Power BI 中的视觉对象类型Visual types in Power BI

你会在报表、仪表板和问答中找到视觉对象。You'll find visuals in reports, dashboards, and Q&A. 其中某些视觉对象类型与 Power BI 打包在一起,另有一些是自定义视觉对象 。Some of these visual types are packaged with Power BI, and some are custom visuals. 自定义视觉对象在 Power BI 外部创建,其创建方式使报表设计器 可以将它们添加到 Power BI 报表和仪表板。Custom visuals are created outside of Power BI and in a way that allows report designers to add them to Power BI reports and dashboards.

本文是与 Power BI 服务打包在一起的视觉对象的概述。This article is an overview of the visuals that are packaged with the Power BI service. 这些是最常遇到的视觉对象。These are the visuals that you'll encounter most often. 有关这些视觉对象的详细信息,请参阅有关视觉对象类型的 Power BI 报表设计器文档 For in-depth information about any of these visuals, see the Power BI report designer documentation on visual types

备注

若要了解自定义视觉对象,请在 Microsoft AppSource 的“Power BI 视觉对象” 部分中搜索它们。To learn about custom visuals, search for them in the Power BI visuals section of Microsoft AppSource. 对于每个视觉对象,你会找到说明、创建者信息以及屏幕截图或视频。For each visual, you'll find a description, creator information, and either screenshots or a video.

Power BI 支持的视觉对象列表List of visuals available in Power BI

所有这些视觉对象都可以在 Power BI 仪表板和报表中找到,并在问答中指定All of these visuals can be found in Power BI dashboards and reports, and specified in Q&A. 若要了解如何与视觉对象进行交互,请参阅与报表、仪表板和应用中的视觉对象交互To learn how to interact with visuals, see Interact with visuals in reports, dashboards, and apps

分区图:基本(分层)和堆积Area charts: Basic (Layered) and Stacked

分区图

基本分区图是在折线图的基础上增加了坐标轴和填充的线之间的区域。The basic area chart is based on the line chart with the area between the axis and line filled in. 分区图强调变化随时间推移的度量值,可以用于吸引人们关注某个趋势间的总值。Area charts emphasize the magnitude of change over time, and can be used to draw attention to the total value across a trend. 例如,可以在分区图中绘制表示随时间推移的利润的数据以强调总利润。For example, data that represents profit over time can be plotted in an area chart to emphasize the total profit.

条形图和柱形图Bar and column charts

柱形图

条形图

条形图是查看跨不同类别的特定值的标准格式。Bar charts are the standard for looking at a specific value across different categories.

卡片:单个数字Cards: Single number

单个数字卡片

单个数字卡片显示单个事实、单个数据点。Single number cards display a single fact, a single data point. 有时在 Power BI 仪表板或报表中想要跟踪的最重要的信息就是一个数字,例如总销售额、同比市场份额或商机总数。Sometimes a single number is the most important thing you want to track in your Power BI dashboard or report, such as total sales, market share year over year, or total opportunities.

卡片:多行Cards: Multi row

多行卡片图

多行卡片显示一个或多个数据点,每行一个。Multi row cards display one or more data points, one per row.

组合图Combo charts

组合图

组合图将柱形图和折线图结合在一起。A combo chart combines a column chart and a line chart. 通过将两个图表合并为一个图表可以进行更快的数据比较。Combining the two charts into one lets you make a quicker comparison of the data. 组合图可以具有一个或两个 Y 轴,因此请务必仔细查看。Combo charts can have one or two Y axes, so be sure to look closely.

组合图适用情况:Combo charts are a great choice:

  • 具有 X 轴相同的折线图和柱形图时。when you have a line chart and a column chart with the same X axis.
  • 比较具有不同值范围的多个度量值to compare multiple measures with different value ranges
  • 若要在一个视觉对象中说明两个度量值之间的关联to illustrate the correlation between two measures in one visual
  • 检查一个度量值是否满足另一个度量值定义的目标to check whether one measure meet the target which is defined by another measure
  • 节省画布空间to conserve canvas space

圆环图Doughnut charts

圆环图

圆环图类似于饼图。Doughnut charts are similar to pie charts. 它们显示部分与整体的关系。They show the relationship of parts to a whole. 唯一的区别是中心为空,因而有空间可用于标签或图标。The only difference is that the center is blank and allows space for a label or icon.

漏斗图Funnel charts

漏斗图

漏斗图用于可视化包含阶段和从一个阶段按顺序流到下一个阶段的项目的流程。Funnels help visualize a process that has stages, and items flow sequentially from one stage to the next. 一个示例是从潜在顾客开始,以采购履行结束的销售过程。One example is a sales process that starts with leads and ends with purchase fulfillment.

例如,销售漏斗图可跟踪各个阶段的客户:潜在客户 > 合格的潜在客户 > 预期客户 > 已签订合同的客户 > 已成交客户。For example, a sales funnel that tracks customers through stages: Lead > Qualified Lead > Prospect > Contract > Close. 你可以一眼看出漏斗形状传达了你跟踪的流程的健康状况。At a glance, the shape of the funnel conveys the health of the process you're tracking. 漏斗图的每个阶段代表总数的百分比。Each funnel stage represents a percentage of the total. 因此,在大多数情况下,漏斗图的形状类似于一个漏斗 -- 第一阶段为最大值,每个后一阶段的值都小于其前一阶段的值。So, in most cases, a funnel chart is shaped like a funnel -- with the first stage being the largest, and each subsequent stage smaller than its predecessor. 梨形漏斗图也很有用 -- 它可以识别流程中的问题。A pear-shaped funnel is also useful -- it can identify a problem in the process. 但是通常第一阶段,“进入”阶段为最大值。But typically, the first stage, the "intake" stage, is the largest.

仪表盘Gauge charts

仪表盘

径向仪表盘有一个圆弧,并且显示单个值,该值用于衡量针对目标/KPI 的进度。A radial gauge chart has a circular arc and displays a single value that measures progress toward a goal/KPI. 使用直线(针)表示目标或目标值。The goal, or target value, is represented by the line (needle). 使用明暗度表示针对目标的进度。Progress toward that goal is represented by the shading. 表示进度的值在圆弧内以粗体显示。所有可能的值沿圆弧均匀分布,从最小值(最左边的值)到最大值(最右边的值)。And the value that represents that progress is shown in bold inside the arc. All possible values are spread evenly along the arc, from the minimum (left-most value) to the maximum (right-most value).

在上面的示例中,我们是汽车零售商,需要跟踪销售团队每月的平均销量。In the example above, we are a car retailer, tracking our Sales team's average sales per month. 我们的目标是 140,用黑色针表示。Our goal is 140 and represented by the black needle. 可能的最小平均销量为 0,我们已将最大值设为 200。The minimum possible average sales is 0 and we've set the maximum as 200. 蓝色显示本月的平均销量接近 120。The blue shading shows that we're currently averaging approximately 120 sales this month. 幸运的是,我们仍有一周的时间来实现这一目标。Luckily, we still have another week to reach our goal.

径向仪表适用情况:Radial gauges are a great choice to:

  • 显示某个目标的进度show progress toward a goal
  • 表示百分比指标值,如 KPIrepresent a percentile measure, like a KPI
  • 显示单个指标的健康状况show the health of a single measure
  • 显示可以快速扫描和理解的信息display information that can be quickly scanned and understood

关键影响因素图表Key influencers chart

关键影响因素

关键影响因素图表显示所选结果或值主要参与者。A key influencer chart displays the major contributors to a selected result or value.

关键影响因素是一个不错的选择,有助于你了解影响关键指标的因素。Key influencers are a great choice to help you understand the factors that influence a key metric. 例如,是什么影响客户再次下订单或去年 6 月份为什么有那么高的销售额 。For example, what influences customers to place a second order or why were sales so high last June.

KPIKPIs

kpi

关键绩效指标 (KPI) 是一个视觉提示,用于传达针对可度量目标已完成的进度。A Key Performance Indicator (KPI) is a visual cue that communicates the amount of progress made toward a measurable goal.

当存在以下情况时,KPI 是一个不错的选择:KPIs are a great choice:

  • 要衡量进度(我是超前了还是落后了?)to measure progress (what am I ahead or behind on?)
  • 要衡量与目标的距离(我提前或落后了多少?)to measure distance to a goal (how far ahead or behind am I?)

折线图Line charts

折线图

强调一系列值的整体形状,通常以时间的推移来显示。Line charts emphasize the overall shape of an entire series of values, usually over time.

地图:基本地图Maps: Basic maps

基本地图

使用基本地图可将分类和定量信息与空间位置相关联。Use a basic map to associate both categorical and quantitative information with spatial locations.

地图:ArcGIS 地图Maps: ArcGIS maps

ArcGIS 地图

ArcGIS 地图和 Power BI 的结合将超越地图点表示法的地图绘制技术提升到全新水平。The combination of ArcGIS maps and Power BI takes mapping beyond the presentation of points on a map to a whole new level. 可以使用“基本地图”、“位置类型”、“主题”、“符号样式”和“引用层”选项,创建极具描述性的地图视觉对象。The available options for base maps, location types, themes, symbol styles, and reference layers creates gorgeous informative map visuals. 将地图上的权威数据层(如人口普查数据)与空间分析相结合,可以让用户更深入地了解视觉对象中的数据。The combination of authoritative data layers (such as census data) on a map with spatial analysis conveys a deeper understanding of the data in your visual.

地图:着色地图(等值线图)Maps: Filled maps (Choropleth)

着色地图

着色地图使用明暗度、颜色或图案来显示不同地理位置或区域之间的值在比例上有何不同。A filled map uses shading or tinting or patterns to display how a value differs in proportion across a geography or region. 使用从浅(不太频繁/较低)到深(较频繁/较多)的明暗度快速显示这些相对差异。Quickly display these relative differences with shading that ranges from light (less-frequent/lower) to dark (more-frequent/more).

地图:形状地图Maps: Shape maps

形状地图

形状地图使用颜色比较地图上的区域。Shape maps compare regions on a map using color. 形状地图无法在地图上显示数据点的精确地理位置。A shape map can't show precise geographical locations of data points on a map. 相反,其主要目的是通过不同方式对地图上的区域着色来显示这些区域的相对比较。Instead, its main purpose is to show relative comparisons of regions on a map by coloring them differently.

矩阵Matrix

矩形图

矩阵视觉对象是一种支持渐变布局的表视觉对象类型(请参阅下面的“表”)。The matrix visual is a type of table visual (see "Table" below) that supports a stepped layout. 通常,报表设计器在报表和仪表板中包括矩阵,以便使用户可以选择矩阵中的一个或多个元素(行、列、单元格)以在报表页上交叉突出其他视觉对象。Often, report designers include matrixes in reports and dashboards to allow users to select one or more element (rows, columns, cells) in the matrix to cross-highlight other visuals on a report page.

饼图Pie charts

饼图

饼图显示部分与整体的关系。Pie charts show the relationship of parts to a whole.

带状图Ribbon chart

带状图

功能区图表显示具有最高排名(最大值)的数据类别。Ribbon charts show which data category has the highest rank (largest value). 功能区图表能够高效地显示排名变化,并且会在每个时间段内始终将最高排名(值)显示在最顶部。Ribbon charts are effective at showing rank change, with the highest range (value) always displayed on top for each time period.

散点图、气泡图和点图Scatter, bubble, and dot plot charts

散点图始终具有两个数值轴以显示水平轴上的一组数值数据和垂直轴上的另一组数值数据。A scatter chart always has two value axes to show one set of numerical data along a horizontal axis and another set of numerical values along a vertical axis. 图表在 x 和 y 数值的交叉处显示点,将这些值单独合并到各个数据点。The chart displays points at the intersection of an x and y numerical value, combining these values into single data points. 根据数据,这些数据点可能均衡或不均衡地分布在水平轴上。These data points may be distributed evenly or unevenly across the horizontal axis, depending on the data.

气泡图

气泡图将数据点替换为气泡,用气泡大小表示数据的其他维度。A bubble chart replaces data points with bubbles, with the bubble size representing an additional dimension of the data.

点图类似于气泡图和散点图,只不过它可以沿 X 轴绘制数值或分类数据。A dot plot chart is similar to a bubble chart and scatter chart except that it can plot numerical or categorical data along the X axis. 此示例恰好使用正方形而不是圆形,并沿 X 轴绘制销售额。This example happens to use squares instead of circles and plots sales along the X axis.

点阵图

高密度散点图Scatter-high density

高密度散点图

根据定义,对高密度数据进行采样,以快速合理地创建能响应交互操作的视觉对象。By definition, high-density data is sampled to create visuals reasonably quickly that are responsive to interactivity. 高密度采样使用的算法可消除重叠点,并确保数据集中的所有点都会在视觉对象中进行表示。High-density sampling uses an algorithm that eliminates overlapping points, and ensures that all points in the data set are represented in the visual. 它不只是绘制数据的代表性示例。It doesn't just plot a representative sample of the data.

这可确保将整体数据集中重要点的响应、表示和清楚保存以最佳方式组合。This ensures the best combination of responsiveness, representation, and clear preservation of important points in the overall data set.

切片器Slicers

切片器

切片器是可以用于筛选页上的其他视觉对象的独立图表。A slicer is a standalone chart that can be used to filter the other visuals on the page. 切片器有许多不同格式(类别、范围、日期等),可以进行格式设置以便可以选择仅仅一个、许多或所有可用值。Slicers come in many different formats (category, range, date, etc.) and can be formatted to allow selection of only one, many, or all of the available values.

对于以下情况,切片器是一个不错的选择:Slicers are a great choice to:

  • 在报表画布上显示常用或重要的筛选器,用以简化访问display commonly-used or important filters on the report canvas for easier access
  • 更轻松地查看当前筛选的状态,而无需打开下拉列表make it easier to see the current filtered state without having to open a drop-down list
  • 按数据表中不需要的和隐藏的列进行筛选filter by columns that are unneeded and hidden in the data tables
  • 通过将切片器放置在重要的视觉对象旁边来创建更多报表create more focused reports by putting slicers next to important visuals

独立图像Standalone images

独立图像

独立图像是已添加到报表或仪表板的图形。A standalone image is a graphic that has been added to a report or dashboard.

Tables

表图

表是以逻辑序列的行和列表示的包含相关数据的网格。A table is a grid that contains related data in a logical series of rows and columns. 它还包含标头和合计行。It may also contain headers and a row for totals. 表格可以进行数量比较,可以在其中查看单个类别的多个值。Tables work well with quantitative comparisons where you are looking at many values for a single category. 例如,该表显示了类别的五个不同的度量值。For example, this table displays five different measures for Category.

在以下情况下选择表是不错的选择:Tables are a great choice:

  • 查看并比较详细数据和精确值(而不是可视化表示形式)时to see and compare detailed data and exact values (instead of visual representations)
  • 以表格格式显示数据时to display data in a tabular format
  • 按类别显示数值数据时to display numerical data by categories

树状图Treemaps

树状图

包含带颜色的矩形的图,用矩形大小表示值。Treemaps are charts of colored rectangles, with size representing value. 具有层次结构,主矩形内可以嵌套矩形。They can be hierarchical, with rectangles nested within the main rectangles. 根据要度量的值分配每个矩形内部的空间。The space inside each rectangle is allocated based on the value being measured. 矩形从左上方(最大)到右下方(最小)按大小排列。And the rectangles are arranged in size from top left (largest) to bottom right (smallest).

当存在以下情况时,树状图是一个不错的选择:Treemaps are a great choice:

  • 要显示大量的分层数据to display large amounts of hierarchical data
  • 条形图不能有效地处理大量值when a bar chart can't effectively handle the large number of values
  • 要显示每个部分与整体之间的比例to show the proportions between each part and the whole
  • 要显示层次结构中指标在各个类别层次的分布的模式to show the pattern of the distribution of the measure across each level of categories in the hierarchy
  • 要使用大小和颜色编码显示属性to show attributes using size and color coding
  • 要发现模式、离群值、最重要因素和异常to spot patterns, outliers, most-important contributors, and exceptions

瀑布图Waterfall charts

瀑布图

瀑布图显示随着值的增加或减少的不断变化的总数。A waterfall chart shows a running total as values are added or subtracted. 该图对于了解一系列正值和负值更改如何影响初始值(例如,净收益)很有用。It's useful for understanding how an initial value (for example, net income) is affected by a series of positive and negative changes.

列使用颜色编码,因此可以快速区分增加和减少。The columns are color coded so you can quickly tell increases and decreases. 初始值列和最终值列通常从水平轴开始,而中间值为浮动列。The initial and the final value columns often start on the horizontal axis, while the intermediate values are floating columns. 由于该图的外观,瀑布图也被称为桥图。Because of this "look", waterfall charts are also called bridge charts.

瀑布图适用情况:Waterfall charts are a great choice:

  • 跨时间或不同类别更改指标when you have changes for the measure across time or across different categories
  • 要审核对总值有影响的主要更改to audit the major changes contributing to the total value
  • 要通过显示各种收入来源和计算总利润(或损失)绘制公司的的年利润图。to plot your company's annual profit by showing various sources of revenue and arrive at the total profit (or loss).
  • 要说明一年中公司的起始和结束员工人数。to illustrate the beginning and the ending headcount for your company in a year
  • 要可视化你每月的收入和支出,以及你的帐户的不断变化的余额。to visualize how much money you make and spend each month, and the running balance for your account.

告知问答要使用哪个视觉对象Tell Q&A which visual to use

使用 Power BI 问答键入自然语言查询时,可以在查询中指定视觉对象类型。When typing natural language queries with Power BI Q&A, you can specify the visual type in your query. 例如:For example:

以树状图表示的每个州的销售额"sales by state as a treemap"

问答会话

后续步骤Next steps

与报表、仪表板和应用中的视觉对象交互 Interact with visuals in reports, dashboards, and apps
sqlbi.com 中正确的视觉对象引用The right visual reference from sqlbi.com