本地数据网关常见问题On-premises data gateway FAQ

常规General

问:这项 Windows 服务的实际名称是什么?Question: What is the actual Windows service called?
答:网关在服务中被称为本地数据网关服务Answer: The gateway is called on-premises data gateway service in Services

问:网关的要求是什么?Question: What are the requirements for the gateway?
答:请参阅主要的网关文章中的要求部分。Answer: Take a look at the requirements section of the main gateway article.

问:网关支持哪些数据源?Question: What data sources are supported with the gateway?
答:请参阅主要的网关文章中的数据源表。Answer: See the data sources table in the main gateway article.

问:我是否需要一个云数据源的网关,如 Azure SQL 数据库?Question: Do I need a gateway for cloud data sources like Azure SQL Database?
答:不!Answer: No! 该服务可连接到数据源而无需网关。The service will be able to connect to that data source without a gateway.

问:是否有任何从云到网关的入站连接?Question: Are there any inbound connections to the gateway from the cloud?
答:不能。Answer: No. 网关使用到 Azure 服务总线的出站连接。The gateway uses outbound connections to Azure Service Bus.

问:如果我阻止了出站连接怎么办?Question: What if I block outbound connections? 我需要打开什么?What do I need to open?
答:请参阅端口和网关使用的主机的列表。Answer: See the list of ports and hosts that the gateway uses.

问:网关是否必须安装在与数据源相同的计算机上?Question: Does the gateway have to be installed on the same machine as the data source?
答:不能。Answer: No. 网关将使用所提供的连接信息连接到数据源。The gateway will connect to the data source using the connection information that was provided. 从这个方面来讲,可以将网关看作是一个客户端应用程序。Think of the gateway as a client application in this sense. 它只需要能够连接到所提供的服务器名称即可。It will just need to be able to connect to the server name that was provided.

问:什么是来自网关的数据源的运行查询延迟?Question: What is the latency for running queries to a data source from the gateway? 什么是最佳的体系结构?What is the best architecture?
答:建议使用尽可能接近数据源的网关以避免网络延迟。Answer: It is recommended to have the gateway as close to the data source as possible to avoid network latency. 如果你可以在实际数据源上安装网关,这将使引入的延迟最小化。If you can install the gateway on the actual data source, it will minimize the latency introduced. 同时也要考虑数据中心。Consider the data centers as well. 例如,如果你的服务正在使用美国西部的数据中心,并且你拥有一个托管在 Azure VM 中的 SQL Server,你也会想要一个在美国西部的 Azure VM。For example, if your service is making use of the West US data center, and you have SQL Server hosted in an Azure VM, you will want to have the Azure VM in West US as well. 这将最小化延迟,并且避免 Azure VM 上的传出费用。This will minimize latency and avoid egress charges on the Azure VM.

问:是否对网络带宽有要求?Question: Are there any requirements for network bandwidth?
答:建议为你的网络连接配备较高的吞吐量。Answer: It is recommended to have good throughput for your network connection. 每个环境都不同,而且这也依赖于所发送的数据量。Every environment is different and this is also dependent on the amount of data being sent. 使用 ExpressRoute 可以帮助保证本地和 Azure 数据中心之间的吞吐量级别。Using ExpressRoute could help to guarantee a level of throughput between on-premises and the Azure data centers.

你可以使用第三方 Azure 速度测试应用来帮助测量吞吐量。You can use the 3rd party Azure Speed Test app to help gauge what your throughput is.

问:网关 Windows 服务能够通过 Azure Active Directory 帐户运行吗?Question: Can the gateway Windows service run with an Azure Active Directory account?
答:不能。Answer: No. Windows 服务需要具有有效的 Windows 帐户。The Windows service needs to have a valid Windows account. 默认情况下,它将通过服务 SID 运行,NT SERVICE\PBIEgwServiceBy default it will run with the Service SID, NT SERVICE\PBIEgwService.

问:结果如何发送回云?Question: How are results sent back to the cloud?
答:通过 Azure 服务总线的方式完成。Answer: This is done by way of the Azure Service Bus. 有关详细信息,请参阅工作方式For more information, see how it works.

问:我的凭据存储在哪里?Question: Where are my credentials stored?
答:你为数据源输入的凭据加密存储在网关云服务中。Answer: The credentials you enter for a data source are stored encrypted in the gateway cloud service. 凭据加密存储在本地网关中。The credentials are decrypted at the gateway on-premises.

问:可否将网关置于外围网络(也称为 DMZ、隔离区和屏蔽子网)?Question: Can I place the gateway in a perimeter network (also known as DMZ, demilitarized zone, and screened subnet)?
答:网关需要与数据源相连接。Answer: The gateway requires connectivity to the data source. 如果数据源不可在外围网络中访问,网关可能无法连接到它。If the data source is not accessable in your perimeter network, the gateway may not be able to connect to it. 例如,你的 SQL Server 可能不在外围网络中。For example, your SQL Server may not be in your perimeter network. 并且你不能从外围网络连接到 SQL Server。And, you cannot connect to your SQL Server from the perimeter network. 如果将网关置于外围网络中,它将无法访问该 SQL Server。If you placed the gateway in your perimeter network, it would not be able to reach the SQL Server.

问:是否可以强制网关使用 Azure 服务总线的 HTTPS 流入量来代替 TCP?Question: Is it possible to force the gateway to use HTTPS traffic with Azure Service Bus instead of TCP?
答:是的。Answer: Yes. 尽管这会大大降低性能。Although, this will greatly reduce performance. 你会想要修改 Microsoft.PowerBI.DataMovement.Pipeline.GatewayCore.dll.config 文件。You will want to modify the Microsoft.PowerBI.DataMovement.Pipeline.GatewayCore.dll.config file. 你会想要将值从 AutoDetect 更改为 HttpsYou will want to change the value from AutoDetect to Https. 默认情况下,此文件位于 C:\Program Files\On-premises data gatewayThis file is located, by default, at C:\Program Files\On-premises data gateway.

问:需要将 Azure 数据中心 IP 列表列入白名单吗?Question: Do I need to whitelist the Azure Datacenter IP list? 在何处可以获取此列表?Where do I get the list?
答:如果你要拦截出站 IP 流量,则可能需要将 Azure 数据中心 IP 列表列入白名单。Answer: If you are blocking outbound IP traffic, you may need to whitelist the Azure Datacenter IP list. 目前,网关使用 IP 地址以及完全限定的域名与 Azure 服务总线进行通信。Currently, the gateway will communicate with Azure Service Bus using the IP address in addition to the fully qualified domain name. Azure 数据中心 IP 列表每周更新一次。The Azure Datacenter IP list is updated weekly. 可以下载 Microsoft Azure 数据中心 IP 列表You can download the Microsoft Azure Datacenter IP list.

<setting name="ServiceBusSystemConnectivityModeString" serializeAs="String">
    <value>Https</value>
</setting>

高可用性/灾难恢复High Availability/Disaster Recovery

问:是否有任何可通过网关启用的高可用性方案的计划?Question: Are there any plans for enabling high availability scenarios with the gateway?
答:需要,这是 Power BI 团队主动投资的领域。Answer: Yes, this is an area of active investment for the Power BI team. 请继续关注 Power BI 博客获取有关此功能的后续更新。Please stay tuned to the Power BI blog for further updates about this feature.

问:那些选项可以使用灾难恢复?Question: What options are available for disaster recovery?
答:你可以使用恢复密钥来还原或移动网关。Answer: You can use the recovery key to restore or move a gateway. 在安装网关时,提供恢复密钥。When you install the gateway, supply the recovery key.

问:恢复密钥的好处是什么?Question: What is the benefit of the recovery key?
答:它提供了一种方法来迁移或恢复你的网关设置。Answer: It provides a way to migrate or recover your gateway settings. 这也可用于灾难恢复。This is also used for disaster recovery.

故障排除Troubleshooting

问:网关日志的位置在哪里?Question: Where are the gateway logs located?
答:请参阅疑难解答文章的工具部分。Answer: See the tools section of the troubleshooting article.

问:如何查看正在发送到本地数据源的查询?Question: How can I see what queries are being sent to the on-premises data source?
答:可以启用查询跟踪。Answer: You can enable query tracing. 这将包括正在发送的查询。This will include the queries being sent. 请记住在完成故障排除后,需要将其更改回原始值。Remember to change it back to the original value when done troubleshooting. 启用查询跟踪可能会使日志变大。Having query tracing enabled will cause the logs to be larger.

你还可以查看用于跟踪查询的数据源工具。You can also look at tools your data source has for tracing queries. 例如,针对 SQL Server 和 Analysis Services,你可以使用扩展事件或 SQL 事件探查器。For example, for SQL Server and Analysis Services you can use Extended Events or SQL Profiler.

Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services

问:我可以使用 msdmpump.dll 为 Analysis Services 创建自定义的有效用户名映射吗?Question: Can I use msdmpump.dll to create custom effective username mappings for Analysis Services?
答:不能。Answer: No. 这一次不支持此项。This is not supported at this time.

问:我是否可以使用网关连接到多维 (OLAP) 实例。Question: Can I use the gateway to connect to a multidimensional (OLAP) instance.
答:是的!Answer: Yes! 本地数据网关支持实时连接 Analysis Services 表格模型和多维模型。The on-premises data gateway supports live connections to both Analysis Services Tabular and Multidimensional models.

问:如果将网关从使用 Windows 身份验证的本地服务器安装在其他域中的计算机上,该怎么办?Question: What if I install the gateway on a computer in a different domain from my on-premises server that uses Windows authentication?
答:这里不能保证。Answer: No guarantees here. 这完全取决于两个域之间的信任关系。It all depends on the trust relationship between the two domains. 如果两个不同的域在受信任的域模型中,则网关可能会连接到 Analysis Services 服务器,且有效的用户名可以得到解析。If the two different domains are in a trusted domain model, then the gateway might be able to connect to the Analysis Services server and the effective user name can be resolved. 如果没有,你可能会遇到登录失败。If not, you may encounter a login failure.

问:如何弄清哪些有效用户名被传递给我的本地 Analysis Services 服务器?Question: How can I find out what effective username is being passed to my on-premises Analysis Services server?
答:我们在故障排除文章中回答了这个问题。Answer: We answer this in the troubleshooting article.

问:我在 Analysis Services 中有 25 个数据库,有办法可以让它们全部同时为网关启用吗?Question: I have 25 databases in Analysis Services, is there a way to have them all enabled for the gateway at once?
答:不能。Answer: No. 这在规划之中,但我们尚无时间范围。This is on the roadmap, but we don’t have a timeframe.

管理Administration

问:一个网关可以有多个管理员吗?Question: Can I have more than one admin for a gateway?
答:是的!Answer: Yes! 当你管理网关时,可以转到“管理员”选项卡添加其他管理员。When you manage a gateway, you can go to the administrator’s tab to add additional admins.

问:网关管理员是否需要是安装网关的计算机的管理员?Question: Does the gateway admin need to be an admin on the machine where the gateway is installed?
答:不能。Answer: No. 网关管理员是用来管理服务中的网关的。The gateway admin is used to manage the gateway from within the service.

问:是否可以防止我组织中的用户创建网关?Question: Can I prevent users in my organization from creating a gateway?
答:不能。Answer: No. 这在规划之中,但我们尚无时间范围。This is on the roadmap, but we don’t have a timeframe.

问:我是否可以获取我组织中网关的使用情况和统计信息?Question: Can I get usage and statistics information of the gateways in my organization?
答:不能。Answer: No. 这在规划之中,但我们尚无时间范围。This is on the roadmap, but we don’t have a timeframe.

Power BIPower BI

问:是否需要升级个人网关?Question: Do I need to upgrade the personal gateway? 答:不需要,你可以继续使用 Power BI 个人网关。Answer: No, you can keep using the personal gateway for Power BI.

问:通过本地数据网关连接时,Power BI 仪表板中的磁帖多久刷新一次?Question: How often are tiles in a dashboard, in Power BI, refreshed when connected through the on-premises data gateway?
答:大约 10 分钟时间。Answer: About ten minutes. DirectQuery 连接就是这样。DirectQuery connections are just that. 这并不意味着每十分钟磁贴就可以向本地服务器发布查询并显示新数据。This doesn’t mean that a tile issues a query to your on-premises server, and shows new data, every ten minutes.

问:是否可以使用连接到本地数据源的 Power Pivot 数据模型上传 Excel 工作簿?Question: Can I upload Excel workbooks with Power Pivot data models that connect to on-premises data sources? 此方案是否需要网关?Do I need a gateway for this scenario?
答:是的,可以上传工作簿。Answer: Yes, you can upload the workbook. 依然不,你不需要网关。And, no, you don’t need a gateway. 但是,由于数据将驻留在 Excel 数据模型中,基于 Excel 工作簿的 Power BI 中的报表将不是实时的。But, because the data will reside in the Excel data model, reports in Power BI based on the Excel workbook will not be live. 为了刷新 Power BI 中的报表,你必须重新上传每次更新的工作簿。In order to refresh reports in Power BI, you’d have to re-upload an updated workbook each time. 或者,使用带有计划刷新的网关。Or, use the gateway with scheduled refresh.

问:如果用户共享具有 DirectQuery 连接的仪表板,则其他用户即使可能没有相同的权限,是否也能够看到数据?Question: If users share dashboards that has a DirectQuery connection, will those other users be able to see the data even though they might not have the same permissions.
答:对于已连接到 Analysis Services 的仪表板,用户将只能看到他们有权访问的数据。Answer: For a dashboard connected to Analysis Services, users will only see the data they have access to. 如果用户不具有相同的权限,他们将无法查看任何数据。If the users do not have the same permissions, they will not be able to see any data. 对于其他数据源,所有用户都将都共享管理员为该数据源输入的凭据。For other data sources, all users will share the credentials entered by the admin for that data source.

提问:我为什么不能连接到 Oracle 服务器?Question: Why can't I connect to my Oracle server?
回答:你可能需要使用正确的服务器信息来安装 Oracle 客户端并配置 tnsnames.ora 文件,以便连接至你的 Oracle 服务器。Answer: You may need to install the Oracle client and configure the tnsnames.ora file with the proper server information in order to connect to your Oracle server. 这是网关外的单独安装。This is a separate install outside of the gateway. 有关详细信息,请参阅 安装 Oracle 客户端For more information, see Installing the Oracle Client.

问:网关将使用 ExpressRoute?Question: Will the gateway work with ExpressRoute?
答:是的。Answer: Yes. 有关 ExpressRoute 和 Power BI 的详细信息,请参阅 Power BI 和 ExpressRouteFor more information about ExpressRoute and Power BI, see Power BI and ExpressRoute.

后续步骤Next steps

本地数据网关On-premises data gateway
深入了解本地数据网关On-premises data gateway in-depth
本地数据网关疑难解答Troubleshooting the on-premises data gateway
更多问题?More questions? 尝试参与 Power BI 社区Try the Power BI Community