数据库引擎实例 (SQL Server)Database Engine Instances (SQL Server)

适用于:Applies to: 是SQL ServerSQL Server(所有支持的版本)yesSQL ServerSQL Server (all supported versions) 适用于:Applies to: 是SQL ServerSQL Server(所有支持的版本)yesSQL ServerSQL Server (all supported versions)

数据库引擎Database Engine 的实例是作为操作系统服务运行的 sqlservr.exe 可执行程序的副本。An instance of the 数据库引擎Database Engine is a copy of the sqlservr.exe executable that runs as an operating system service. 每个实例管理几个系统数据库以及一个或多个用户数据库。Each instance manages several system databases and one or more user databases. 每台计算机都可以运行 数据库引擎Database Engine的多个实例。Each computer can run multiple instances of the 数据库引擎Database Engine. 应用程序连接到实例,以便在实例管理的数据库中执行任务。Applications connect to the instance in order to perform work in a database managed by the instance.

InstancesInstances

一个 数据库引擎Database Engine 实例作为处理所有应用程序请求的服务操作,以便使用该实例管理的任何数据库中的数据。An instance of the 数据库引擎Database Engine operates as a service that handles all application requests to work with the data in any of the databases managed by that instance. 它是应用程序所发出连接请求(登录名)的目标。It is the target of the connection requests (logins) from applications. 如果应用程序和实例分别位于单独的计算机上,则连接通过网络连接运行。The connection runs through a network connection if the application and instance are on separate computers. 如果应用程序和实例位于同一台计算机上,则 SQL Server 连接可作为网络连接或内存中连接运行。If the application and instance are on the same computer, the SQL Server connection can run as either a network connection or an in-memory connection. 完成连接后,应用程序通过连接将 Transact-SQLTransact-SQL 语句发送给实例。When a connection has been completed, an application sends Transact-SQLTransact-SQL statements across the connection to the instance. 实例将这些 Transact-SQLTransact-SQL 语句解析为针对数据库中的数据和对象的操作;并且如果已将所需权限授予了登录凭据,,则实例会执行这些工作。The instance resolves the Transact-SQLTransact-SQL statements into operations against the data and objects in the databases, and if the required permissions have been granted to the login credentials, performs the work. 检索的任何数据都将返回到应用程序,同时还返回错误之类的任何消息。Any data retrieved is returned to the application, along with any messages such as errors.

可以在一台计算机上运行 数据库引擎Database Engine 的多个实例。You can run multiple instances of the 数据库引擎Database Engine on a computer. 一个实例可以是默认实例。One instance can be the default instance. 该默认实例没有名称。The default instance has no name. 如果某一连接请求仅指定计算机的名称,则会与默认实例建立连接。If a connection request specifies only the name of the computer, the connection is made to the default instance. 命名实例是您在安装实例时指定实例名称的一种实例。A named instance is one where you specify an instance name when installing the instance. 为了连接到该实例,连接请求必须同时指定计算机名称和实例名称。A connection request must specify both the computer name and instance name in order to connect to the instance. 不一定非要安装默认实例;在计算机上运行的所有实例都可以是命名实例。There is no requirement to install a default instance; all of the instances running on a computer can be named instances.

任务说明Task Description 主题Topic
介绍如何配置实例的属性。Describes how to configure the properties of an instance. 配置文件位置和日期格式之类的默认值,或者配置实例使用内存或线程之类的操作系统资源的方式。Configure defaults such as file locations and date formats, or how the instance uses operating system resources, such as memory or threads. 配置数据库引擎实例 (SQL Server)Configure Database Engine Instances (SQL Server)
介绍如何管理 数据库引擎Database Engine实例的排序规则。Describes how to manage the collation for an instance of the 数据库引擎Database Engine. 排序规则定义用于表示字符的位模式、排序之类的关联行为以及比较操作中是否区分大小写或重音。Collations define the bit patterns used to represent characters, and associated behaviors such as sorting, and case or accent sensitivity in comparison operations. 排序规则和 Unicode 支持Collation and Unicode Support
介绍如何配置链接服务器定义,这将允许 Transact-SQLTransact-SQL 语句在某一实例下运行,以便使用在单独的 OLE DB 数据源中存储的数据。Describes how to configure linked server definitions, which allow Transact-SQLTransact-SQL statements run in an instance to work with data stored in separate OLE DB data sources. 链接服务器(数据库引擎)Linked Servers (Database Engine)
介绍如何创建登录触发器,这将指定在验证了登录尝试后、但在开始使用实例中的资源之前要执行的操作。Describes how to create a logon trigger, which specifies actions to be taken after a logon attempt has been validated, but before it starts working with resources in the instance. 登录触发器支持各种操作,例如记录连接活动,或者基于 Windows 和 SQL Server 执行的凭据身份验证之外的逻辑来限制登录。Logon triggers support actions such as logging connection activity, or restricting logins based on logic in addition to the credential authentication performed by Windows and SQL Server. 登录触发器Logon Triggers
介绍如何管理与 数据库引擎Database Engine实例关联的服务。Describes how to manage the service associated with an instance of the 数据库引擎Database Engine. 这包括启动和停止服务或者配置启动选项之类的操作。This includes actions such as starting and stopping the service, or configuring startup options. 管理数据库引擎服务Manage the Database Engine Services
介绍如何执行服务器网络配置任务,例如启用协议、修改协议使用的端口或管道、配置加密、配置 SQL Server Browser 服务、在网络中显示或隐藏 SQL Server 数据库引擎以及注册服务器主体名称。Describes how to perform server network configuration tasks such as enabling protocols, modifying the port or pipe used by a protocol, configuring encryption, configuring the SQL Server Browser service, exposing or hiding the SQL Server Database Engine on the network, and registering the Server Principal Name. 服务器网络配置Server Network Configuration
介绍如何执行客户端网络配置任务,例如配置客户端协议以及创建或删除服务器别名。Describes how to perform client network configuration tasks such as configuring client protocols and creating or deleting a Server Alias. 客户端网络配置Client Network Configuration
介绍可用于设计、调试和运行 SQL Server Management StudioSQL Server Management Studio 脚本之类的脚本的 Transact-SQLTransact-SQL 编辑器。Describes the SQL Server Management StudioSQL Server Management Studio editors that can be used to design, debug, and run scripts such as Transact-SQLTransact-SQL scripts. 介绍如何对 Windows PowerShell 脚本进行编码以便使用 SQL Server 组件。Also describes how to code Windows PowerShell scripts to work with SQL Server components. 数据库引擎脚本Database Engine Scripting
介绍如何使用维护计划以便为实例指定常见管理任务的工作流。Describes how to use maintenance plans to specify a workflow of common administration tasks for an instance. 工作流包含诸如备份数据库和更新统计信息以提高性能之类的任务。Workflows include tasks such as backing up databases and updating statistics to improve performance. 维护计划Maintenance Plans
介绍如何使用资源调控器来通过指定应用程序请求可使用的 CPU 和内存量的限制来管理资源使用和工作负荷。Describes how to use the resource governor to manage resource consumption and workloads by specifying limits to the amount of CPU and memory that application requests can use. 资源调控器Resource Governor
介绍数据库应用程序如何使用数据库邮件从 数据库引擎Database Engine发送电子邮件。Describes how database applications can use database mail to send e-mail messages from the 数据库引擎Database Engine. 数据库邮件Database Mail
介绍如何使用扩展事件来捕获可用于生成性能基准或诊断性能问题的性能数据。Describes how to use extended events to capture performance data can be used to build performance baselines or to diagnose performance problems. 扩展事件是用于收集性能数据的轻型、高度可伸缩的系统。Extended events are a light-weight, highly scalable system for gathering performance data. 扩展事件Extended Events
介绍如何使用 SQL 跟踪以便生成自定义系统来捕获和记录 数据库引擎Database Engine中的事件。Describes how to use SQL Trace to build a customized system for capturing and recording events in the 数据库引擎Database Engine. SQL 跟踪SQL Trace
介绍如何使用 SQL ServerSQL Server Profiler 来捕获传入 数据库引擎Database Engine实例的应用程序请求的跟踪。Describes how to use SQL ServerSQL Server Profiler to capture traces of application requests coming in to an instance of the 数据库引擎Database Engine. 可在以后为活动(例如性能测试或问题诊断)重播这些跟踪。These traces can later be replayed for activities such as performance testing or problem diagnosis. SQL Server ProfilerSQL Server Profiler
介绍变更数据捕获 (CDC) 和更改跟踪功能以及如何使用这些功能来跟踪数据库中的数据更改。Describes the Change Data Capture (CDC) and Change Tracking features and describes how to use these features to track changes to data in a database. 跟踪数据更改 (SQL Server)Track Data Changes (SQL Server)
介绍如何使用日志文件查看器来查找和查看不同日志(例如 SQL ServerSQL Server 作业历史记录、SQL Server 日志和 Windows 事件日志)中的 SQL ServerSQL Server 错误和消息。Describes how to use the Log File viewer to find and view SQL ServerSQL Server errors and messages in various logs, such as the SQL ServerSQL Server job history, the SQL Server logs, and Windows event logs. 日志文件查看器Log File Viewer
介绍如何使用 数据库引擎Database Engine 优化顾问来分析数据库并为解决潜在的性能问题提出建议。Describes how to use the 数据库引擎Database Engine Tuning Advisor to analyze databases and make recommendations for addressing potential performance problems. Database Engine Tuning AdvisorDatabase Engine Tuning Advisor
介绍在不接受标准连接时,生产数据库管理员如何与实例建立诊断连接。Describes how the production database administrators can make a diagnostic connection to instances when standard connections are not being accepted. 用于数据库管理员的诊断连接Diagnostic Connection for Database Administrators
介绍如何使用不推荐使用的远程服务器功能来从 数据库引擎Database Engine 的一个实例访问另一个实例。Describes how to use the deprecated remote servers feature to enable access from one instance of the 数据库引擎Database Engine to another. 此功能的首选机制是链接服务器。The preferred mechanism for this functionality is a linked server. 远程服务器Remote Servers
介绍 Service Broker 的消息传递和应用程序排队功能,并提供指向 Service Broker 文档的指针。Describes the capabilities of Service Broker for messaging and queueing applications and provides pointers to the Service Broker documentation. Service BrokerService Broker
介绍如何使用缓冲池扩展为数据库引擎缓冲池提供非易失性随机存取内存(固态驱动器)的无缝集成,以显著提高 I/O 吞吐量。Describes how the buffer pool extension can be used to provide seamless integration of nonvolatile random access storage (solid-state drives) to the Database Engine buffer pool to significantly improve I/O throughput. 缓冲池扩展文件Buffer Pool Extension File

另请参阅See Also

sqlservr 应用程序 sqlservr Application
数据库功能 Database Features
数据库引擎跨实例功能Database Engine Cross-Instance Features