设计出色 Power BI 仪表板的提示Tips for designing a great Power BI dashboard

现在,你已创建了一个仪表板并添加了一些磁贴,可考虑如何使你的仪表板不仅美观,而且实用。Now that you've created a dashboard and added some tiles, think about how to make your dashboard not just pretty, but also functional. 一般来说,这意味着突出显示最重要的信息,使其整洁有序。In general, that means making the most important information stand out, and making it clean and uncluttered.

以下是一些提示。Here are a few tips.

提示

许多报表的设计原则也适用于仪表板。Many of the design principles for reports apply to dashboards as well. 阅读我们的白皮书报表和可视化效果的最佳设计原则Read our whitepaper Best design principles for reports and visualizations.

考虑受众Consider your audience

可帮助他们做决定的关键指标是什么?What are the key metrics that will help them make decisions? 将如何使用仪表板?How will the dashboard be used? 何种习得设定或文化设定可能会影响设计选择?What learned or cultural assumptions may affect design choices? 你的受众需要哪些信息才能成功?What information does your audience need to be successful?

请记住,仪表板是一个概览,一个用于监视数据当前状态的单一区域。Keep in mind that the dashboard is an overview, a single place to monitor the current state of the data. 仪表板以基础报表和数据集为基础,并且报表和数据集可包含大量详细信息。The dashboard is based on underlying reports and datasets, and those can contain loads of details. 读者可从你的仪表板深入了解报表。Your readers can drill into the reports from your dashboard. 因此不要在仪表板上放置详细信息,除非该信息是你的读者监视所需。So don't put the detail on the dashboard unless that's what your readers need to monitor.

将在什么位置显示仪表板?Where is the dashboard going to be displayed? 如果将在大型监视器上显示,你可在其上放置更多内容。If it will be on a large monitor, you can put more content on it. 如果读者将在其平板电脑上查看它,则更少的磁贴将更具可读性。If readers will view it on their tablets, then fewer tiles will be more readable.

呈现一个情景,并将其保持在一个屏幕Tell a story and keep it to one screen

由于仪表板旨在一目了然地显示重要信息,因此最好在一个屏幕上显示所有磁贴。Because dashboards are meant to show important information at a glance, having all the tiles on one screen is best. 你是否可以在你的仪表板上避免使用滚动条?Can you avoid scroll bars on your dashboard?

仪表板太杂乱?Is the dashboard too cluttered? 删除可以轻松读取和解释的基本信息以外的所有信息。Remove all but essential information that can be easily read and interpreted.

利用全屏模式Make use of full screen mode

全屏显示仪表板,避免干扰。Display your dashboard in full screen without distractions.

让最重要的信息以最大字体显示Make the most important information biggest

如果仪表板上的文本和可视化效果大小相同,你的读者会很难将重点放在最重要的信息上。If the text and visualizations on your dashboard are all the same size, your readers will have a hard time focusing on what's most important. 例如,卡片可视化效果是突出显示重要数字的好办法:For example, card visualizations are a good way to display an important number prominently:

但请务必提供上下文。But be sure to provide context.

了解有关仅使用一个数字创建磁贴 的信息。Read about creating a tile with just a number.

将最重要的信息置于顶部角落Put the most important information in the upper corner

大多数人会从上到下阅读,因此将最高级别的详细信息置于顶部,并在你以受众阅读的方向移动时显示更多详细信息(从左到右、从右到左)。Most people read from top to bottom, so put the highest level of detail at the top and show more detail as you move in the direction the audience uses for reading (left-to-right, right-to-left).

对数据使用适当的可视化效果并设置其格式以方便阅读Use the right visualization for the data and format it for easy reading

避免出于多样性的目的而使可视化效果多样。Avoid visualization variety for the sake of variety. 可视化效果应对图片润色,且应易于“阅读”和解释。Visualizations should paint a picture and be easy to "read" and interpret. 对于某些数据和可视化效果,简单的图形可视化就足够了。For some data and visualizations, a simple graphic visualization is enough. 但其他数据可能会要求更复杂的可视化效果 - 确保使用标题和标签以及其他自定义来帮助读者。But other data may call for a more-complex visualization - be sure to make use of titles and labels and other customization to help the reader.

  • 选择适当的数据可视化效果Choose appropriate data visualizations. 请谨慎使用扭曲实体的图表,即三维图表。Be careful using charts that distort reality i.e. 3-D charts. 请记住,对人脑来说,很难解释圆形形状。Keep in mind that it is difficult for the human brain to interpret circular shapes. 饼图、环形图、仪表以及其他圆形的图表类型可能看起来相当美观,但它们不是最佳的数据可视化效果。Pie charts, donut charts, gauges and other circular chart types may look pretty but they are not a data visualization best practice.
  • 与轴上的图表比例、图表维序,以及用于图表内维度值的颜色保持一致。Be consistent with chart scales on axes, chart dimension ordering and also the colors used for dimension values within charts.
  • 务必恰当地对定量数据进行编码。Be sure to encode quantitative data nicely. 显示数字时,不要超过三个或四个数字。Don’t exceed three or four numerals when displaying numbers. 对小数点左侧的一个或两个数字显示度量值并显示千或百万的单位,即 3.4 百万,而不是 3,400,000。Display measures to one or two numerals left of the decimal point and scale for thousands or millions i.e. 3.4 million not 3,400,000.
  • 不要混合精度和时间的级别。Don’t mix levels of precision and time. 确保时间范围易于理解。Make sure that time frames are well understood. 不要将上个月的图表置于该年度特定月份的已筛选图表旁。Don’t have one chart that has last month next to filtered charts from a specific month of the year.
  • 不要在同一比例上(如在折线图或条形图上)混合大度量值和小度量值。Don’t mix big and small measures on the same scale, such as on a line or bar chart. 例如,一个度量值可能以百万计,其他度量值则以千计。For example one measure can be in the millions and the other measure in the thousands. 使用这种大比例,很难看出以千计的度量值的差异。With such a large scale, it would be difficult to see the differences of the measure that is in the thousands. 如果需要混合,则选择一个允许使用第二个轴的可视化效果。If you need to mix, choose a visualization that allows the use of a second axis.
  • 不要使用不需要的数据标签打乱图表。Don’t clutter your charts with data labels that are not needed. 条形图中的值通常易于了解,不显示实际数。The values in bar charts are usually well understood without displaying the actual number.
  • 请注意如何对图表进行排序Pay attention to how charts are sorted. 如果你想要将注意点放在最高或最低的数字,则通过度量值进行排序。If you want to draw attention to the highest or lowest number, sort by the measure. 如果希望用户能够在许多其他类别中快速找到特定类别,则按轴进行排序。If you want people to be able to quickly find a particular category within many other categories, sort by the axis.
  • 如果类别少于八个,则饼图最佳。Pie charts are best if they have fewer than eight categories. 由于不能并排比较值,所以在饼图中的比较值要比在条形图和柱形图中比较值更难。Because you can't compare values side by side, it’s harder to compare values in a pie chart than in bar and column charts. 饼图有助于查看部分对整体的关系,而不利于将部分进行比较。Pie charts can be good for viewing part-to-whole relationships rather than for comparing the parts. 仪表盘则非常适合用于在目标上下文中显示当前状态。And Gauge charts are great for displaying the current status in the context of a goal.

有关更多可视化效果特定指南,请参阅 Power BI 中的可视化效果类型For more visualization-specific guidance, see Visualization types in Power BI.

了解更多关于最佳仪表板设计的信息Learning More about Best Practice Dashboard Design

若要掌握设计出色仪表板的技术,建议了解视觉感知的基本 Gestalt 原则以及清楚传达上下文中可操作信息的方法。To master the art of excellent dashboard design, consider learning basic Gestalt Principles of visual perception and how to clearly communicate actionable information in context. 幸运的是,我们的博客中已分散有大量广泛可用的资源。Luckily, there is a plethora of resources already widely available and sprinkled within our blogs. 一些我们最喜爱的书籍有:A few of our favorite books include:

  • Information Dashboard Design ,Stephen Few 著Information Dashboard Design by Stephen Few
  • Show Me the Numbers ,Stephen Few 著Show Me the Numbers by Stephen Few
  • Now You See It ,Stephen Few 著Now You See It by Stephen Few
  • Envisioning Information ,Edward Tufte 著Envisioning Information by Edward Tufte
  • Advanced Presentations ,Andrew Abela 设计Advanced Presentations by Design by Andrew Abela

后续步骤Next steps

Power BI 中的仪表板Dashboards in Power BI
Power BI - 基本概念Power BI - Basic Concepts
更多问题?More questions? 尝试参与 Power BI 社区Try the Power BI Community