在 SharePointServer 中规划文档版本控制、内容审批和签出控件Plan document versioning, content approval, and check-out controls in SharePointServer

适用于: 是 2013  是 2016  是 2019  Microsoft 365 中没有 SharePointAPPLIES TO: yes2013 yes2016 yes2019 noSharePoint in Microsoft 365

本文介绍如何计划在 SharePoint Server 中使用版本控制、内容审批和签出功能来控制文档版本的整个生命周期。This article describes how to plan to use versioning, content approval, and check-out in SharePoint Server to control document versions throughout their life cycle.

关于版本控制、内容审批和签出About versioning, content approval, and check-outs

SharePoint Server 包括以下可帮助您控制文档库中的文档的功能:SharePoint Server includes the following features that can help you control documents in a document library:

  • 版本控制是对文档连续迭代进行编号和保存的方法。Versioning is the method by which successive iterations of a document are numbered and saved.

  • 内容批准是拥有批准权限的网站成员控制内容发布的方法。Content approval is the method by which site members who have approver permissions control the publication of content.

  • 签出和签入是用户更好地控制何时创建文档新版本并在签入文档时标注自己所做的更改的方法。Check-out and Check-in are the methods by which users can better control when a new version of a document is created and also comment on changes that they made when they check a document in.

您可以为本文中讨论的文档库中的内容管理功能配置设置。要在您的解决方案中的所有库之间共享这些设置,您可以创建包括内容管理设置的内容文档库模板。这可以确保新库反映您的内容管理决策。You configure settings for the content governance features discussed in this article in document libraries. To share these settings across libraries in your solution, you can create document library templates that include your content governance settings. This makes sure that new libraries will reflect your content governance decisions.

有关版本控制的详细信息,请参阅为列表或库启用和配置版本控制For more information about versioning, see Enable and configure versioning for a list or library.

规划版本控制Plan versioning

文档库的默认版本控制控件取决于网站集模板。The default versioning control for a document library depends on the site collection template. 但是,您可以根据您的特定需求配置文档库的版本控制。However, you can configure versioning control for a document library depending on your particular requirements. 每个文档库可能具有最适合库中的文档类型的不同版本控制控件。Each document library can have a different versioning control that best suits the kind of documents in the library. SharePoint Server 有三个版本控制选项:SharePoint Server has three versioning options:

  • 无版本控制 指定未保存文档的早期版本。不使用版本控制时,则无法检索文档的早期版本,也无法保留文档历史记录,因为不保存文档每个迭代随附的注释。对包含不重要的内容或不会更改的内容的文档库使用此选项。No versioning Specifies that no earlier versions of documents are saved. When versioning is not being used, earlier versions of documents are not retrievable, and document history is also not retained because comments that accompany each iteration of a document are not saved. Use this option on document libraries that contain unimportant content or content that will never change.

  • 创建主要版本 指定使用简单的版本控制方案保留编号的文档版本(如 1、2、3)。要控制对存储空间的影响,您可以指定保留多少早期版本(从当前版本开始计算)。Create major versions Specifies that numbered versions of documents are retained by using a simple versioning scheme (such as 1, 2, 3). To control the effect on storage space, you can specify how many earlier versions to keep, counting back from the current version.

    在主要版本控制中,每次保存文档的新版本时,所有具有文档库权限的用户均可查看内容。如果您不需要区分文档的草稿版本和已发布版本,请使用此选项。例如,在组织的工作组使用的文档库中,如果工作组的每个人都必须能够查看每个文档的所有迭代,主要版本控制是不错的选择。In major versioning, every time that a new version of a document is saved, all users who have permissions to the document library will be able to view the content. Use this option when you do not want to differentiate between draft versions of documents and published versions. For example, in a document library that is used by a workgroup in an organization, major versioning is a good choice if everyone on the team must be able to view all iterations of each document.

  • 创建主要和次要(草稿)版本 指定使用主要和次要版本控制方案保留编号的文档版本(如 1.0、1.1、1.2、2.0、2.1)。以 .0 结束的版本是主要版本,以非零扩展名结束的版本为次要版本。文档之前的主要和次要版本与当前版本一起保存。要控制对存储空间的影响,您可以指定保留多少早期版本(从当前版本开始计算)。您还可以指定保留的多少主要版本应包含对应的次要版本。例如,如果您指定应为两个主要版本保留次要版本且当前版本为 4.0,则将保留从 3.1 开始的所有次要版本。Create major and minor (draft) versions Specifies that numbered versions of documents are retained by using a major and minor versioning scheme (such as 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 2.0, 2.1). Versions ending in .0 are major versions and versions ending with non-zero extensions are minor versions. Previous major and minor versions of documents are saved together with current versions. To control the effect on storage space, you can specify how many previous major versions to keep, counting back from the current version. You can also specify how many major versions being kept should include their respective minor versions. For example, if you specify that minor versions should be kept for two major versions and the current major version is 4.0, then all minor versions starting at 3.1 will be kept.

    在主要和次要版本控制,具有读取权限的任何用户可以查看文档的主要版本。您可以指定哪些用户也可以查看次要版本。通常我们建议您向可以编辑项目的用户授予查看和使用次要版本的权限,并将具有读取权限的用户限制为仅查看主要版本。In major and minor versioning, any user who has read permissions can view major versions of documents. You can specify which users can also view minor versions. Typically, we recommend that you grant permissions to view and work with minor versions to the users who can edit items, and restrict users who have read permissions to viewing only major versions.

    如果您想区分受众可以查看的发布内容和尚未准备发布的草稿内容,请使用主要和次要版本控制。例如,在描述组织利益的人力资源网站上,使用主要和次要版本控制限制在访问描述时员工对利益描述的访问。Use major and minor versioning when you want to differentiate between published content that can be viewed by an audience and draft content that is not yet ready for publication. For example, on a human resources Web site that describes organizational benefits, use major and minor versioning to restrict employees' access to benefits descriptions while the descriptions are being revised.

备注

在创建文档的新版本时, 增量更改存储在 SQL Server 中,而不是存储在文档的全新副本中。When you create a new version of a document, the incremental changes are stored in SQL Server, rather than a completely new copy of the document. 这样能够提供最有效的存储,并有助于降低整体存储要求。This provides the most efficient storage and helps reduce overall storage requirements.

计划内容批准Plan content approval

使用内容批准进行安排和控制,使内容对受众可用。例如,将内容作为产品或服务之一进行发布的企业在发布内容之前可能需要进行法律审核和批准。Use content approval to formalize and control making content available to an audience. For example, an enterprise that publishes content as one of its products or services might require a legal review and approval before publishing the content.

等待内容批准的文档草稿处于挂起状态。当批准者审核文档并批准内容后,文档将可供具有读取权限的用户查看。文档库所有者可以为文档库启用内容批准,并选择将工作流与库关联起来,以执行审批过程。A document draft awaiting content approval is in the Pending status. When an approver reviews the document and approves the content, it becomes available for viewing by users who have read permissions. A document library owner can enable content approval for a document library and, optionally, can associate a workflow with the library to run the approval process.

文档提交以进行审批的方式取决于文档库中的版本控制设置:The way that documents are submitted for approval varies depending on the versioning settings in the document library:

  • 无版本控制 如果未使用版本控制并保存文档更改,文档的状态将变为"挂起"。No versioning If versioning is not being used and changes to a document are saved, the document's status becomes Pending. SharePoint Server 保留文档的早期版本,以便具有读取权限的用户仍可以查看它。SharePoint Server keeps the earlier version of the document so that users who have read permissions can still view it. 挂起更改得到批准后,具有读取权限的用户将可以查看文档的新版本,并且不会保留早期版本。After the pending changes are approved, the new version of the document is made available for viewing by users who have read permissions and the earlier version is not retained.

    如果未使用版本控制并将新文档上载到文档库,该文档将添加到处于"挂起"状态的库,且在得到批准之前具有读取权限的用户无法查看该文档。If versioning is not being used and a new document is uploaded to the document library, it is added to the library in the Pending status and is not viewable by users who have read permissions until it is approved.

  • 创建主要版本 如果使用主要版本控制并保存文档更改,文档的状态将变为"挂起",具有读取权限的用户将可以查看文档的前一主要版本。文档更改得到批准后,将创建文档的新主要版本并提供给具有读取权限的用户,前一主要版本将保存到文档的历史列表中。Create major versions If major versioning is being used and changes to a document are saved, the document's status becomes Pending and the previous major version of the document is made available for viewing by users who have read permissions. After changes to the document are approved, a new major version of the document is created and made available to users who have read permissions, and the previous major version is saved to the document's history list.

    如果使用主要版本控制并将新文档上载到文档库,该文档将添加到处于"挂起"状态的库中,且在其被批准为版本 1 之前具有读取权限的用户无法查看该文档。If major versioning is being used and a new document is uploaded to the document library, it is added to the library in the Pending status and is not viewable by users who have read permissions until it is approved as version 1.

  • 创建主要和次要(草稿)版本 如果使用主要和次要版本控制并保存,作者可以选择将文档的新次要版本保存为草稿或创建新的主要版本,这可以将文档的状态更改为"挂起"。文档更改得到批准后,将创建文档的新主要版本并提供给具有读取权限的用户。在主要和次要版本控制中,文档的主要和次要版本将保留在文档的历史记录列表中。Create major and minor (draft) versions If major and minor versioning is being used and changes to a document are saved, the author has the choice of saving a new minor version of the document as a draft or creating a new major version, which changes the document's status to Pending. After the changes to the document are approved, a new major version of the document is created and made available to users who have read permissions. In major and minor versioning, both major and minor versions of documents are kept in a document's history list.

    如果使用主要和次要版本控制并将新文档上载到文档库,该文档将以"草稿"状态作为版本 1 添加到库中,或者作者可以立即请求审批。在这种情况下,文档的状态将变为"挂起"。If major and minor versioning is being used and a new document is uploaded to the document library, it can be added to the library either in the Draft status as version 0.1 or the author can immediately request approval. In this case, the document's status becomes Pending.

计划签出和签入Plan check-out and check-in

您可以要求用户在编辑文档之前将文档从文档库中签出。要求签出和签入的优点包括:You can require users to check out documents from a document library before they edit the documents. The benefits of requiring check-out and check-in include the following:

  • 更好地控制何时创建文档版本。签出文档后,作者无需签入即可保存文档。文档库的其他用户将无法查看这些更改,且无法创建新版本。新版本(对其他用户可见)仅在作者签入文档后创建。这给作者提供了更大的灵活性和控制。Better control of when document versions are created. When a document is checked out, the author can save the document without checking it in. Other users of the document library will be unable to see these changes, and a new version is not created. A new version (visible to other users) is only created when an author checks in a document. This gives the author more flexibility and control.

  • 更好地捕捉元数据。签入文档后,作者可以写入注释,描述对文档所做的更改。这将创建文档更改的持续历史记录。Better capture of metadata. When a document is checked in, the author can write comments that describe the changes that were made to the document. This creates an ongoing historical record of the changes that were made to the document.

如果您的解决方案要求用户签入和签出文档以进行编辑,则可以使用支持这些操作的 Office 客户端应用程序中的功能。If your solution requires users to check in and check out documents to edit them, you can use features in Office client applications that support these actions. 用户可以从 Office 客户端应用程序中签出文档、撤消签出和签入文档。Users can check out documents, undo check-outs, and check in documents from Office client applications.

文档签出后,它将被锁定以便用户以独占方式进行编辑。用户将编辑保存到该文件后,更改将上载并保存到服务器。更改将为用户专有,对其他用户不可用。当用户准备好签入文档后,最新更改将对其他用户可见并发布。When a document is checked out, it is locked for exclusive editing by the user. When the user saves edits to this file, the changes are uploaded and saved to the server. The changes are private to the user and not visible to others. When the user is ready to check in the document, the latest changes are made visible to others and published.

在 Office 客户端应用程序中,用户还可以通过更改内容编辑选项来选择将签出的文档保留在服务器上。From Office client applications, users can also choose to leave checked-out documents on the server by changing content editing options.

备注

使用共同创作功能时不应签出文档。You should not check out a document when you use the co-authoring functionality.