Back-hauling traffic across the WAN increases latency and has a negative impact on quality and the user experience. 由于 Microsoft 团队在 Microsoft 的大型全球网络上运行,因此通常会向用户靠近网络对等位置。Because Microsoft Teams runs on Microsoft's large global network, there's often a network peering location close to the user. 用户通过从其所在位置附近的本地 Internet 点流出并尽快进入我们的语言优化网络,很可能会获得更佳的性能。A user will most likely get better performance by egressing out of a local internet point close to their location and on to our voice-optimized network as soon as possible. 对于某些工作负荷,使用 DNS 请求向最近的前端服务器发送流量。For some workloads, DNS requests are used to send traffic to the nearest front-end server. 在这种情况下,在使用本地出口点时,它与本地 DNS 解析相配对非常重要。In such cases, it's important that when using a local egress point, it's paired with local DNS resolution.

优化 Microsoft 全球网络的网络路径将提高性能,并最终为用户提供最佳体验。Optimizing the network path to Microsoft's global network will improve performance and ultimately provide the best experience for users. 有关更多详细信息,请参阅博客文章 Getting the best connectivity and performance in Office 365(在 Office 365 中获取最佳连接性和性能)。For more detail, see the blog post Getting the best connectivity and performance in Office 365.

VPNVPN

VPN 为许多组织提供很有用的服务。VPNs provide a valuable service to many organizations. 很遗憾,它们通常不是为支持实时媒体而设计或配置的。Unfortunately, they're typically not designed or configured to support real-time media. 一些 VPN 可能还不支持 UDP。Some VPNs might also not support UDP. Vpn 还会在已加密的媒体流量顶部引入额外的加密层。VPNs also introduce an extra layer of encryption on top of media traffic that's already encrypted. 此外,由于通过 VPN 设备有头发的流量,到团队服务的连接可能不会有效。In addition, connectivity to the Teams service might not be efficient due to hair-pinning traffic through a VPN device. 此外,它们不一定从容量角度进行设计,以适应团队需要的预期负载。Furthermore, they aren't necessarily designed from a capacity perspective to accommodate the anticipated loads that Teams will require.

建议提供一个备用路径,以便 Teams 流量绕过 VPN。The recommendation is to provide an alternate path that bypasses the VPN for Teams traffic. 这通常称为拆分隧道 VPNThis is commonly known as split-tunnel VPN. 拆分隧道意味着 Microsoft 365 或 Office 365 的流量不会遍历 VPN,但会直接转到 Microsoft 365 或 Office 365。Split tunneling means that traffic for Microsoft 365 or Office 365 won't traverse the VPN but will go directly to Microsoft 365 or Office 365. 此更改将对质量产生积极影响,但也会提供从 VPN 设备和组织网络减少负载的辅助优点。This change will have a positive impact on quality, but also provides the secondary benefit of reducing load from the VPN devices and the organization's network.

要实施拆分通道,请咨询 VPN 供应商了解配置详细信息。To implement a split-tunnel, consult with your VPN vendor for the configuration details.

Wi-FiWi-Fi

与 VPN 类似,Wlan 网络不一定设计或配置为支持实时媒体。Like VPN, Wi-Fi networks aren't necessarily designed or configured to support real-time media. 在高质量部署中,为支持团队规划或优化 Wi-fi 网络是重要的考虑因素。Planning for, or optimizing, a Wi-Fi network to support Teams is an important consideration for a high-quality deployment.

优化 Wlan 网络有以下几个因素:There are several factors that come into play for optimizing a Wi-Fi network:

  • 实施 QoS 或 Wi-Fi 多媒体 (WMM) 以确保通过 Wi-Fi 网络的媒体流量相应地得到优先处理。Implementing QoS or Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) to ensure that media traffic is getting prioritized accordingly over the Wi-Fi networks.

  • 规划和优化 Wi-fi 频带和接入点放置。Planning and optimizing the Wi-Fi bands and access point placement. 2.4 GHz 范围可以根据接入点位置提供合乎需要的体验,但接入点通常受该范围内运行的使用者其他设备的影响。The 2.4 GHz range may provide an adequate experience depending on access point placement, but access points are often affected by other consumer devices that operate in that range. 5 GHz 范围因其密度范围更适合实时媒体,但需要更多接入点以获取足够的覆盖范围。The 5 GHz range is better suited to real-time media due to their dense range but requires more access points to get sufficient coverage. 此外,终结点还需要相应地支持该范围并配置为利用这些频带。Endpoints also need to support that range and be configured to leverage those bands accordingly.

  • 如果已部署了双频带 Wi-fi 网络,请考虑实施频带筹划。If dual-band Wi-Fi networks are deployed, consider implementing band steering. 波段控制是由 Wi-fi 供应商实施的一项技术,可影响双层客户使用 5 GHz 范围。Band steering is a technique implemented by Wi-Fi vendors to influence dual-band clients to use the 5 GHz range.

  • 当同一频道的接入点太靠近时,它们可能会导致信号重叠并无意间竞争,从而导致用户体验不良。When access points of the same channel are too close together they can cause signal overlap and unintentionally compete, resulting in a bad experience for the user. 确保彼此相邻的接入点位于不重叠的频道上。Ensure that access points that are next to each other are on channels that don't overlap.

每个无线供应商都有自己的无线解决方案部署建议。Each wireless vendor has its own recommendations for deploying its wireless solution. 建议你咨询你的供应商了解具体指导。We recommend that you consult your vendor for specific guidance.

防火墙和代理要求Firewall and proxy requirements

Microsoft 团队连接到 Microsoft Online 服务,并且需要 internet 连接才能实现此操作。Microsoft Teams connects to Microsoft Online Services and needs internet connectivity for this. 要使团队正常运行,必须从客户端打开 TCP 端口80和443,并从客户端到网络的 UDP 端口3478到3481。For Teams to function correctly, you must open TCP ports 80 and 443 from the clients to the internet, and UDP ports 3478 through 3481 from the clients to the internet. TCP 端口用于连接到基于 web 的内容,如 SharePoint Online、Exchange Online 和团队聊天服务。The TCP ports are used to connect to web-based content such as SharePoint Online, Exchange Online, and the Teams Chat services. 插件和连接器也通过这些 TCP 端口进行连接。Plug-ins and connectors also connect over these TCP ports. 四个 UDP 端口用于音频和视频等媒体,以确保它们正常流动。The four UDP ports are used for media such as audio and video, to ensure they flow correctly.

打开这些端口对于可靠的团队部署非常重要。Opening these ports is essential for a reliable Teams deployment. 阻止这些端口不受支持,并且将对媒体质量产生影响。Blocking these ports is unsupported and will have an effect on media quality.

如果你的组织要求你指定应在其中打开这些端口的确切 IP 地址范围和域,则可以限制这些端口的目标 IP 范围和域。If your organization requires that you specify the exact IP address ranges and domains to which these ports should be opened, you can restrict the target IP ranges and domains for these ports. 有关确切的端口、协议和 IP 范围的列表,请参阅Microsoft 365 或 Office 365 url 和 ip 地址范围For a list of exact ports, protocols, and IP ranges, see Microsoft 365 or Office 365 URLs and IP address ranges. 如果你选择限制目标 IP 地址范围和域,则必须确保将端口和范围的列表保持为最新,因为它们可能会发生更改。If you choose to restrict the target IP address ranges and domains, you must ensure that you keep the list of ports and ranges up to date because they might change. 你可以订阅此 RSS 源,以便在发生更改时进行更新。You can subscribe to this RSS feed to be updated when changes occur. 这也是一种很好的做法,通过定期运行Skype For Business 网络评估工具来测试所有端口是否已打开。It's also a good practice to test whether all ports are opened by running the Skype for Business Network Assessment Tool on a regular basis. 可在下一节中了解有关此工具的功能的详细信息。You can find out more about the functionality of this tool in the next section.

在正在部署的代理服务器事件中,我们建议您绕过所有团队服务的代理服务器。In the event of a proxy server being deployed, we recommend that you bypass the proxy server for all Teams services. 虽然使用代理可能有效,但由于媒体被强制使用 TCP 而不是 UDP,因此很可能会降低质量。Although using a proxy might work, it's very likely that quality will be reduced due to media being forced to use TCP instead of UDP. 有关代理服务器和绕过的详细信息,请参阅Microsoft 365 或 Office 365 url 和 IP 地址范围For more information about proxy servers and bypassing, see Microsoft 365 or Office 365 URLs and IP address ranges.

测试网络Test the network

完成规划和网络准备(包括升级带宽和打开防火墙中的端口)后,应测试网络的性能。After you've completed your planning and network preparation—including upgrading bandwidth and opening ports in the firewall—you should test your network's performance. 此测试的结果将绘制一个更清晰的图片,让你的音频会议或电话系统成功完成所需的任何网络优化或补救措施。The results of this testing will paint a clearer picture of any network optimization or remediation required for the success of your Audio Conferencing or Phone System with Calling Plan implementation.

你可以下载Skype For Business 网络评估工具来测试你的网络是否已准备好进行团队。You can download the Skype for Business Network Assessment Tool to test whether your network is ready for Teams. 此工具提供双重功能:它可以测试是否已打开所有正确的端口,并且它可以测试网络是否有障碍。The tool offers dual functionality: it can test whether all the correct ports have been opened, and it can test for network impairments.

下载并安装该工具后,您可以在 C: \ Program Files \ Microsoft Skype For Business 网络评估工具中找到它。After you download and install the tool, you can find it in C:\Program Files\Microsoft Skype for Business Network Assessment Tool. 有关如何使用该工具的详细指南(如 .docx)包含在该目录中。A detailed guide for how to use the tool, Usage.docx, is included in that directory.

测试打开的端口Test for opened ports

打开命令提示符窗口,然后导航到 "网络评估" 工具目录,方法是输入Cd C: \ Program Files \ Microsoft Skype For Business 网络评估工具Open a Command prompt window and navigate to the Network Assessment Tool directory by entering cd C:\Program Files\Microsoft Skype for Business Network Assessment Tool. 在命令提示符处,通过输入networkassessmenttool/connectivitycheck开始测试已打开的端口At the command prompt, start the test for opened ports by entering networkassessmenttool.exe /connectivitycheck

运行检查后,该工具将显示消息 "验证已成功完成" 或报告已阻止的端口。After running the checks, the tool will either display the message "Verifications Completed Successfully" or report on the ports that were blocked. 它还会生成一个名为 Connectivity_results .txt 的文件,其中包含该工具的输出,并将其存储在% userprofile% \ appdata \ 本地 \ microsoft skype for business 网络评估工具 \ 目录中。It also generates a file named Connectivity_results.txt, which contains the output from the tool and stores it in the %userprofile%\appdata\local\microsoft skype for business network assessment tool\ directory.

我们建议你定期运行连接检查,以确保端口已打开并正常运行。We recommend that you run the connectivity checks on a regular basis to ensure the ports have been opened and are functioning correctly.

测试网络是否有障碍Test for network impairments

为提高用户满意度,您应该限制网络的任何障碍。To increase user satisfaction, you should limit any impairments on your network. 最常见的网络障碍是延迟(延迟)、数据包丢失和抖动:The most common network impairments are delay (latency), packet loss, and jitter:

  • 延迟: 这是将 IP 数据包从点 A 转到网络上的点 B 所需的时间。Latency: This is the time it takes to get an IP packet from point A to point B on the network. 此网络传播延迟实质上与两个点之间的物理距离和光之间的距离保持联系,包括不同路由器所用的额外开销。This network propagation delay is essentially tied to physical distance between the two points and the speed of light, including additional overhead taken by the various routers in between. 延迟是指单向或往返时间。Latency is measured as one-way or round-trip time.

  • 数据包丢失:这通常定义为在给定时间段内丢失的数据包的百分比。Packet loss: This is often defined as a percentage of packets that are lost in a given window of time. 数据包丢失直接影响音频质量-从较小的单个丢失的数据包中,几乎不会影响对导致音频完全减少的后端到后突发损失的影响。Packet loss directly affects audio quality—from small, individual lost packets having almost no impact to back-to-back burst losses that cause audio to cut out completely.

  • 数据包间到达抖动或简单抖动: 这是连续数据包之间的延迟的平均变化。Inter-packet arrival jitter, or simply jitter: This is the average change in delay between successive packets. 大多数现代 VoIP 软件(包括 Skype for Business)可以通过缓冲来适应某些级别的抖动。Most modern VoIP software, including Skype for Business, can adapt to some levels of jitter through buffering. 仅当抖动超过的是参与者将注意到抖动效果的缓冲时才会如此。It's only when the jitter exceeds the buffering that a participant will notice the effects of jitter.

媒体质量和网络连接性能中介绍了这些障碍的最大值。The maximum values for these impairments are described in Media quality and network connectivity performance. 测试这些障碍时,请区分两个不同的段:When testing for these impairments, we distinguish between two separate segments:

  • 边缘段是你的路由器所在的段。The edge segment is the segment in which your router lives. 这是您的每个位置上连接到互联网的最接近的逻辑网络段。This is the closest logical network segment connected to the internet at each of your locations. 在大多数情况下,这是路由器的连接点,或者是外围网络(也称为DMZ隔离区屏蔽子网)。In most cases, this is the connection point of the router, or possibly a perimeter network (also known as DMZ, demilitarized zone, and screened subnet). 除了路由器之外的设备之外,任何其他通信量都不应出现在此网段和 internet 之间。No further traffic that affects devices other than the router should occur between this segment and the internet.

  • 客户端段是客户端所在的逻辑网络段。The client segment is the logical network segment in which your clients reside.

你应该使用网络评估工具测试这两个段。You should test both segments by using the Network Assessment Tool. 若要测试段,请导航到目录并在命令提示符处输入networkassessmenttoolTo test the segment, navigate to the directory and enter networkassessmenttool.exe at the command prompt. 结果将写入一个名为 tsv 的文件中,您可以将其与每个段的要求进行比较。The results are written to a file named Results.tsv, and you can compare them to the requirements for each segment.

请注意,两个段必须满足高质量部署的要求。Note that both segments must meet the requirements for a high-quality deployment. 我们建议你在一小时内多次运行该工具,以获得更好的网络性能指示。We recommend that you run the tool multiple times for one hour straight to get a good indication of your network's performance.

网络修正Network remediation

如果带宽规划、端口测试或网络要求测试的结果显示您当前的网络需要补救措施才能部署团队,则可以通过以下几种方式实现此目的:If the results of bandwidth planning, port testing, or network requirements testing show that your current network needs remediation before you deploy Teams, you can accomplish this in several ways:

  • 如果带宽不足,请升级连接,以便 Microsoft 365 或 Office 365 的流量可以流过 unhindered。For insufficient bandwidth, upgrade connections so that traffic to Microsoft 365 or Office 365 can flow unhindered.

  • 对于已阻止的端口,请更改防火墙规则并重新测试端口。For blocked ports, change firewall rules and retest the ports.

  • 对于网络障碍,请始终执行根本原因分析。For network impairments, always perform a root-cause analysis.

服务质量(QoS)可用于对流量进行排序和分隔,从而使障碍更有障碍。Quality of service (QoS) can be used to battle impairments by prioritizing and separating traffic. 某些组织选择部署 QoS 来克服带宽问题或限制流量的流量。Some organizations choose to deploy QoS to overcome bandwidth issues or restrict the amount of traffic flowing. 这不会提高质量,并将导致新问题。This won't improve quality and will lead to new problems. 当网络障碍超过要求时,应始终执行根本原因分析。A root-cause analysis should always be performed when network impairments exceed requirements. QoS 可以是一个解决方案。QoS can be a solution. 有关详细信息,请参阅Microsoft 团队中的服务质量For more information, see Quality of Service in Microsoft Teams.

备注

许多网络会由于升级、扩展或其他业务要求而逐渐发展。Many networks evolve over time due to upgrades, expansion, or other business requirements. 请确保在你的服务管理规划中具有可操作的流程以维护这些方面。Ensure that you have operational processes in place to maintain these areas as part of your service management planning.

An icon depicting decision points
决策点Decision points
  • 谁将负责在所有网段和组织位置完成正确的网络评估?Who will be responsible for completing proper network assessments across all network segments and organization locations?
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后续步骤Next steps
  • 你可以执行详细的网络评估,以帮助确保你的网络为你的 Microsoft 团队部署做好准备。You can perform a detailed network assessment to help ensure your network is ready for your Microsoft Teams deployment.
  • 基于针对每个网络段的评估结果执行网络修正。Perform network remediation based on the results of the assessment for every network segment.