快速入门:在 Red Hat 上安装 SQL Server 并创建数据库Quickstart: Install SQL Server and create a database on Red Hat

适用对象:是SQL Server(仅限 Linux)否Azure SQL 数据库 否Azure SQL 数据仓库 否并行数据仓库 APPLIES TO: yesSQL Server (Linux only) noAzure SQL Database noAzure SQL Data Warehouse noParallel Data Warehouse

在本快速入门中,将在 Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 上安装 SQL Server 2017 或 SQL Server 2019。In this quickstart, you install SQL Server 2017 or SQL Server 2019 on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). 然后使用 sqlcmd 进行连接,以创建第一个数据库并运行查询。You then connect with sqlcmd to create your first database and run queries.

在本快速入门中,将在 Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 7.3+ 上安装 SQL Server 2019 预览版。In this quickstart, you install SQL Server 2019 preview on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 7.3+. 然后使用 sqlcmd 进行连接,以创建第一个数据库并运行查询。You then connect with sqlcmd to create your first database and run queries.

提示

本教程需要用户输入和 Internet 连接。This tutorial requires user input and an internet connection. 如果对无人参与脱机安装过程感兴趣,请参阅 Linux 上的 SQL Server 的安装指南If you are interested in the unattended or offline installation procedures, see Installation guidance for SQL Server on Linux.

必备条件Prerequisites

必须拥有 RHEL 7.3、7.4、7.5 或 7.6 计算机(具有至少 2 GB 内存)。You must have a RHEL 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, or 7.6 machine with at least 2 GB of memory.

若要在自己的计算机上安装 Red Hat Enterprise Linux,请转至 https://access.redhat.com/products/red-hat-enterprise-linux/evaluationTo install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on your own machine, go to https://access.redhat.com/products/red-hat-enterprise-linux/evaluation. 也可以在 Azure 中创建 RHEL 虚拟机。You can also create RHEL virtual machines in Azure. 请参阅使用 Azure CLI 创建和管理 Linux VM,并在对 az vm create 的调用中使用 --image RHELSee Create and Manage Linux VMs with the Azure CLI, and use --image RHEL in the call to az vm create.

如果以前安装了 SQL Server 2017 的 CTP 或 RC 版本,则必须先删除旧存储库,然后再执行这些步骤。If you have previously installed a CTP or RC release of SQL Server 2017, you must first remove the old repository before following these steps. 有关详细信息,请参阅为 SQL Server 2017 和 2019 配置 Linux 存储库For more information, see Configure Linux repositories for SQL Server 2017 and 2019.

有关其他系统要求,请参阅 Linux 上的 SQL Server 的系统要求For other system requirements, see System requirements for SQL Server on Linux.

安装 SQL ServerInstall SQL Server

若要在 RHEL 上配置 SQL Server,请在终端中运行以下命令以安装 mssql-server 包:To configure SQL Server on RHEL, run the following commands in a terminal to install the mssql-server package:

  1. 下载 Microsoft SQL Server 2017 Red Hat 存储库配置文件:Download the Microsoft SQL Server 2017 Red Hat repository configuration file:

    sudo curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/mssql-server.repo https://packages.microsoft.com/config/rhel/7/mssql-server-2017.repo
    

    提示

    如果想试用 SQL Server 2019,则必须改为注册预览版 (2019) 存储库。If you want to try SQL Server 2019 , you must instead register the Preview (2019) repository. 使用以下命令安装 SQL Server 2019:Use the following command for SQL Server 2019 installations:

    sudo curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/mssql-server.repo https://packages.microsoft.com/config/rhel/7/mssql-server-preview.repo
    
  2. 运行以下命令以安装 SQL Server:Run the following commands to install SQL Server:

    sudo yum install -y mssql-server
    
  3. 包安装完成后,运行 mssql-conf setup,按照提示设置 SA 密码并选择版本。After the package installation finishes, run mssql-conf setup and follow the prompts to set the SA password and choose your edition.

    sudo /opt/mssql/bin/mssql-conf setup
    

    提示

    以下 SQL Server 2017 版本是免费许可的:Evaluation、Developer 和 Express。The following SQL Server 2017 editions are freely licensed: Evaluation, Developer, and Express.

    备注

    请确保为 SA 帐户指定强密码(最少 8 个字符,包括大写和小写字母、十进制数字和/或非字母数字符号)。Make sure to specify a strong password for the SA account (Minimum length 8 characters, including uppercase and lowercase letters, base 10 digits and/or non-alphanumeric symbols).

  4. 完成配置后,验证服务是否正在运行:Once the configuration is done, verify that the service is running:

    systemctl status mssql-server
    
  5. 若要允许远程连接,请在 RHEL 的防火墙上打开 SQL Server 端口。To allow remote connections, open the SQL Server port on the firewall on RHEL. 默认的 SQL Server 端口为 TCP 1433。The default SQL Server port is TCP 1433. 如果为防火墙使用的是 FirewallD,则可以使用以下命令:If you are using FirewallD for your firewall, you can use the following commands:

    sudo firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=1433/tcp --permanent
    sudo firewall-cmd --reload
    

此时,SQL Server 正在 RHEL 计算机上运行,随时可以使用!At this point, SQL Server is running on your RHEL machine and is ready to use!

安装 SQL ServerInstall SQL Server

若要在 RHEL 上配置 SQL Server,请在终端中运行以下命令以安装 mssql-server 包:To configure SQL Server on RHEL, run the following commands in a terminal to install the mssql-server package:

  1. 下载 Microsoft SQL Server 2019 预览版 Red Hat 存储库配置文件:Download the Microsoft SQL Server 2019 preview Red Hat repository configuration file:

    sudo curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/mssql-server.repo https://packages.microsoft.com/config/rhel/7/mssql-server-preview.repo
    
  2. 运行以下命令以安装 SQL Server:Run the following commands to install SQL Server:

    sudo yum install -y mssql-server
    
  3. 包安装完成后,运行 mssql-conf setup,按照提示设置 SA 密码并选择版本。After the package installation finishes, run mssql-conf setup and follow the prompts to set the SA password and choose your edition.

    sudo /opt/mssql/bin/mssql-conf setup
    

    备注

    请确保为 SA 帐户指定强密码(最少 8 个字符,包括大写和小写字母、十进制数字和/或非字母数字符号)。Make sure to specify a strong password for the SA account (Minimum length 8 characters, including uppercase and lowercase letters, base 10 digits and/or non-alphanumeric symbols).

  4. 完成配置后,验证服务是否正在运行:Once the configuration is done, verify that the service is running:

    systemctl status mssql-server
    
  5. 若要允许远程连接,请在 RHEL 的防火墙上打开 SQL Server 端口。To allow remote connections, open the SQL Server port on the firewall on RHEL. 默认的 SQL Server 端口为 TCP 1433。The default SQL Server port is TCP 1433. 如果为防火墙使用的是 FirewallD,则可以使用以下命令:If you are using FirewallD for your firewall, you can use the following commands:

    sudo firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=1433/tcp --permanent
    sudo firewall-cmd --reload
    

此时,SQL Server 2019 预览版正在 RHEL 计算机上运行,随时可以使用!At this point, SQL Server 2019 preview is running on your RHEL machine and is ready to use!

安装 SQL Server 命令行工具Install the SQL Server command-line tools

若要创建数据库,需使用可在 SQL Server 上运行 Transact-SQL 语句的工具进行连接。To create a database, you need to connect with a tool that can run Transact-SQL statements on the SQL Server. 以下步骤将安装 SQL Server 命令行工具:sqlcmdbcpThe following steps install the SQL Server command-line tools: sqlcmd and bcp.

  1. 下载 Microsoft Red Hat 存储库配置文件。Download the Microsoft Red Hat repository configuration file.

    sudo curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/msprod.repo https://packages.microsoft.com/config/rhel/7/prod.repo
    
  2. 如果安装了早期版本的 mssql-tools,请删除所有旧的 unixODBC 包。If you had a previous version of mssql-tools installed, remove any older unixODBC packages.

    sudo yum remove unixODBC-utf16 unixODBC-utf16-devel
    
  3. 运行以下命令,以使用 unixODBC 开发人员包安装 mssql-toolsRun the following commands to install mssql-tools with the unixODBC developer package.

    sudo yum install -y mssql-tools unixODBC-devel
    
  4. 为方便起见,向 PATH 环境变量添加 /opt/mssql-tools/bin/For convenience, add /opt/mssql-tools/bin/ to your PATH environment variable. 这样就可以在不指定完整路径的情况下运行工具。This enables you to run the tools without specifying the full path. 运行以下命令,以修改登录会话和交互式/非登录会话的 PATHRun the following commands to modify the PATH for both login sessions and interactive/non-login sessions:

    echo 'export PATH="$PATH:/opt/mssql-tools/bin"' >> ~/.bash_profile
    echo 'export PATH="$PATH:/opt/mssql-tools/bin"' >> ~/.bashrc
    source ~/.bashrc
    

本地连接Connect locally

以下步骤使用 sqlcmd 本地连接到新的 SQL Server 实例。The following steps use sqlcmd to locally connect to your new SQL Server instance.

  1. 使用 SQL Server 名称 (-S),用户名 (-U) 和密码 (-P) 的参数运行 sqlcmd 。Run sqlcmd with parameters for your SQL Server name (-S), the user name (-U), and the password (-P). 在本教程中,用户进行本地连接,因此服务器名称为 localhostIn this tutorial, you are connecting locally, so the server name is localhost. 用户名为 SA,密码是在安装过程中为 SA 帐户提供的密码。The user name is SA and the password is the one you provided for the SA account during setup.

    sqlcmd -S localhost -U SA -P '<YourPassword>'
    

    提示

    可以在命令行上省略密码,以收到密码输入提示。You can omit the password on the command line to be prompted to enter it.

    提示

    如果以后决定进行远程连接,请指定 -S 参数的计算机名称或 IP 地址,并确保防火墙上的端口 1433 已打开。If you later decide to connect remotely, specify the machine name or IP address for the -S parameter, and make sure port 1433 is open on your firewall.

  2. 如果成功,应会显示 sqlcmd 命令提示符:1>If successful, you should get to a sqlcmd command prompt: 1>.

  3. 如果连接失败,先尝试诊断错误消息中所述的问题。If you get a connection failure, first attempt to diagnose the problem from the error message. 然后查看连接故障排除建议Then review the connection troubleshooting recommendations.

创建和查询数据Create and query data

下面各部分将逐步介绍如何使用 sqlcmd 新建数据库、添加数据并运行简单查询。The following sections walk you through using sqlcmd to create a new database, add data, and run a simple query.

新建数据库Create a new database

以下步骤创建一个名为 TestDB 的新数据库。The following steps create a new database named TestDB.

  1. 在 sqlcmd 命令提示符中,粘贴以下 Transact-SQL 命令以创建测试数据库:From the sqlcmd command prompt, paste the following Transact-SQL command to create a test database:

    CREATE DATABASE TestDB
    
  2. 在下一行中,编写一个查询以返回服务器上所有数据库的名称:On the next line, write a query to return the name of all of the databases on your server:

    SELECT Name from sys.Databases
    
  3. 前两个命令没有立即执行。The previous two commands were not executed immediately. 必须在新行中键入 GO 才能执行以前的命令:You must type GO on a new line to execute the previous commands:

    GO
    

提示

若要详细了解如何编写 Transact-SQL 语句和查询,请参阅教程:编写 Transact-SQL 语句To learn more about writing Transact-SQL statements and queries, see Tutorial: Writing Transact-SQL Statements.

插入数据Insert data

接下来创建一个新表 Inventory,然后插入两个新行。Next create a new table, Inventory, and insert two new rows.

  1. 在 sqlcmd 命令提示符中,将上下文切换到新的 TestDB 数据库:From the sqlcmd command prompt, switch context to the new TestDB database:

    USE TestDB
    
  2. 创建名为 Inventory 的新表:Create new table named Inventory:

    CREATE TABLE Inventory (id INT, name NVARCHAR(50), quantity INT)
    
  3. 将数据插入新表:Insert data into the new table:

    INSERT INTO Inventory VALUES (1, 'banana', 150); INSERT INTO Inventory VALUES (2, 'orange', 154);
    
  4. 要执行上述命令的类型 GOType GO to execute the previous commands:

    GO
    

选择数据Select data

现在,运行查询以从 Inventory 表返回数据。Now, run a query to return data from the Inventory table.

  1. 通过 sqlcmd 命令提示符输入查询,以返回 Inventory 表中数量大于 152 的行:From the sqlcmd command prompt, enter a query that returns rows from the Inventory table where the quantity is greater than 152:

    SELECT * FROM Inventory WHERE quantity > 152;
    
  2. 执行命令:Execute the command:

    GO
    

退出 sqlcmd 命令提示符Exit the sqlcmd command prompt

要结束 sqlcmd 会话,请键入 QUITTo end your sqlcmd session, type QUIT:

QUIT

性能最佳做法Performance best practices

在 Linux 上安装 SQL Server 后,请查看配置 Linux 和 SQL Server 以提高生产性能的最佳做法。After installing SQL Server on Linux, review the best practices for configuring Linux and SQL Server to improve performance for production scenarios. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Linux 上的 SQL Server 的性能最佳做法和配置指南For more information, see Performance best practices and configuration guidelines for SQL Server on Linux.

跨平台数据工具Cross-platform data tools

除“sqlcmd”以外,还可以使用以下跨平台工具来管理 SQL Server :In addition to sqlcmd, you can use the following cross-platform tools to manage SQL Server:

Azure Data StudioAzure Data Studio 跨平台 GUI 数据库管理实用程序。A cross-platform GUI database management utility.
Visual Studio CodeVisual Studio Code 一种跨平台 GUI 代码编辑器,它使用 mssql 扩展运行 Transact-SQL 语句。A cross-platform GUI code editor that run Transact-SQL statements with the mssql extension.
PowerShell CorePowerShell Core 基于 cmdlet 的跨平台自动化和配置工具。A cross-platform automation and configuration tool based on cmdlets.
mssql-climssql-cli 用于运行 Transact-SQL 命令的跨平台命令行接口。A cross-platform command-line interface for running Transact-SQL commands.

从 Windows 连接Connecting from Windows

Windows 上的 SQL Server 工具连接到 Linux 上的 SQL Server 实例,操作方式与连接到任何远程 SQL Server 实例一样。SQL Server tools on Windows connect to SQL Server instances on Linux in the same way they would connect to any remote SQL Server instance.

如果有一台可以连接到 Linux 计算机的 Windows 计算机,请从运行 sqlcmd 的 Windows 命令提示符尝试执行本主题中的相同步骤。If you have a Windows machine that can connect to your Linux machine, try the same steps in this topic from a Windows command-prompt running sqlcmd. 仅验证所使用的是目标 Linux 计算机名称或 IP 地址,而非 localhost,并确保 TCP 端口 1433 已打开。Just verify that you use the target Linux machine name or IP address rather than localhost, and make sure that TCP port 1433 is open. 如果从 Windows 进行连接存在任何问题,请参阅连接故障排除建议If you have any problems connecting from Windows, see connection troubleshooting recommendations.

有关在 Windows 上运行,但连接到 Linux 上的 SQL Server 的其他工具,请参阅:For other tools that run on Windows but connect to SQL Server on Linux, see:

其他部署方案Other deployment scenarios

有关其他安装方案,请参阅以下资源:For other installation scenarios, see the following resources:

升级Upgrade 了解如何升级 Linux 版 SQL Server 的现有安装Learn how to upgrade an existing installation of SQL Server on Linux
卸载Uninstall 在 Linux 上卸载 SQL ServerUninstall SQL Server on Linux
无人参与安装Unattended install 了解如何编写无提示安装脚本Learn how to script the installation without prompts
脱机安装Offline install 了解如何手动下载脱机安装程序包Learn how to manually download the packages for offline installation

提示

有关常见问题的解答,请参阅 Linux 上的 SQL Server 常见问题解答For answers to frequently asked questions, see the SQL Server on Linux FAQ.

后续步骤Next steps